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Breakin g news in Hindi सऊदी अरब में शहजादे को सजा-ए-मौत, 41 साल बाद 'हाउस ऑफ सऊद' में दल ल घटना ु भ कैच ब्यरू ो @catchhin di | 19 October 2016, 8:52 IST फाइल फोटो सऊदी अरब में तकरीबन 41 साल बाद शाही खानदान के ककसी सदस्य को मौत की सजा ममली ह
Section 1: Introduction to Hindi In order to learn Hindi, you first have to understand its history and structure. Hindi is descended from an Indo-Aryan language known as Sanskrit, a classical language of India. Several countries across the world contain a significant population of Hindi speakers, including India, being its official language, Fiji, and the United States. It contains a significant amount Sanskrit vocabulary, but also borrows some words from Farsi and Arabic, having been occupied by the Muslim Mughal Empire for a significant period of time. Urdu, Hindi’s sister language, is distinct from Hindi in this respect, borrowing almost exclusively from Farsi and Arabic vocabulary. The Hindi-Urdu language family constitutes one of the world’s richest literary and musical traditions. Like most Indian languages, Hindi has its own script, as does Urdu. Hindi’s script is derived from the alphabet used in Sanskrit, also known as Dēvanāgari. Urdu uses a modified form of the Nastaliq script used to write Arabic. The chart below shows the Dēvanāgari alphabet used to write Hindi-Urdu in India.
You’ll notice that each letter has an innate vowel: a. Each letter in a Hindi word is its own syllable. The way writing in Hindi works is that depending on the syllable you want to write, you add a diacritic mark to change the vowel. Consonant diacritics are formed by removing the ascending bar, and attaching them to next letter. The bottom of the vowel chart shows some common conjunct consonants that you should know. Below is a vowel chart that shows all the vowels in their complete and diacritic forms.
As for its structure, Hindi is an SOV language. This means a sentence is typically structured as Subject-Object-Verb. Look at the example. Ex. मैं चावल खा रहा हूँ । Maiṃ chāval khā-rahā-hūṃ. I am eating rice. I is the subject, rice is the object, and eating is the verb.
Some useful terms to remember for reading this text include object (as in nouns that receive the actions of verbs, whether directly or indirectly), transitive (a verb that takes an object), and intransitive (a verb that doesn’t take an object). Words will be first given in Hindi, then the romanized forms (written as pronounced, rather than the official romanized form), and then in English. Also, you should be aware that while you don’t need to know how to read Hindi to learn from this text, it can be extremely helpful, especially if you’re in a place where most things are written in Hindi. It should be noted that some words are not said how they are written, at least, not by everyone. For example, the word पहले is pronounced pehele, rather than pahale. Another thing to remember about Hindi is that unchanged consonants are sometimes pronounced without the final vowel. This is always true at the end of words, and only sometimes true for other positions; the pronunciation will be noted in the romanization. Long vowels will be indicated by the use of macron bars, and other romanization diacritics will be used to indicate special sounds. Aspiration will be marked like so: Aspirated k = kh Now, let’s go over pronunciation in Hindi. Only difficult or peculiar sounds will be explained. ट (ṭ) VS त (t) - The former is pronounced like t at the center of the roof of your mouth, or near the lump on the roof of your mouth. The second sound is pronounced like t touching your teeth and the roof of your mouth at same time. Similar to the th in the beginning of thought, whereas ṭ is the t at the end of the word. ड (ḍ) VS द (d) - The first one is pronounced like ṭ only it’s a d sound, like the d in dead, whereas the second one is pronounced similar to the th in the. Aspirated consonants - This one might be a little confusing, because in English we do it a lot without realizing it. Say any consonant against your hand, and if you feel air coming out, it’s aspirated.. The only consonants that have aspirated and non-aspirated forms are क (k), ग (g), च (ch), ज (j), ट (ṭ), ड (ḍ), त (t), द (d), प (p), and ब (b). Nasal consonants - There are three unfamiliar nasal sounds in Hindi that you need to know. These are ङ (ṅ), ञ (ñ), ण (ṇ). The first is pronounced nga, like at the end of the word going. The second is pronounced nya. The third is a bit difficult for non-Indian language speakers. It’s pronounced like n, but you move the tip of your tongue to the center of the roof of your mouth. ऋ (ṛ) - This sound is pretty strange to most non-Hindi speakers, since it’s listed as a vowel. The truth is that in Sanskrit, this letter used to represent a very short [ɯ] sound, which sounds kind of like a hiccup. But because this vowel was basically only ever used for r in Sanskrit, the two sounds were consolidated. The letter ऋ is pronounced tightly and shortly.
Arabic/Farsi sounds - These sounds are ones borrowed to pronounce words that are loaned from Arabic and Farsi, and can instantly recognized as such. They’re much more common in Urdu, but they come up occasionally in Hindi. These are ड़ (rh), ढ़ (rhh), ख़ (ẖ), क़ (q), and ग़ (ġ). The ड़ sound is made by moving the end of your tongue to the back of the roof of your mouth, and then breathing. Thankfully, it’s pretty rare in Hindi, but a little more common at the end of syllables in Urdu. This sound is somewhat difficult to pronounce, and many Hindi speakers pronounce it like ड instead. The ढ़ sound is the aspirated version of ड़. ख़ is somewhat like the sound when clearing your throat, but softer. The क़ sound is a little more difficult, because you have to shape your mouth like you’re about to make the k sound, but then you lower your tongue from the roof of your mouth and breathing. Do the same with the g sound to try and get ग़. A note about vocabulary in Hindi-Urdu: many Hindi-Urdu speakers, especially those who are affluent, will (in varying extents) borrow words from other languages, particularly English. So, while nearly every word here exists in Hindi-Urdu dictionaries, keep in mind that not all HindiUrdu speakers will use them. A good rule of thumb is that technical terms and longer words are avoided in conversation, and it is appropriate to substitute English words. Vocabulary: The Home घर - ghar - house/home कुरसी - kursī - chair अलमारी - almāri - shelf िबस्तर - bistar - bed मेज़ - mez - table दरवाज़ा - darvāzā - door िखडकी - khiḍakī - window पंखा - pankhā - fan कमरा - kamrā - room सीडीअं - sīḍīaṃ - stairs बत्ती - battī - light फ़शर् - farś - floor दीवार - dīvār - wall Vocabulary: Basic Food Vocabulary इडली - iḍlī - rice dumpling दोसा - dosā - dosa (crepe made from fermented rice batter)
तुम/आप (कैसा/कैसी)/कैसे हो/हैं? - Tum/Āap (kaisā/kaisī))/kaise ho/haiṃ? - How are you? (non-polite (m/f)/polite)) मैं ठीक हूँ । - Maiṃ ṭhīk hūṃ. - I’m fine … का मतलब क्या है? - … kā matlab kyā hai? - What does… mean? मुझे… पसंद है। - Mujhe… pasand hai. - I like… *(noun) चािहए। - (…) chāhie - I want… *(verb) चािहए। - (…) chāhie - I must/need to… यह/वह… है। - Yah/Vah… hai. - This is... (जी) हाँ - jī hāṃ - yes (जी makes it polite) (जी) नहीं - jī nahīṃ - no (जी makes it polite) *You use oblique + को form subject nouns and pronouns with these expressions; take note of these for later use. Numbers: You should read this article to learn the numbers in Hindi. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Hindi/ Numbers. Hindi numbers tend to be irregular, considering that numbers 1-20 are all unique, and then every 10th number after that is also unique. The numbers below are the ones that are the most necessary for basic stuff in Hindi. Most native Hindi speakers know all their numbers, but many Hindi-Urdu speakers do use English numbers. शून्य/िसफ्र - śunya/sifr - 0 - ० एक - ek - 1 - १ दो - do - 2 - २ तीन - tīn - 3 - ३ चार - chaar - 4 - ४ पाँच - pāṃc - 5 - ५ छः - chhe - 6 - ६ सात - saat - 7 - ७ आठ - āṭh - 8 - ८ नौ - nau - 9 - ९ दस - das - 10 - १० ग्यारह - gyārah - 11 - ११ बारह - bārah - 12 - १२ तेरह - terah - 13 - १३ चौदह - caudah - 14 - १४ पंद्रह - pandrah - 15 - १५
रिववार - ravivār - Sunday ऋतु/मौसम - ṛtu/mausam - season (H/U) (latter is masculine) वसंत/बसंत - vasant/basant - spring गरमी - garmī - heat/warmth/summer शरद - śarad - fall िशिशर - śiśir - winter Note: The names of months are the same as they are in English. Telling Time Telling time in Hindi-Urdu is very straight forward. For the most basic form, all you need to do is take the number of the hour, and add the expression बाजे हैं (baje haiṃ), and add any time qualifiers you need, such as “in the night” or “in the afternoon”. However, if the hour is 1, then you change the expression to बजा है (bajā hai). Below are some other expressions you can use. सवा - savā - 1 quarter डेड - ḍeḍ - 1:30 (Only use) ढाई - ḍhāī - 2:30 (Only use) साड़े - sāṛe - half past पौने - paune - 3 quarters past/quarter till Ex. रात के साड़े सात है। Rāt ke sāṛe sāt. It is half past seven (7:30) in the night. सुबाह के ढाई है। Subāh ke ḍhāī hai. It is 2:30 in the morning. आठ बजे हैं। Āṭh baje haiṃ. It’s eight o’clock. एक बजे और दस िमनट है। Ek baje aur das minaṭ hai. It’s 1:10.
Note: Some Hindi-Urdu speakers, especially affluent ones, may use English time-telling. Exercises A. To practice writing Hindi letters, take each individual letter, and write 2-3 lines of each character, in groups of 5. After you finish each group of 5, write all the sets you’ve done so far. You should be able to reproduce the entire alphabet (vowels and consonants) from memory after you’ve reached the final set. For vowel and consonant diacritics, practice by using them on different characters repeatedly. Note: use computer software to type Hindi letters first to see what they look like with their diacritics; several conjunct letters do not undergo obvious changes to their shapes when diacritics are attached. B. Practice writing the following words after completing the first exercise. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.
कोहनी - kohnī - elbow पीठ/कमर - pīṭh/kamar - back फेफड़ा - phepharha - lungs पैर/पाँव - pair/pāṃv - foot अँगुली - āṃgulī - toe तखना - takhnā - ankle एड़ी - erhī - heel कलाई - kalāī - wrist पेट - peṭ - stomach/belly नाखून - nākhūn - nail हाथ - hāth - hand ऊँगली - ūṃglī - finger टाँग - ṭāng - leg बज़ू - bazū - arm ख़ून - ḥūn - blood Verbs: खाना - khānā - to eat िखलवना - khilvāna - to feed पीना - pīnā - to drink िपलाना - pilāna - to cause to/make drink सोना - sonā - to sleep लेटना - leṭna - to lie down जागना - jāgnā - to wake up िगरना - girnā - to fall *पकाना - pakānā - to cook काटना - kāṭnā - to cut िछलना - chhilnā - to peel रखना - rakhnā - to put (as in place) करना - karnā - to do बनना - banana - to become (often pronounced बन्ना) बात बन्ना - to turn out/work out *बनाना - banānā - to make उपयोग करना - upayog karnā - to use देना - denā - to give
साफ़ करना - sāf karnā - to clean चहना - chahna - to want धोना - dhonā - to wash डालना - ḍālnā - to put/serve (food, medicine, etc.) नहाना - nahānā - to bathe िछंकना - chhiṃknā - to sneeze अलसाना - alsānā - to be lethargic/inactive तोड़ना - toṛnā - to break आना - ānā - to come जाना - jānā - to go *These two verbs can be interchanged when conveying that someone is making/cooking food, though पकाना is more specific and not as common, and खाना बनाना is more along the lines of “make dinner”. Useful Connecting Words: और/एवं/व/तथा - aur/evaṃ/va/tathā - and इसिलए/उसिलए - islie/uslie - because of this/that या/अथवा - yā/athvā - or मगर/लिकन - magar/lekin - but अगर/यिद - agar/yadi - if Grammatical Gender in Hindi The grammatical gender of nouns in Hindi can be sometimes difficult to determine, since the rules are not 100% consistent. Roughly 75% of all nouns in Hindi follow the rule that ending in ā or consonant is masculine, and ending in -ī is feminine. Nearly all foreign words, such as those of Arabic and Farsi origin, are automatically considered feminine, with a few exceptions, such as some from English. Arabic and Farsi loans will be noted with an U, standing for Urdu, because most of the vocabulary in Urdu is from Arabic and Farsi. The gender of ambiguous nouns as well as exceptions will be also be noted with m. or f.. Some words for animals have separate masculine and feminine forms, usually those for which such distinctions are important (ex. bull vs cow and horse vs mare). There are also other odd, but pertinent rules for grammatical gender determination. Trees, cereals, and grains are typically masculine, and minerals, gemstones, planets, and days of the week are always masculine. River names, languages, as well as nearly all spices are invariably feminine. Small things tend to be feminine and large things tend to masculine as well.
With that, here are some rules for how to make nouns plural: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Masculine nouns ending in -ā change the ending to -e in the plural. Masculine nouns ending in consonants do not change the ending in the plural. Feminine nouns ending in consonants add -eṃ to the end in the plural. Nouns ending in -ī add -yāṃ to the end in the plural. Many feminine Urdu words, such as प्याज़, in colloquial speech, don’t change in the plural.
Adjectives Adjectives in Hindi more ore less behave like in English. However, it should be known that adjectives will have a gender if they end in a vowel, for the most part, but if it ends in -ī by default, it is invariable. The adjectives will change according to gender as nouns do, simply changing -ā to -ī when the noun is feminine. However, they do not change according to number. All adjectives will be given in their default masculine form. Adjectives: अच्छा - achchhā - good/well घृणाजनक - ghrṇājnak - disgusting ख़राब - ḥarāb - bad (as in gone bad or spoiled) पक्का - pakkā - ripe गरम - garam - hot ठं डा - ṭhanḍā - cold स्वािदष्ट - svādiśṭ - tasty खट्टा - khaṭṭa - sour मीठा - mīṭha - sweet ितखा - tikhā - spicy कड़वा - karhavā - bitter नमकीन - namkīn - salty ठीक - ṭhīk - good/fine खाला - khālā - empty गीला - gīla - wet सूखा - sūkha - dry (without moisture) सुगंिधत - sugandhit - fragrant/pleasant-smelling दुगर्िन्धत - durgandhit - fetid/bad-smelling स्वस्थ्यकर - svasthyakar - healthy अस्वास्थ्यकर - asvāsthyakar - unhealthy
शुष्क - śuṣk - boring/dry/uninteresting बेस्वाद - besvād - bland/tasteless Pronouns and Verbs In Hindi, the infinitive ends in -ना (-nā), for every verb. Like in many Indo-European languages, such as Spanish, Italian, or Portuguese, verbs inflect according to person, tense, and grammatical mood. We’ll go into moods as they’re introduced. But first, you need to know the pronouns. मैं - maiṃ - I
हम - ham - we
तुम - tum - you (non-polite)
आप - āp - you (polite)
यह/वह - yah/vah - he/she/it* ये/वे - ye/ve - they *यह/वह are pronounced ye and vo in vernacular Hindi-Urdu. Hindi makes a distinction between third person references to things that are near the speaker and far from the speaker. यह/वह and ये/वे are also demonstrative pronouns meaning, “this/that” and “these/those”, respectively. Thus, they can also mean “this person here” and “that person there”. There is also another second person pronoun: तू (tū), which indicates low respect, and is generally used to talk to young children by significantly older relatives and people, between close friends, to talk with disdain, and oddly enough, to address one’s mother and God. It uses all verb conjugations associated with the third person rather than the second person. The degrees of politeness go down from आप to तुम to तू. Be very careful with तू, because it can come across as confrontational and rude, especially with someone whose relationship with you may not be particularly clear-cut. It is best to use तुम nearly all the time for friends, but आप is best reserved for those much older than one’s self or higher in status. In the social hierarchies of most Indian languages, it is considered inappropriate to ask to use a lesser pronoun, and it is more polite to wait until one is given permission, but it’s still polite to refuse the offer. There is also the plural marker लोग (log), which literally means “people”. It can be attached to तुम, हम, and अाप to indicate plurality. So, तुम लोग (tum log) would mean “you people” in a nonpolite way, and अाप लोग (āp log) would mean “you people” in a polite way. Both of these only use the plural conjugations shared with ये/वे and हम. हम लोग (ham log) is a bit of a different case, and it doesn’t have different conjugations. हम लोग can be used to emphasize the plurality of हम
(like “we all”). It is used to mean “we”, in areas where हम is used to mean “I”, rather than मैं. This practice, in other areas, is understood to mean the “royal we”. Verb Classes There are three categories of verbs in Hindi. It often helps to categorize verbs and nouns, because your brain understands things better when sorted according to a system. Verbs from the first class are called strong vowel infinitives (SVI). An SVI is an infinitive whose stem ends in a strong vowel. A strong vowel is अ (a), आ (ā), ए (e), ऐ (ai), ओ (o), औ (au). So, the verb खाना (khānā) is an SVI, because the verb stem is खा (khā). आ is the strong vowel. The second class, weak vowel infinitives (WVIs), are named so because the stems end in weak vowels, which are इ (i), ई (ī), उ (u), and ऊ (ū). An example is पीना (pīnā), whose stem is pī, ending with the weak vowel ई. The verbs from the third class are called terminal consonant infinitives (TCIs). The stems of verbs from this group end in consonants. One such verb is करना (karnā), whose stem is कर (kar). The terminal consonant is र. New Verb Tense: The Present This verb tense is self-explanatory, used to make statements in the present. Below is the conjugation table for karnā (to do). All verbs in Hindi are conjugated the same way in the present tense, and also change according to gender and number as shown. The -ī endings are feminine, -ā endings are masculine, and -e endings are neuter or plural. मैं करता(◌ी) हूँ - maiṃ kartā(ī) hūṃ - I do
हम करते हैं - ham karte haiṃ - we do
तुम करते(◌ी) हो - tum karte(ī) ho - you (nonpolite) do
*आप (लोग) करते(◌ी) हैं- āp (log) karte(ī) haiṃ you (polite) you (all) do
यह/वह करता(◌ी) है - yah/vah kartā(ī) hai - he/ she/it does
ये/वे करते हैं - ye/ve karte haiṃ - they do
*The gender changing rule does not apply to आप लोग; just use करते हैं. Remember the part that comes before the conjugation of होना is called the imperfect aspect. This will be important for later down the road.
As you can see, each conjugation incorporates the verb होना (hona - to be), one of Hindi-Urdu’s only consistently irregular verb. It is conjugated irregularly in most tenses. This verb can mean several things, including notions such as there is, and verbs such as to be and to happen. Below is a table detailing the present tense conjugations of this verb. मैं हूँ - maiṃ hūṃ
हम हैं - ham haiṃ
तुम हो - tum ho
आप हैं - āp haiṃ
यह/वह है - yah/vah hai
ये/वे हैं - ye/ve haiṃ
You can adjust the pronoun and conjugation of होना as needed. It should also be fairly evident that because some of the conjugations are the same, and therefore, subjects usually are not omissible. Below are examples of the present tense in use. Ex. मेरे दादाजी घर पे जाते हैं। Mere dādājī ghar pe jāte haiṃ. My grandfather goes home. क्या खाते हो तुम? Kyā khāte ho tum? What do you eat/are you eating? होना (honā) as the Main Verb Complete sentences in Hindi-Urdu require a predicate, or a main verb. Ordinarily, you can use होना’s normal forms to express something “is” or “isn’t”, but when used as the predicate, it has a slightly different meaning. होना as the main verb abstracts generalizations from things that are true most of the time, regardless of whether they are true all the time. Look at the example. Ex. बौद्ध शांत स्वभाव के होते हैं। Bauddh śānt svbhāv ke hote haiṃ. Buddhists are of a calm/peaceful disposition (in general/as a fact). Just treat होना like normal verb, using the imperfect aspect and the irregular conjugations of होना.
जीजा - jījā - sister’s husband ससुर - sasur - father-in-law सास - sās - mother-in-law दामाद - dāmād/jamai - son-in-law बहू - bahū - daughter-in-law जेठ - jeṭh - older brother-in-law जेठानी - jeṭhānī - older brother-in-law’s wife देवर - devar - younger brother-in-law देवरानी - devrānī - younger brother-in-law’s wife *साला(◌ी) - sālā(ī) - wife’s brother/sister ननद - nanad - husband’s sister सौतेला - sautela - a prefix indicating “step” (as in stepparents) (मनुष्य/मानव)/इनसान - (manuṣy/mānav)/insān - human being (H/U) िज़नदगी - zindagi - life **(िनधन/मृत्यु)/मौत - (nidhan/mṛtyu)/maut - death (मौत can also mean bereavement/grief) उमर - umr/umar - age (different pronunciations) दंपित - daṃpati - married couple संपित्त - sampatti - property िववाह - vivāh - marriage (the concept) शादी - śādī - wedding (the ceremony) परंपरा - paramparā - tradition/heritage मायका - māykā - married woman’s parental home *Note that these words, in slang, can be somewhat rude. It suggests over-familiarity, especially when in actuality, the people are not that close at all. **It is considered inappropriate, rude, and even insensitive to discuss death or the dead in public. It is especially rude to discuss death or the dead in the presence or earshot of the elderly, as it can be suggestive of their own passings. Note: Adding the suffix -जी(-ji) conveys respect to the person, and can also be used as a word on its own, meaning roughly “ma’am” or “sir”. The words for mother, father, and grandparents are all subtly different. अम्मी (ammī) and अब्बा (abba) are exclusively used among Muslim Hindi speakers. अम्मा (ammā) and अप्पा (appā) are used mostly among South Indian Hindi speakers. The latter pair, (म्म्मी) mammī and पापा (pāpā), are used among North Indian Hindi speakers. Be aware that different parts of India speak different languages, and may use their own terms for various relatives as well as common words.
हलका - halkā - light दूर - dūr - far बलवान/मज़बूत - balvān/mazbūt - strong (H/U) ठोस/घनीबूत - ṭhos/ghanībūt - solid मोटा/मांसल - moṭa/māṃsal - fat सूक्ष्म - sūkṣm - fine (as in thickness) दुबला/पतला/महीन - dubla/patla/mahīn - thin Verbs: दौड़ना - dauḍnā - to run चलना - chalnā - to walk बोलना - bolnā - to speak िलखना - likhnā - to write करना - karnā - to do खेलना - khelnā - to play बात करना - bāt karnā - to talk पता होना - patā honā - to know (a fact) (third person only) जानना - jānana - to know (a person) or be familiar with (often pronounced जान्ना) रहना - rehnā - to live (as in to reside) मरना - marna - to die प्यार करना - pyār-karnā - to love बहस करना - bahas karnā - to argue नफ़्रत - nafrat karnā - to hate Possessive Pronouns In Hindi, possessive pronouns are also adjectives that ascribe ownership to a noun. Depending on the context, they can be either pronouns or adjectives. As in some other languages, possessive pronouns in Hindi possess a gender. You must match the pronoun to the gender of the noun it describes. However, in Hindi, these adjectives do not change with plurality. merā - my
Ex. तुमहारी साइिकल पीली है क्या? −− नहीं, मेरी लाल है। Tumhārī saikil pīlī hai? — Nahīṃ, merī lāl hai. Is your bike yellow? — No, mine is red. उसका घर याहाँ है। Uskā ghar yahāṃ hai. His/her house is here. राधा की थाली साफ़ नहीं है। Rādhā kī thālī sāf nahīṃ hai. Radha’s plate is not clean. मेरे* माँ खाना बना रही हैं। Mere* māṃ khānā banā rahī haiṃ. My mom is making dinner. *Note that when possessive adjectives are used in conjunction with nouns that indicate people of higher status, or worthy of respect, you must change the ending of the possessive adjective to -e. Notice in the second and third examples example the word का (kā). This particle denotes possession, much like ’s in English. It agrees with gender and number. In the feminine singular, it is की (kī), and in the neuter singular and plural for all forms it is के. You can also switch the possession of the possessive clause for the same meaning: Ex. यहाँ का घर राधा का है। Yahāṃ kā ghar Rādhā kā hai. The house here is Radha’s. It should be noted, however, that there is another pronoun: अपना(◌ी) (apnā(ī)). This means, “one’s own.” This is used to clarify situations in which the person who possesses a noun or performs an action on a noun is not necessarily evident. Ex. मैं (मेरा) अपना साइिकल चला राहा हूँ । Maiṃ (merā) apnā sāikil chalā rahā hūṃ. I am riding my (own) bike.
It is largely implied that अपना is referring to मैं. If you consider this sentence without अपना, it may not be clear that the bicycle you’re riding is yours. In some contexts, this sentence might refer to an arbitrary bicycle, that may not be yours. Also, some people, for this sentence, might include merā before apnā, which in some cases is redundant, but can also be emphatic. It can also be used with any pronoun or possessive to clarify possession. Also, by itself, it can imply the possession simply from context. Possessive Clauses A possessive clause is a sentence that explains ownership of a noun by a person or people. These kinds of phrases use a neuter version of the possessive pronouns. To use these pronouns, you combine them with the form: + के पास + 3rd person singular/plural form of होना. मेरे - mere
हमारे - hamāre
तुमहारे/तेरे - tumhare/tere
अापके - āpke
इसके/उसके - iske/uske
इनके/उसके - inke/unke
Ex. हमारे पास फूल हैं। Hamāre pās phūl hain. We have flowers. आप के पास थाली है। Āp ke pās thāli hai. You (polite) have a plate. Question Words and Phrases Question words and phrases are those that fall into the category of words such as who, why, when, and the like. Note that whenever you make a question without a question word, you have to include क्या by default, either at the beginning of the sentence or at the end. Below is a list of these words. क्या - kyā - what/question particle क्यों - kyōṃ - why कैसा - kaisā(ī) - how कौन - kaun - who (िकस is the oblique form of कौन)
कोइ नहीं - koī nahīṃ - no one कुछ (नहीं) - kuchh (nahīṃ) - anything/nothing (कुछ can also mean “some”) कब - kab - when कहाँ/िकधर - kahāṃ - where कौनसा(◌ी) - kaunsā(ī) - which/what kind िकतना(◌ी) - kitnā(ī) - how many िकतने बजे हैं? - kitne baje haiṃ? - What time is it? Colors: रंग - raṃg - color सफ़ेद - safed - white काला - kālā - black लाल - lāl - red नीला - nīlā - blue पीला - pīlā - yellow हरा - harā - green नारंगी - nārangī - orange (invariable) बैंगनी - baiṃganī - purple (invariable) गुलाबी - gulābi - rose/pink (invariable) Comparatives: To make a comparative, you add ज़्यादा (zyādā) before the adjective to make the comparison, when the other member of the comparison is not mentioned in the sentence. However, when the other member is present, then you add से (se) to the end of the name or pronoun of said member. Look at the example below. Ex. नंिदनी ज़्यादा लंबी है। Nandinī zyādā laṃbī hai. Nandini is taller. मैं मेरी दीदी से सुंदर है। Maiṃ merī dīdī se sundar hai. My sister is more beautiful than me.
Exercises: A. Translate the following sentences or phrases into Hindi-Urdu. 1. (this) his sister 2. I have three children. 3. my table 4. Do we have a tradition? 5. Is that (that) their daughter-in-law? 6. (that) her mother-in-law 7. This is (this) his father. 8. (this) their family 9. Is that your (non-polite) mother? 10. your (polite) father
Section 4: Location and Conditions Vocabulary: Postpositions पर/पे - par/pe - to/on/at/by (as in by car) से - se - from/in the manner of (can also be used to indicate association)* को - ko - object pronoun पास/बग़ल में - pās/baġal meṃ - beside/near तरफ़ - taraf - side (uses की) नीचे - nīche - under तल - tal - bottom सामने - sāmne - in front पीछे - pīchhe - behind/back/ago ऊपर - ūpar - on top/upon/above/up/upstairs दूर - dūr - far/distant यहाँ-वहाँ - yahāṃ-vahāṃ - around (adverb) इधर-उधर - sutta - around (preposition) वहाँ-तहाँ - vahāṃ-tahāṃ - strewn/scattered about अास-पास - ās-pās - in the surrounding vicinity अंदर/भीतर - andar/bhītar - inside बाहर - bāhar - outside पूवर्/पहले - pūrv/pahale - before बाद - bād - after तक - tak - until/till (doesn’t use के) साथ - sāth - with िबना/िबन - binā - without (िबन doesn’t use के) िवषय/बारे में - viṣay/bāre meṃ - about/concerning लगभग - lagbhag - approximately/around (in quantity) बीच में - bīch meṃ - between बात - bāt - a matter/question of (uses की) िलए - lie - for *Ex. िपताजी से तमीज़ से बात करते हैं। Pitājī se tamīz se bāt karte haiṃ. He/She talks to their father with respect.
कोहरा - kohra - fog समीर/बयार - samīr/bayār - breeze िबजली/तिड़त - bijalī/tarhit - lightning (H/U) गरज/कड़क - garj/karhak - thunder (H/U) गमीर् - garmī - heat ताप - tāp - temperature िहम/बफ़र् - him/barf - ice/snow (H/U) बािरश - bāriś - rain Grammatical Case in Hindi-Urdu In Hindi-Urdu, pronouns change form when put into different grammatical cases, which are used for different grammatical functions. There are three cases: nominative, vocative, and oblique. The nominative is the base form of all nouns, and the vocative is a form used to address nouns, which means saying things like “Oh God!” or “Oh child, what have you done?” The third form is known as the oblique form, which receives all postpositions. Some pronouns have distinct oblique forms, whereas other nouns follow a pattern. Below are the oblique forms of the pronouns, given after their nominative forms. मैं - मुझ (mujh)
हम - हम (ham)
तुम/तू - तुम/तुझ (tujh)
आप - अाप (āp)
यह/वह - इस/उस (is/us)
ये/वे - इन/उन (in/un)
However, not all forms simply add certain postpositions to the end and fit neatly. Some have special forms that must be remembered. Take को, for example: मैं - मुझे/मुझको/मेरेको (mujhe/mujhko/mereko)
The first given form for each pronoun is the one that you should use, but be aware that these other versions exist. They can pop up in different areas of the Hindi-speaking world, but stick with the first ones, since they are ones found most often. Be careful with इसे/उसे (ise/use) versus इससे/उससे (isse/usse)! These are different words that mean very different things and are also
pronounced differently! The latter is the attachment of से, so remember that the latter pair is pronounced with a stressed s sound. For other nouns, there are few convenient rules you can memorize to remember how to decline them in each case. Vocative Case 1. All nouns do not change form in the vocative singular, except masculine nouns ending in -ā, which change the ending to -ē in the vocative singular and -o in the vocative plural. 2. Nouns that end in consonants simply add -o to the end in oblique plural. 3. Nouns that end in -ī add -yo to the end in the oblique plural. Oblique Case 1. All nouns do not change form in the oblique singular, except for masculine nouns ending in -ā, which change the ending to -e in the singular and -oṃ in the plural 2. Nouns that end in consonants simply add -oṃ to the end in oblique plural. 3. Nouns that end in -ī add -yoṃ to the end in the oblique plural. Below are some examples of how to use the different cases: Ex. हमसे दवाई ले लो। Hamse davāī le lo. Take medicine from us. हमारा घर के सामने एक िवद्यालय है। Hamārā ghar ke sāmne ek vidyālay hai. In front of our house is a school. मुझे चाय चािहए। Mujhe chāy chāhie. I want tea. हमको जाना चािहए। Hamko jānā chāhie. We need to/must go.
Notice in the last example the use of के as opposed to का/की (or nothing at all). This is a special neuter form of का, used only with certain prepositions, usually of physical location. The following postpositions use के before them and use oblique form pronouns. नीचे - nīche - under तल - tal - bottom सामने - sāmne - in front पीछे - pīchhe - behind/back/ago ऊपर - ūpar - on top/upon/above/up/upstairs वहाँ-तहाँ - vahāṃ-tahāṃ - strewn/scattered about अास-पास - ās-pās - in the surrounding vicinity अंदर/भीतर - andar/bhītar - inside बाहर - bāhar - outside बाद - bād - after साथ - sāth - with िबना - binā - without िवषय/बारे में - viṣay/bāre meṃ - about/concerning बीच में - bīch meṃ - between िलए - lie - for Remember that if you use a noun as a subject such as “girl” that have no specific names, you have to use इस/उस and इन/उन in order to frame with postpositions. Ex. इस बच्चा के िबना (Is bachcha ke binā - Without this child). The Present Progressive The present progressive is a tense distinct from the present tense because it describes an action that is taking place and continuing to take place in the present moment. It’s the difference between “I eat” and “I am eating”. The former is a factual statement, or something that is independent of time. The second implies that it is going on right now, and is still going on. To use this tense, combine the stem (drop the ना from the infinitive) and the perfective aspect of रहना (to stay/be located). The table below shows the conjugations. मैं रहा(◌ी) हूँ - maiṃ rahā(ī) hūṃ
Ex. मेरी बहन दौड़ रही है। Merī behen daurh rahī hai. My sister is running. हम घर पे/पर जा रहे हैं। Ham ghar pe/par jā rahe haiṃ. We are going home. When you get to later chapters, you will learn the imperfect past of होना, which can replace the present tense forms in the present progressive to make the past progressive, which would talk about a moment that is taking place at a time in the past and continuing from there. Ex. गीता और उसकी दीदी दौड़ रही थीं। Gītā aur uskī dīdī daurh rahī thīṃ. Gita and her older sister were running (at some point in time and continued). The future progressive would indicate something similar in the future: याह गाना िकतने युगों चलता रहेगा? Yah gānā kitne yugoṃ caltā rahega? How many ages will this song continue? Exercises A. Translate the following phrases or sentences into Hindi. 1. For Gitā 2. From me, to you (non-polite) 3. From the earth to the sky (hint: use तक) 4. Inside the house 5. To the school 6. It is far from (this) her. 7. You (male, polite) give us food. 8. (That) They are on that planet. 9. Are we behind (this) him? 10. (That) She’s under the table?
उत्तर देना - uttar denā - to answer/respond/reply देखना - dekhnā - to look खेलना - khelnā - to play तैरना - tairna - to swim लेना - lenā - to take चलना - chalnā - to walk चलाना - chalānā - to drive िमलना - milna - to meet/find/receive खोलना - kholna - to open/turn on बंद करना - band karnā - to close/turn off ढू ढं ना - ḍhūnḍhna - to look for सकना - saknā - to be able पाना - pānā - to be possible गाना - gānā - to sing (oblique form) + को (पसनद होना/अच्छा लगना) - (…) + ko pasand honā/achchha lagnā - to like लगाना - lagānā - to put/set इशारा करना - iśārā karnā - to gesture/signal/wave व्यक्त करना - vyakt karnā - to express oneself लगना - lagna - to feel/seem कलपना करना - kalpnā karnā - to imagine (verb stem + ne) + की आदत - (…) + kī ādat - to be in habit of (verb) (verb stem + ne) + की शौक - (…) + kī + śauk - to be fond of (verb) तलाशना/(noun) की तलाश करना - talāśnā/(…) kī talāś karnā - to search for (noun) (noun) का इनतेज़ार करना - kā intezār karnā - to wait for (noun) (noun) का ध्यान करना - kā dhyān karnā - to take care of (noun) Notice that there are many useful verbs in Hindi that use karnā as an auxiliary verb. Often, the word before karnā is the noun form of the verb. For example in kalpnā karnā, kalpnā means, “imagination,” which is why the verb means, “to imagine.” Adjectives: उतसुक - utsuk - excited कठीं - kaṭhi - difficult आसान - āsān - easy शोर - śor - noisy (can also be a noun) शंत - śānt - quiet/peaceful
कमर्ठ - karmaṭh - diligent सब - sab - all अनेक/काई - anek/kāī - many चंद - chand - few Adverbs: कल - kal - yesterday/tomorrow (contextual clues are required) आज - āj - today अब - ab - now हमेशा - hameśa - always कभी नहीं - kabhī nahīṃ - never शयद - śayad - sometimes/maybe शयद ही कभी - śayad hī kabhī - once in a while अकसर - aksar - often अािख़र - āḥir - finally िदन रात - din rāt - day and night रोज़ - roz - every day एकदम - ekdam - suddenly/absolutely सचमुच - sacmuc - really/truly अभी - abhī - right now जब - jab - when (in reference to a particular instant in time; Ex. When I was a child...) तब - tab - then (as in “When you come home, then we shall eat.”) आज (की) रात - āj (kī) rāt - tonight (Here, की is primarily used in emphatic or poetic contexts) यहाँ - yahāṃ - here वहँ - vahāṃ - there हर जगा - har jagā - everywhere हर - har - every कहीं (भी/नहीं) - kahiṃ (bhi/nahiṃ) - anywhere/nowhere बहुत सारे - bahut (sāre) - very/many थोडा - thoḍā(ī) - little सवेरे - savere - soon जलदी से - jaldī se - quickly/early धीरे से - dhīre se - slowly देर से - der se - late ध्यान/ग़ौर से - dhyān se - carefully/attentively
लापरवाही से - lāparvahī se - carelessly पिरश्रमी/मेहनत(◌ी) - pariśramī/mehnat(ī) - diligent/hardworking -पूरवक - -pūrvak - Makes any noun, particularly abstract nouns, into adverbs एकाएक/अचानक - achānak - suddenly New Mood: The Imperative So far, only the indicative mood has been discussed, which conveys general, factual, or absolute statements. The new mood we will learn now is the imperative mood, which, as its name may suggest, is used to issue commands. In Hindi-Urdu, we have learned there are three levels of politeness from the different pronouns we have learned. These are tū (rude), tum (non-polite), and āp (polite). You can also issue commands to groups, such as tum log (informal plural, which is conjugated like āp log), āp log, or ham (Ex. Let’s go!). Look at the table below details this. Pronoun
तू - tū
खा - khā
पी - pī
बोल - bol
तुम - tum
खाओ - khāo
पीओ - pīo
बोलो - bolo
आप - āp
खाइए - khāie
पीिजए - pījie
बोिलए - bolie
खाएं - khāeṃ
पीएं - pīeṃ
बोलें - boleṃ
*आप - āp (honorific)
खाइएगा - khāiega
पीिजएगा - pījiega
बोिलएगा - boliega
*This form is actually based off a future tense form, but is commonly used as an even more polite version of the imperative form for आप. It is meant to used as a question, which you can see in the examples below. Ex. बेटा तेरा काम कर। Beṭa, tera kām kar. Son, do your homework. कहीं मत जाओ Kahīm mat-jāo. Don’t go anywhere.
ऐसा न कीिजए। Aisa nā kījie. आप बैिठएगा? Āp baiṭhiega? Will you please sit? The prefix मत- (mat-) negates any command, as well as the particle न (na), which is used in very informal and often colloquial speech. There are also three common irregular verbs in the imperative: करना (karnā)
तू - tū
कर - kar
दे - de
ले - le
तुम - tum
दो/दे दो - do/de do
ले लो - le lo
आप - āp
दीिजए - dījie
लीिजए - lījie
दें - deṃ
लें - leṃ
आप - āp (honorific)
दीिजएगा - kījiega
दीिजएगा - dījiega
लीिजएगा - lījiega
Exercises A. Conjugate the following verbs in the imperative mood for the given pronouns. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
We, खाना You (polite), नहाना You (non-polite), तैरना We, पीना You (polite), लाना You (rude), बनाना You (honorific), देना You (non-polite), जगना You (honorific), पड़ना You (rude), जीना
Section 6: Events and Celebrations Vocabulary: Social Ventures दोस्त - dost - friend पडोसी - paḍosī - neighbor दुशमन - duśman - enemy तारीख़/तारीक़ - tārīḥ/tāriq - date (as in December 24, 2006 is the date) घटना - ghaṭna - event कायर्क्रम - kāryakram - program संगीत कायर्क्रम - sangīt kāryakram - music performance/concert नाट्या कायर्क्रम - nāṭyā kāryakram - dance performance/recital रास्ता - rāstā - street बज़ार - bazār - market कपड़े - kaparhe - clothes धोटी - dhoṭī - a cloth worn by men around the waist िहजाब - hijāb - headscarf worn by Muslim women बुरक़ा - burqā - a full-body dress worn by Muslim women िनक़ाब - niqāb - a full-body dress only showing the eye worn by Muslim women टोपी - ṭopī - a head covering worn by Muslim men (also known as the taqiyah or takke) क़मीज़ - qamīz - shirt कुतार् (पैजामा) - kurtā - Indian men’s ethnic wear सारी - sārī - Indian women’s ethnic wear अालंकर - ālaṃkar - decoration/ornamentation (can be physical or figurative) गाना - gānā - song मुगली - muglī - flute बाँसुरी - bāṃsurī - Indian bamboo flute तबला - tabla - a set of pitched drums शहनाई - śehnāī - an oboe-like instrument उस्ताद - ustād - a title given to Muslim musicians (also “skilled/master(ful)” and “maestro”) क़वाली - qawāli - a Sufi ensemble of singers and musicians that perform at Muslim functions शहनाई - śehnaī - Indian oboe-like instrument सारंगी - sārangī - Indian two-stringed violin दुलहा/दुलहन - dulha/dulhan - groom/bride मंगनी - mangani - engagement ceremony कन्यदान/िनकाह - kanyadān/nikah - the “giving away of the bride” ceremony (H/U)
मसिजद - masjīd - mosque मंिदर - mandir - temple गुरुद्वारा - gurudvāra - gurudwara (Sikh house of worship) चचर्/िगरजाघर - charch/girajaghar - church सम्मेलन - sammelan - conference कारोबार - kārobār - business दावत - dāwat - feast/dinner (or the invitation thereof) यात्रा - yātrā - trip/journey तीथर्यात्रा - tīrthayātra - pilgrimage बकवास - bakvās - nonsense Verbs: पार करना - pār karnā - to cross ख़रीदना - ḥaridnā - to buy पहना - pehnā - to wear कहना - kehnā - to say/tell मज़ा करना - mazā karnā - to have fun/tease माफ़ करना - māf karnā - to forgive माफ़ी माँगना - māfī māṃgnā - to apologize भीख माँगना - bhīkh māṃgnā - to beg मदद देना - madad dena - to help बजाना - bajāna - to play an instrument बजना - bajnā - to ring (used for telling time) गाना - gānā - to sing नचना - nāchnā - to dance यात्रा करना - yātrā karnā - to travel मन्नना/मनज़ूर करना - mānnanā - to accept िचढाना - chiḍhānā - to tease/irritate िचपकाना - chipakanā - to stick िछपना/िछपाना - chhipnā/chhipānā - to hide (intransitive/transitive) उपिस्थत करना/होना - upasthit karnā/hona - to attend भेजना - bhejna - to send बुलाना - bulāna - to call (out to) िनमंत्रण देना - nimantraṇ dena - to invite
Adjectives: मज़ा - mazā - fun/entertaining लंबा अरसा - laṃbā arsā - long (as in duration) नया - nayā - new यूवा - yūvā - young अगला - aglā - next िपछला - pichhlā - last The Perfective Aspect and the Simple Past The perfective aspect serves to describe actions completed and finished, and in Hindi-Urdu, functions as the simple past unto itself. It can be combined with auxiliary functions of होना for other meanings, but we’ll get to that later. Unlike other tenses and aspects, however, the subjects of transitive verbs that take an object have special forms. To form these, simply add -ने (-ne) to the end of the subject (Ex. हमने Note: मैं + ने = मैने). However, the pronouns for, “he, she,” and, “it,” are different: इसने, उसने, इनहोंने, and उनहोंने. The verb stem for the perfective aspect is identical to imperative form for तू. For SVI and WVI verbs, simply add -या (-yā) and for TCI verbs, add -◌ा (-ā) The table below explains the conjugation for each kind of verb and honā. As with every tense, the perfective aspect agrees with the subject’s number and gender. The top forms are singular and the bottom, plural. SVI (खाना - khānā) खाया(◌ी) - khāyā(ī) खाये(◌ीं) - khāye(īṃ)
मैने सेब खाया। Maine seb khāyā. I ate an apple. Notice the use of -ने to mark the subject of the second example, clarifying that “I” (the subject) ate an apple, rather than the other way around. Without -ने, that sentence’s subject is ambiguous without context. There are irregulars in the past tense, including करना (karnā), and जाना (jānā). These verbs conjugate as िकया (kiyā), and जाना (gayā) in the past. While जाना’s conjugations build normally from there, िकया becomes exclusively की (kī) in the feminine. There are also देना (dena) and लेना (lenā), which conjugate as िदया/िदये (diyā/diye) and िलया/िलये (liyā/liye) for masculine singular and plural respectively, but also only as दी (dī) and ली (lī) in the feminine. The Imperfect Past The imperfect past is used to express actions without a definite beginning or end in the past, thus being “imperfect”. In Hindi-Urdu, take the imperfective aspect, which you should remember from Section 1 as the component that comes before the conjugated form of होना in the present tense. Then, put the imperfect past form of होना, listed in the table below. मैं था/थी - maiṃ thā/thī
हम थे/थीं - ham the/thīṃ
तुम थे/थीं - tum the/thīṃ
आप थे/थीं - āp the/thīṃ
यह/वह था/थी - yah/vah thā/thī
ये/वे थे/थीं - ye/ve the/thīṃ
Ex. मोहन बाँसुरी बजाता था। Mohan bāṃsurī bajātā thā. Mohan used to play flute. बचपन में, तुम बहुत पोहा खाती थीं। Bachpan meṃ, tum bahut pohā khātī thīṃ. As a child, you (non-polite, fem.) would eat a lot of poha (a type of rice dish) Notice that these sentences expresses actions that were performed in the past, with no specific timeframe. Even the second example is not a specific timeframe, since it was not an action performed and finished at the time.
जानना (jānanā) VS आाना (ānā) VS पाना (pānā) VS सकना (saknā) Each of these words means “to be able” in some way, but all have a different nuance. जानना also means “to know”, and therefore indicates “being able” in the way of factual knowledge or skills, like “know-how”. आना (ānā) can be used to similar effect, used in combination with the oblique + को form of a noun. पाना means “to be able” as in “to manage doing”, and can also mean “to obtain” or “to attain”. सकना means “to be able” in the most general way, having a little of both पाना and जानना’s meanings, as well as to mean “to be possible” or “allowed”. Ex. छोटे बच्चे िलखने नहीं जानते हैं। Chhoṭe bacche likhne nahīṃ jānte haiṃ. Young/Small children don’t know how to write. तुमें मराठी आती है क्या? Tumeṃ Marāṭhi ātī hai kyā? Do you know/Can you speak Marathi? मुझे दावत पे जाना नहीं पाएगा। Mujhe dāwat pe jānā nahīṃ pāegā. I’m not going to be able to go to the dinner (even though I tried). राम नाच सकता है। Rām nāch saktā hai. Ram can dance. Exercises: A. Conjugate the following verbs in the simple past tense for the given pronouns. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
I (male), खाना She, नहाना They, तैरना We, पीना You (male, polite), लाना You (female, polite), बनाना You (female, non-polite), देना You all, जगना
9. I (female), पड़ना 10. You (male, rude), जीना B. Conjugate the following verbs in the imperfect past tense for the given pronouns. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
I (male), खाना She, नहाना They, तैरना We, पीना You (male, polite), लाना You (female, polite), बनाना You (female, non-polite), देना You all, जगना I (female), पड़ना You (male, rude), जीना
C. Translate the following sentences into Hindi. 1. Can you (female, polite) write this? 2. Who knows Punjabi? 3. I (male) couldn’t (manage to) go to school today. 4. (This) She could play the tabla. 5. Do you (male, rude) know how to apologize? 6. We can’t forgive you (polite). 7. This wedding cannot happen. 8. (This) They knew Konkani. 9. (That) They can (manage to) come to our house today. 10. Can you (female, non-polite) play the śehnai?
माँगना - māṃgna - to ask for/order/demand/request उड़ना - urhnā - to fly अदा करना - adā karnā - to pay ख़रीदना - ḥarīdnā - to buy (D/F) िकराये पर लेना/देना - kirāye par lenā/denā - to rent/rent out बेचना - becnā - to sell ख़चर् करना - ḥarc karnā - to spend गुज़रना - guzārna - to spend/pass time मिक्खयाँ मारना - makkhiyāṃ mārna - to laze about अंतर/(फ़क़र्/फ़रक़) पड़ना - antar/(farq/faraq) parhnā - to make a difference (H/U) पहुँ चना - pahuṃcnā - to arrive/reach अनुवाद करना - anuvād karnā - to translate चलाना - chalān - to drive ले अाना/लाना - le āna/lāna - to bring िनकलना - nikalnā - to get out/leave िनकालना - nikālnā - to take/bring out िमलाना - milāna - to bring together/cause to meet/mix/tune a musical instrument दशर्न देना - darśan dena - to grant an audience/deign with one’s presence/allow a meeting फ़ोन करना - fōn karnā - to call by telephone अंदर/भीतर जाना - andar jāna - to enter घुसना - ghusnā - to enter illegally/sneak inside मना करना - manā karnā - to forbid/prohibit मुड़ना - murhnā - to turn घुमाना - ghumānā - to go around/wander मँडराना - maṃḍarāna - to float/hover around हाँसना - hāṃsnā - to laugh मुस्कराना - muskarāna - to smile िदखना/लगना/जान पड़ना - dikhnā/lagnā/jān parhna - to seem/appear िदखाना - dikhāna - to show (verb stem) + ने लगना - (…) + ne lagna - to start doing (करने लगा = “he/she/it started doing”) (verb stem) + चुकना - (…) + chuknā - to finish doing (कर चुका = “he/she/it finished doing”) तैयार करना - taiyār karnā - to make ready/prepare Useful Adverbs ही - hī - just/simply (postposition)
भी - bhī - also (postposition) िफ़र - fir - until िफ़र भी - fir bhī - yet (to suggest exception) तरह - tarah - like/similar to (uses की; सेब की तरह [seb kī tarah] - like an apple) िसफ़र् - sirf - only बस - bas - enough और - aur - more कम - kam - less बाक़ी - baqī - left/remaining कोई - koī - someone/any कुछ - kuchh - some(thing) Present and Past Perfect The perfect tenses expresses the notion of, “have done” or “had done.” The table below shows how to construct this tense, followed by an explanation of how to use it. SVIs खाया(◌ी) (present/past होना) khāyā(ī) (present/past होना)
Ex. मैं दो बार गुलखंड खाया है। Maiṃ do bār gulkhanḍ khāya hai. I have eaten gulkhaad twice. जब मैं घर पे आया, मेरा भाई पहल खाना खाया था। Jab maiṃ ghar pe āyā, merā bhāi pehel khānā khāyā thā. When I came home, my brother had already eaten. Notice that the gender and number encoded in the verb agrees with the object of the noun (for transitive and causative verbs) or the subject (for intransitive verbs), rather than only the subject. Demonstrative and Definite Pronouns: While you already learned about यह/वह and ये/वे as the pronouns meaning “this/that” and “these/those” respectively, Hindi-Urdu has a few other demonstrative words that work
similarly. You already know some of them, like इस/उस and यहाँ/वहाँ. But there are other useful words that you should know, so look at the list below. इतना(◌ी)/उतना(◌ी) - itnā(ī)/utnā(ī) - so (much) (this/that) ऐसा(◌ी)/वैसा(◌ी) - aisā(ī)/vaisā(ī) - such (this/that) (nouns and adjectives) ऐसे/वैसे - aise/vaise - like (this/that) Ex. दुलहन इतनी सुनदरी है! Dulhan itnī sundar hai! The bride is so beautiful (as this)! वैसे लड़के कीये? Vaise larhke kiye? Such boys (as those) did it? ऐसी शादी बहुत महंगी थी। Aisī śādī bahut mehengī thī. This type of wedding/A wedding such as this was very expensive. Note: The last sentence might be said in the context of looking at old photos, and someone might be gesturing to pictures of the ceremony, and remarking on how expensive it was. Definite pronouns make the subjects they replace unambiguously one possible person or group, based on context. Look at the list below for some of these words. ख़ुद - self सब - sab - all तमाम - tamām - all स्वयं - svayaṃ - self अपने अाप - you yourself/yourselves समस्त - samast - total Ex. तुम स्कूल पे ख़ुद/स्वयं जाओ। Tum skūl pe ḥud/svayaṃ jāo. You go to school yourself/on your own.
वह लड़की सब/तमाम दोपहर सोयी थी! Vah larhkī sab/tamām dopahar soyī thī! That girl had slept/was sleeping the whole afternoon! Relative Clauses In Hindi, you can form relative clauses, which are like phrases that describe whatever they’re attached to. They’re typically formed as adjectival phrases. If you remember from Section 6, the past tense of होना, like हुआ (huā) and हुई (huī), is integral to expressing the relative clause. Ex. वह गाती हुई औरत Vah gātī huī aurat That woman who is singing The expression गाती हुई is the relative clause, and acts like an adjective, agreeing with its complement (औरत) in gender and number. This construction is not formed with respect to tense, and you will need to provide contextual clues to indicate timeframe. Conjunct Verbs Yay, another fancy grammatical term! Luckily, this construction isn’t all that complicated, and it’s pretty useful. A conjunct verb in Hindi-Urdu combines a noun or adjective with the verb karnā, to make an expression that means, “to make/render (noun/adjective).” It basically means, “to make into something.” Examples that you’ve include साफ़ करना (“to make clear” - to clean) and माफ़ करना (“to make forgiveness” - to forgive). Ex. तुमें राजा करूंगा! Tumeṃ rājā karūnga! I will make you a king! This conjunct verb makes the object acquire the qualities of being a king. Keep in mind that this is more something to remember for recognizing new verbs rather than make your own. You can try, but it will not always work, as in the example, which is a stretch, but gets the point across.
Causative and Transitive Verbs This is a very strange but also important construction in Hindi. Let’s start with a verb, such as जलना (jalnā), which means, “to burn,” as in, “to catch fire”. Now, there is जलाना (jalānā), which also means, “to burn,” but in a transitive sense. This means that जलाना means, “to set fire to,” to actually cause something to burn, causing an action to occur to something else. Intransitive, as you can probably guess, is the opposite of transitive. In Hindi, you can make virtually any intransitive verb transitive, though not every transitive verb is derived from an intransitive verb. You’ve already encountered some other transitive verbs who have root intransitive forms, such as िखलाना (from खाना) िपलवाना (पीना), बनाना (बन्ना) Now, there is a third level, called causation, which usually translates to, “to compel to cause something to happen,” which in some cases is useful. A way of thinking about it is that the subject of a causative verb is a manager who’s the boss of an assistant manager, who’s the boss of other staff. Let’s get back to जलना. The transitive form of जलना was जलाना, going from “to burn (on its own)”, to “to burn (something else)”. The next step up, the “manager”, is जलवाना (jalvānā), which means, “to cause to set fire to”. So, that would mean that the “manager” told the “assistant manager” to make something burn. You can do this with many verbs, but there are some rules to this. Unfortunately, they’re not as simple as classifying via SVI, WVI, or TCI verbs. First, start off with the imperative form for the pronoun तू, and establish whether your base verb is a transitive or intransitive verb. Remember that the command chain can only go from “employee” (intransitive) to “assistant manager” (transitive) to “manager” (causative), and no further or lesser. Let’s use the verb िगरना (girnā - to fall) as an example. Its imperative तू form is िगर (gir). Add - ◌ा (-ā) to the end to make it transitive, and then add ना (nā), and then you have your infinitive: िगराना (girvāna - to fell/cause to fall). To make it causative, add -वा (-vā) instead of - ◌ा, making it िगरवाना (girvānā - to cause something to fell something/to cause something to fall). 2) In the case where the imperative तू form ends in a vowel, add -ला (-lā) instead of - ◌ा, and keep the ल when adding -वा. Ex. पीना (pīna - to drink) -> पी (imperative तू form); for the transitive form, add -ला + -ना -> िपलाना (pilāna - to make someone/something drink); for the causative form, drop the final - ◌ाना (-ānā) -> िपल, and then add -वाना -> िपलवाना (pilvāna - to cause to make someone/something drink). 1)
3) Note that when a verb’s imperative तू form has a long vowel, it converts to its short form or changes to a different vowel (ā -> a; ī -> i; o -> u; - e -> i; 4) The following verbs do not have transitive or causative forms: आाना, जाना, पाना, and होना. Also be aware that not all intransitive verbs change in an immediately obvious way.Moreover, be aware that some transitive and causative forms have meanings that are not obviously related to their intransitive or transitive forms, respectively. Now, using a causative is slightly different, since it requires at a subject and object in the sentence. Look at the example, using पड़ना (parhna - to read/study), whose causative form is पड़वाना (parhvāna - to have taught). Ex. साईद सािहब शािज़या से उसकी बेटी को पड़वाता है। Sāīd sāhib Śāziyā se uskī beṭī kō parhvātā hai. Mr. Said had Shaziya teach his daughter. Remember that it’s very important to have the से marking the person being compelled and the को marking the person who is ultimately receiving the final action. To think about it with the work metaphor from before, से is the assistant manager’s “title”, and को is the employee’s “title”. When the manager (Mr. Said), assistant manager (Shaziya), and employee (Mr. Said’s daughter) are all in the same room (in the sentence; when a causative is being used), the assistant manager needs his title, so include से, and the employee needs his title, so include को, otherwise it’ll all be wrong, and the manager (whose name alone is enough) will be upset and confused as to who is who (the grammar and case marking will confuse subjects and objects)! However, if the assistant manager’s title doesn’t need to be there if his boss, the manager, isn’t there, because the issue isn’t confusing. There are exceptions to the rules, but perhaps the only notable one is खाना, whose transitive form is िखलाना, and whose causative form is िखलवाना. Exercises: A. Conjugate the following nouns in the given perfect tense for the given pronoun. 1. 2. 3. 4.
I (male), खाना, present perfect She, नहाना, present perfect They, तैरना, past perfect We, पीना, past perfect
You (male, polite), लाना, past perfect You (female, polite), बनाना, present perfect You (female, non-polite), देना, past perfect You all, जगना, present perfect I (female), पड़ना, past perfect You (male, rude), जीना, present perfect
B. Translate the following phrases into Hindi. 1. The boy who is spending 2. The woman who is passing time 3. The flying plane 4. The grandpa who is lazing about 5. The girl who translates 6. The driving person 7. The idiot who’s leaving (hint: use साला(◌ी)) 8. The teacher (male) who’s entering 9. The singing bird 10. The father who’s paying C. Make the transitive forms and the causative forms for the given verb, if they exist. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
*These words will be referred to by their romanized forms. Vocabulary: Verbs पेंट करना - peṃt karnā - to paint चमकाना - chamkāna - to brighten मूितर् बनाना - mūrti banāna - to sculpt िनमार्ण करना - nirmāṇ karnā - to construct/build एकत्र/इकट्ठा करना - ekatr/ikaṭṭhā karnā - to assemble अभ्यास करना - abhyās karnā - to practice/rehearse कोिशश करना - kośiś karnā - to try लेख छापना - lekh chhāpnā - to publish मारना - mārnā - to kill/beat/hit/strike मरना/चल बसना - marnā - to die न रहना/गुज़ार जाना - na rehnā/guzār karnā - to pass away (H/U) जीना - jīnā - to live रहना - rehnā - to live (as in to inhabit or reside) पता लगाना - patā lagānā - to discover (as in to expose someone) खोना - khonā - to lose िवश्वास रखना - viśvās rakhnā - to trust गुस्सा/नाराज़ करना - gussā/nārāz karnā - to anger डरना - ḍarnā - to be afraid रोना - ronā - to cry िगरना - girānā - to fall जगाना - jagānā - to wake up (someone) खड़ा होना - kharhā honā - to stand up िवश्वास करना - viśvās karnā - to believe अाशा/उम्मीद करना - āśā/ummīd karnā - to hope/wish (H/U) (noun) की रक्षा करना - (…) kī rakṣā karnā - to protect (noun) चुनना - chunanā - to choose (often pronounced चुन्ना - chunnā) अज्ञा मानना - ajñā mānanā - to obey (often pronounced मान्ना - mānnā) अज्ञा न मानना - ajñā na mānanā - to disobey चुराना/चोरी करना - churānā/chorī karnā - to steal प्राथर्ना करना - prārthnā karnā - to pray झूठ बोलना - jhuṭh bolnā - to lie वापस जाना/अाना/देना - vāpas jānā/ānā/denā - to go/come/give back
New Tense: The Future Tense The future tense is self explanatory. It is used to convey events that will occur.The table below shows how to conjugate verbs in the future tense. The second table also includes the conjugations of honā. Pronoun
Plurals and आप
खाएं गे khāenge
पीएं गे pīenge
Ex. मीर दस फल खाएगा। Mīr das phal khāega. Mir will eat ten fruits. जिस्वंडेर और मैं दफ़तर पे जाएं गे। Jaswinḍer aur maiṃ daftar pe jāēṃge. Jaswinder and I will go to the office. New Mood/Tense: The Subjunctive Present The subjunctive mood is often a difficult thing for English speakers, as there is no obvious distinction in English. It is used to convey expressions of doubt, uncertainty, or personal wishes. A subjunctive clause is usually subordinated to an indicative clause, linked together by some sort of connective word or particle की, though it doesn’t have to be. The subjunctive can also be used to suggest or question something that hasn’t happened yet. Look at the table for conjugations
Ex. तुम डाकटर हो मुझे बहुत शक है। Tum ḍākṭar ho mujhe bahut shak hai. I highly doubt that you are a doctor. शायद कल वह तीन गाने गाए। Śāyad kal vah tīn gāne gāe. Maybe he/she’ll sing three songs tomorrow. आशा करता हूँ की कल वापास आए। Āśā kartā hūṃ kī kal vāpas-āe. I hope that he returns tomorrow. वह इतनी बात करती है, तो मैं जाऊं? Vah itnī bāt kartī hai, to maiṃ jāūṃ? She talks so much, so shall I go? (Questions whether they should go or not) It should be noted that the verbs expressing emotions can have होना as an auxiliary verb, instead of करना. Both expressions, when used properly, can convey the same meaning. Another important thing to know is that होना does NOT change in the subjunctive at all. This is the sole regularity between moods/tenses that the verb has. The Passive Voice The passive voice switches the order of a sentence to emphasize the object rather than the subject. This employs the verb जाना (jānā), which usually means, “to go.” Look at the example.
Ex. खाना पका गया Khānā pakā gayā. Dinner is cooked/made. Basically, just take the perfective aspect of the verb you’re making passive and then put the appropriate form of जाना after it. You can adjust the conjugation of जाना however you need to, but also remember to adjust the perfective aspect’s gender and number with respect to the object. See how a transitive sentence with a subject and object is converted to the passive voice. Ex. काशीने सब घर का काम िकया। Kāśīne sab ghar kā kām kiyā. Kāśī did all the housework. काशी के द्वारा सब घर का काम कीया गया। Kāśī ke dvārā sab ghar kā kām kiyā gayā. All the housework has been done by Kāśī. बहुत साड़े लोग संगीत और कथक सीखते हैं। Bahut sārhe log sangīt aur kathak sīkhte haiṃ. Many people learn music and kathak. बहुत साड़े लोगों से संगीत और कथक सीखा जाते हैं। Bahut sārhe logoṃ se sangīt aur kathak sīkhā jāte haiṃ. Music and kathak are learned by many people. से and के द्वारा are used in the passive voice to mark the subject of the sentence (the person who was doing the action). के द्वारा is a slightly more bookish and uncommon way of doing so, and most people, especially Urdu speakers will use से. Exercises A. Conjugate the following verbs in the future tense for the given pronouns. 1. I (male), खाना 2. She, नहाना 3. They, तैरना
We, पीना You (male, polite), लाना You (female, polite), बनाना You (female, non-polite), देना You all, जगना I (female), पड़ना You (male, rude), जीना
B. Conjugate the following verbs in the subjunctive present tense for the given pronouns. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
I (male), खाना She, नहाना They, तैरना We, पीना You (male, polite), लाना You (female, polite), बनाना You (female, non-polite), देना You all, जगना I (female), पड़ना You (male, rude), जीना
C. Translate the following sentences in Hindi, using the passive voice. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
The meal was eaten. The plates are washed. The idlis will be made by Āli. It has been assembled. Was the medicine purchased? The table was set by Āliya. Were you (polite) given anything? Is everything being prepared? The plan was made by You (male, rude)?. The meal was made by me.
New Tense: The Immediate Future Tense This tense is uncommon to most languages, and is not a proper tense in English, consisting of several other words to make one phrase. It expresses that something will happen very soon, that you’re “about to do” something. The timeframe is indicated by what tense you use होना in. The table below shows how to form this tense. SVIs (Singular/Plural) खाने वाला(◌ी) (conj. होना) khāne vālā(ī) (conj. होना)
Ex. माँ नहातने वाली हैं, तो स्वयं स्कूल पे जाओ। Māṃ nahāne vālī haiṃ, to svayaṃ skūl pe jāo. While mom is taking a bath, go to school by yourself. हम खाना खाने वाले थे, हमारे दादाजी और दादीझी घर पे वापस अाये। Ham khānā khāne vāle the, hamare dādājī aur dādījī ghar pe āyē. As we were about to eat dinner, our grandfather and grandmother came home. वाला(◌ी) literally means “type”, so the first example can be translated as “(While) Mom is a bathing-type (now), so go to school now”, and the second example as “We were dinner eatingtypes, and our grandfather and grandmother came home”. The key thing to remember is that because this word is a noun, not a part of a verbal form, it conforms to the rules for nouns rather than verbs. So that means, even if the subject of the verb is a figure of respect, like your grandmother, you can’t change वाला to वाले, because that is plural. Observe that the word वाला(◌ी) is also used to make words that mean the vendor, provider of said noun, and in conjunction with verbs, it can mean somebody who does that. It can also be attached to the name of place to create a word meaning a person from that place, and adjectives to describe something for which you don’t know the actual word, but you do know the traits. Ex. तैक्सी वाला taiksī-vālā taxi driver (“taxi type”)
गाना वाली Ghana vālī a woman from Ghana (“Ghana type”) यह लाल वाला Yah lāl vālā Something red like this (“This red type”) घर में रहने वाला अादमी Ghar meṃ rehne vālā ādmī A man who lives/stays at home (“An in-home-staying type man”) नाचने वाले लड़िकयाँ nāchne vāle larhkiyāṃ kids who dance (“dancing type kids”) Notice that the last example is different from नाचते हुे लड़के (nāchte hue larhke), which means “kids who are dancing”. The example refers to a habit or a trait, whereas the latter refers to something they were doing in the moment. Compound Verbs This is perhaps one of the most useful constructions that you need to know how to make. A compound verb is basically taking the stem of a verb, and then attaching a conjugated form of an auxiliary verb, each lending its own meanings to the expression. जाना is by far the most common, but there are many verbs that act as auxiliaries. The nuance of a compound verb is difficult to pin down, since different compounds with the same auxiliary verb can mean very different things. Some have vary obvious nuances, and others do not. See the list below. जाना/अाना - vividness/pace/force लेना - acquiring something देना - giving/doing something as a favor मारना - beating/hitting/striking action रखना - keeping something somewhere/putting it down बैठना - plopping/sitting down to do something उठना - getting right back up पड़ना - immersing oneself in/being overcome with खाना - (with feelings/emotions only) strong/intense experience
Look at some examples of how verbs acquire new meanings in compound forms: खाना (khānā - to eat) -> खा जाना (khā jānā - to eat quickly/gobble up/eat up) सोना (sonā - to sleep) -> सो जाना (so jānā - to knock out/go right to sleep) समझना (samajhnā - to understand) -> समझ जाना (samajhnā - to realize/figure out) िनकलना (nikalnā - to get out/leave) -> िनकल अाना (nikal ānā - to come right out) Exercises A. Conjugate the following verbs in the immediate future tense for the given pronouns. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
I (male), खाना (past) She, नहाना (present) They, तैरना (present) We, पीना (present) You (male, polite), लाना (past) You (female, polite), बनाना (past) You (female, non-polite), देना (present) You all, जगना (past) I (female), पड़ना (present) You (male, rude), जीना (past)
Section 10: Urdu and Literary Words While the words you will learn in this chapter include a lot Urdu, which is seen and used as a literary, poetic, and musical form of Hindi in India, be aware that some of these words are not literary in and of themselves. That’s to say that some of these words are used in everyday speech, but are also often found in poetry and literature in verses and metaphors. Vocabulary: Literary and Poetic Vocabulary ग़ज़ल - ġazal - a type of Sufi poetry शायरी - śāyarī - poetry (सावरे/िपया/रांझा)/(महबूब/दुलारा) - sāvare - beloved (noun) (H/U) मुहब्बत/ईश्क़/चाहतें - muhabbat/iśq/chāhateṃ - romantic love शाह - śāh - king/ruler तक़दीर - taqdīr - destiny/fate सपना/ख़्वाब - sapnā/ḥuāb - dream सजदा - sajdā - obeisance (in the Muslim fashion; can be used poetically) गुज़ािरश - guzāriś - request ज़हर - zeher - poison ख़ुदा/ख़्वाजा/रब - ḥudā/ḥwājā/rab - God/Lord नवाज़ - nawāz - benefactor फ़लक - falak - sky/horizon झलक - jhalak - sight/glimpse िनशान - nishān - symbol/mark रोशनी - roshnī - light/brilliance फ़ना - fanā - annihilation/destruction जन्नतें - jannateṃ - paradise/gardens ख़ुशबू - ḥushabū - fragrance सांस - sāns - breath नूर/उजाल - nūr/ujāl - light (both masculine) दरबार - darbār - royal court औिलया - auliya - messenger/people closest to God (Islamic term) उनलवली - unalwalī - caretaker रुतबा - rutbā - stature सदका - sadkā - alms/charity पीर - pīr - teacher/guide (especially in Islam) बला - balā - trouble/pain
Vocabulary: Verbs िरहा करना - rihā karnā - to release याद करना - yād karnā - to remember याद िदलाना - yād dilānā - to remind (oblique form) - (…) + ko shak honā - to doubt सुधरना - sudharna - to improve/get better (intransitive) सुधारना - sudhārna - to improve/make better (transitive) *तश्रीफ़ लाना/रखना - taśrīf lāna/rakhnā - to come/sit समा जाना - samā jānā - to come and reside िसर झुकाना - sir jhukānā - to bow the head छाना - chhānā - to spread/pervade रश्क करना - rashk karnā - to envy छोडना - chhoḍnā - to let go छु पना - chhupnā - to hide/be hidden (intransitive) छु पाना - chhupānā - to hide (transitive) सवारना - sawārnā - to improve/enhance/renew फ़िरशना - fariśnā - to recite/chant थामना - thāmnā - to hold/embrace सूर होना - sūr honā - to line up/come together/merge जलना - jalnā - to be jealous (idiomatic usage) ज़ुबानी देना - zubānī denā - to promise (oblique noun) + को जाने देना - (…) ko jāne denā - to let (noun) go याद कर लेना - yād kar lenā - to commit to memory/memorize ज़ख़म खाना - zaḥam khānā - to be gravely wounded (lit. to eat wounds) ग़म खाना - ġam khānā - to endure sorrow/swallow grief मार खाना - mār khānā - to take a beating सफ़र करना - safar karnā - to travel िखलना - khilnā - to bloom/flourish रास होना - rās honā - to suit (something)/sit well तराशना - tarāśnā - to admire क़सम खाना - qasam khānā - to make an oath/promise बल खाना - bal khānā - to be tangled/twisted घूप खाना - ghūp khānā - to bask in sunlight रूबरू हो जाना - rūbarū ho jānā - to have met (face to face)/recognize
रफ़ु हो जाना - rafu ho jānā - to become mended (पे is the preposition used with the noun; ex. िदल पे रफ़ु हो गई - dil pe rafu ho gaī - my heart has become mended) पुकारना - pukārnā - to call out to *This term is used to refer to highly respected or venerated figures, as तश्रीफ़ means “honorable self”. It’s can be found in historical films and works, often said of Mughal rulers, kings, princesses, and other such figures. तश्रीफ़ लाना means “to come” or “to arrive”, whereas तश्रीफ़ रखना means “to have a seat”. New Mood: The Presumptive Mood As its name suggests, this mood is used to convey presumed or probable notions.. The headings below give the conjugations for each tense, and examples of usage. In Romance languages, this is often called the future of probability. SVIs (Singular/Plural) खाता(◌ी) (future tense होना) khātā(ī) (…)
Ex. अगर हर िदन गोबी परांठें खाता, तब उसे गोिब पसनद है। Agar har din gobī parānṭheṃ khātā, tab use gobi pasand kartā hogā. If he eats cauliflower paratha every day, he must like/probably likes cauliflower. You may already realize this by now, but you can adjust the conjugation of होना to mean different things. By using the various forms associated with the future, you can expand your use of verbs. Relative Pronouns Relative pronouns are those that replace phrases and clauses, such as “that which” or “they who”. There are several relative pronouns that exist, one of which you already know: *जो - jo - that which/they who जब - jab - when जैसा(◌ी) - jaisā(ī) - that which is (adjective) जैसे - jaise - the way in which/just as जहाँ - jahāṃ - wherever/the place in which (also means “world”)
िजधर - jidhar - wherever/the place in which िजतना(◌ी) - jitnā(ī) - however many/as much as *The oblique form is िजस, which behaves like इस/उस; the plural oblique is िजन, which behaves like इन/उन. Ex. मेरा पापा जो एं िजनीर है बहुत मेहनत है। Merā pāpā jo enjinīr hai bahut mehnat hai. My dad, who is an engineer, is very hardworking. ऐसे बात करता है, जैसे थप्पड़ लगेगा तू! Aise bāt kartā hai, jaise thapparh lagegā tū! The way you talk, you’ll get a beating! (lit. The way you talk, the same way you’ll get a beating!) जहाँ/िजधर जाएगी, मैं भी जाऊंगा। Jahāṃ/jidhar jāegī, maịm bhī jāūṃgā. Wherever she’ll go, I’ll go too. िजस बच्ची को इनाम िमला मेरी बिहन है। Jis bachchī ko inām milā merī behin hai. That girl who won a prize is my little sister. Conditional Statements There are several types of conditional statements in Hindi, each using different relationships of tenses and conditions. However, they all take the general form of अगर/जो (condition) तो (consequence). Using जो is more colloquial than अगर, and the तो must always be present. Look at the list for each type of conditional statement, the meaning, and then look at the examples. The use of the indicative mood implies some amount of certainty, whereas the use of the subjunctive implies a consequence (in the indicative) that is contingent on the fulfillment of an uncertain condition (in the subjunctive. Condition in indicative present + result in indicative present (Logical consequence in the present) Condition in indicative present + result in future (Logical consequence in the future) Condition in future + result in future (Possible plan) Condition in simple past + result in future (Necessary prior condition) Condition in subjunctive + result in future (Doubted proposition) Condition in subjunctive + result in subjunctive (Doubtful proposition)
Condition in subjunctive + result in indicative present (Offer with an uncertain condition) Condition in past subjunctive* + Condition in past subjunctive (Contrafactual statement) *This is simply the imperfect aspect, acting with a different function under a different name. The information in parentheses is meant to paraphrase the main things expressed by each conditional statement, and if it’s confusing, then you don’t need to use it. But it will be used to explain each example. Ex. अगर/जो उसे बेंगाली अाती है, तो याह िकताब पड़ सकती है। Agar/jo use Bengālī ātī hai, to yah kitāb parh saktī hai. If she knows Bengali, she will be able to read this book. This sentence gives the condition that a person must be able to speak Bengali in the present indicative, expressing with some certainty that the person in question is Bengali-speaking. If this proves true, the logical consequence is that she’ll be able to read the book in the present (which also suggests that this person will be able to do so very soon). अगर/जो उसे बेंगाली अाती है, तो याह िकताब पड़ सकेगी। Agar/jo use Bengālī ātī hai, to yah kitāb parh sakegī. If she knows Bengali, she will be able to read this book. This sentence contrasts with the previous one, since the result is in the future. This implies that the potential Bengali-speaking person isn’t nearby or otherwise within reach to read this book in Bengali, but if she can, it will indeed be possible for her to do so. Basically, the condition is predicted to be fulfilled, but not at present. अगर/जो तुम चटनी लाओगे, तो मैं समोसा लाऊंगी। Agar/jo tum chaṭnī lāoge, to maiṃ samosā lāūngī. If you will bring chutney, then I’ll bring samosa. This sentence expresses a condition that can only be fulfilled in the future, such as whatever event these two people are going to. However, the consequence of bringing samosa, which is entirely dependent on the first person’s bringing chutney, also takes place in the future. This is essentially the very conditional statement in meaning, but put into the future tense. The best way to think about this is that it is a possible plan that two people could be making. अगर/जो तुम पड़ा, तो परीक्षा किठन नहीं होगा। Agar/jo tum parhā, to parīkṣā kaṭhin nahīṃ hōgā. If you studied, the test won’t be difficult.
This is a simple sentence where a prior condition is presumed to have already been fulfilled (though it is possible that it hasn’t been), and the result is in the future and is certain, provided that the condition has been completed. अगर/जो अच्छे अंक बने, तो मैं हज़ार रूपये दूंगा। Agar/jo achchhe ank bane, to maiṃ hazār rūpaye dūṃga. If you get good grades, I’ll give you one thousand rupees. This sentence is similar to the second conditional statement, except that it implies that the speaker doesn’t think the second person will get good grades. This because the condition statement is in the subjunctive mood, making it uncertain, and making the statement a doubted proposition. अगर/जो हम अमरीका पे जाएं , तो हम अिख़र अमीर हो जाएं । Agar/jo ham amrīkā pe jāēṃ, to āḥir amīr ho jāēṃ. If we go to America, then we’ll finally get rich. From the use of the subjunctive in both the conditon and result, speaker might believe that it is both unlikely that they’ll go to America, and that even if they did, it is also unlikely that they will become rich. This kind of conditional statement can be expression of despair, or even biting sarcasm. This is doubtful proposition, in contrast to the previous conditional statement, since the entire premise of such a sentence is questionable, whereas the previous statement only doubts the fulfillment of the condition. अगर/जो दूद ख़त्म/ख़तम हो जाए, तो मैं दुकान पर जा सकता हूँ । Agar/jo dūd ḥatm/ḥatam ho jāe, to maiṃ dukān par jā sakte haiṃ. If the milk is finished off, then I can go to the store. The offer is to go to the store in the event that there is no milk, but the use of the subjunctive suggests that the speaker doesn’t know if the condition is met, that there is no milk. Keep in mind that this statement doesn’t have to be an offer with an uncertain condition, but is helpful to remember the form as such, and that many such uncertain offers are formed in this way. अगर इसे फल अच्छा नहीं लगता, तो उसकी माँ नहीं ख़रीदती। Agar ise phal achchha nahīṃ lagtā, to uskī māṃ nahīṃ ḥarīdtī. If he didn’t like fruits, then his mom wouldn’t buy them. This is a contrafactual statement, a sentence that contradicts what actually happened by suggesting something else. This means that both the condition and result must be in the past subjunctive, which is the same as the imperfect aspect, used in the present tense, right before the conjugated form of होना. Because the entire premise of the statement is false, both condition and
result are also false. This kind of statement is used to emphasize the truth or reality by suggesting the opposite scenario. Exercises: A. Conjugate the following verbs in the presumptive present tense for the given pronouns. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
I (male), खाना She, नहाना They, तैरना We, पीना You (male, polite), लाना You (female, polite), बनाना You (female, non-polite), देना You all, जगना I (female), पड़ना You (male, rude), जीना
B. Translate the following sentences into Hindi, using conditional statements. 1. If you (female, non-polite) hadn’t come late, the water would have been hot. 2. If you (polite) don’t have time, I’ll (female) get the medicine for you. 3. If we go to sleep, everything will be alright in the morning (sarcastic). 4. If your (non-polite) little brother comes now, we can play. 5. If you (polite) take Samīr home (ले जाना), I (male) will be so grateful (अाभारी). 6. If I (female) sing tomorrow, you (male, rude) will sing next week. 7. If you (non-polite, male) can dance, you come with me. 8. If you all eat vegetables now, you can have dessert. 9. If they (not here) arrived, they will come soon. 10. If he (not here) knows how to sing, she (not here) will be happy. (doubted)
तुम देती हो (Tum detī ho) तुम/अाप लोग जगते हैं (Tum/āp log jagte haiṃ) मैं पड़ती हूँ (Maiṃ parhtī hūṃ) तू जीता है (Tū jītā hai)
Pluralize the following singular nouns.
1. अंडे (aṃḍe) 2. चमड़े (chamrhe) 3. गोभीयां (gobhiyāṃ) 4. कोहनीयां (kohniyāṃ) 5. काम (kām) 6. लकिड़यां (lakrhiyāṃ) 7. अचार (achār) 8. चेहरे (chehre) 9. छाितयां (chhatiyāṃ) 10. बदन (badan) C. Translate the following sentences into Hindi. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
मैं सेब खाता हूँ । (Maiṃ seb khātā hūṃ.) वह नहाता है। (Vah nahātā hai.) ये/वे फल धोते हैं (Ye/Ve phal dhote haiṃ.) (क्या) अाप पकाता है (क्या)? [(Kyā) āp pakātā hai (kyā)?] वह िनम्बू काटती है। (Vah nimbū kāṭtī hai.) तुम सोती हो।(Tum sotī ho.) तू खाना बनाता है। (Tū khānā banātā hai.) तुम/अाप लोग अाम िछलते हैं। (Tum/āp log ām chhilte haiṃ.) हम सोते हैं। (Ham sote haiṃ.) तू लेटती है। (Tū leṭtī hai.)
Section 3: A. Translate the following sentences or phrases into Hindi-Urdu. 1. इसकी बिहन (Iskī behin) 2. मेरे पास तीन बच्चे हैं। (Mere pās tīn bachche haiṃ.)
3. मेरी मेज़ (Mērī mez) 4. (क्या) हमारे पास परंपरा है (क्या)? [(Kyā) hamāre pās paraṃparā hai (kyā)?] 5. (क्या) वह उनकी बहू है (क्या)? [(Kyā) vah unkī bahū hai (kyā)?] 6. उसकी सास (Uskī sās) 7. यह इसका पापा/अप्पा/अब्बा/िपता(जी) है। (Yah iskā pāpā/appā/abbā/pitā(jī) hai?) 8. इनका पिरवार (Inkā parivār) 9. (क्या) वह तुमहारी मम्मी/अम्मा/अम्मी है (क्या)? [(Kyā) vah tumhārī mammī/ammā/ammī hai (kyā)?] 10. अापका िपताजी [Āpkā pitājī] Section 4 A. Translate the following phrases or sentences into Hindi. 1. गीता के िलए (Gīta ke lie) 2. मुझसे, तुझे (Mujhse, tujhe) 3. ज़मीन से अासमान तक (Zamīn se āsmān tak) 4. घर के अंदर (Ghar ke andar) 5. स्कूल पे/पर (Skūl pe/par) 6. इससे दूर है। (Isse dūr hai) 7. अाप हमें खाना देते हैं। (Āp hameṃ khānā dete haiṃ.) 8. वे उस ग्रह पे/पर हैं। (Ve us grah pe/par haiṃ.) 9. (क्या) हम इसके पीछे हैं (क्या)? [(Kyā) ham iske pīchhe haiṃ (kyā)?] 10. वह मेज़ के नीचे है। (Vah mez ke niche hai.) B. Conjugate the following verbs in the present progressive tense for the given pronouns. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
मैं खा रहा हूँ (Maiṃ khā rahā hūṃ) यह/वह नहा रही हैं (Yah/vah nahā rahī haiṃ) ये/वे तैर रहे हैं (Ye/ve tair rahe haiṃ) हम पी रहे हैं (Ham pī rahe haiṃ) अाप ला रहे हैं (Āp la rahe haịm) अाप बना रही हैं (Āp banā rahī haiṃ) तुम दे रेही हैं (Tum de rahī haiṃ) तुम/अाप लोग जग रहे हैं (Tum/āp log jag rahe haiṃ) मैं पड़ रही हूँ (Maiṃ parh rahī hūṃ) तू जी रहा है (Tū jī rahā hai)
तुम देती थी (tum detī thī) तुम/अाप लोग जगते थे (tum/āp log jagte the) मैं पड़ती थी (maiṃ parhtī thī) तू जीता था (tū jītā thā)
C. Translate the following sentences into Hindi. 1. (क्या) अाप यह िलख सकती हैं (क्या)? [(Kyā) āp yah likh saktī haiṃ (kyā)?] 2. िकसको पंजाबी अाती है? (Kisko panjābī ātī hai?) 3. अाज मुझे स्कूल पे जाना नहीं पाया। (Āj mujhe skūl pe jānā nahīṃ pāyā.) 4. इसको तबला बजाना अाता था. (Isko tablā bajānā ātā tha.) 5. (क्या) तुझे माफ़ी माँगना अाता है (क्या)? [(Kyā) tujhe māfī māṃgnā ātā hai (kyā)?] 6. हम अापको माफ़ कर सकते हैं। (Ham āpko māf kar sakte haiṃ.) 7. यह शादी नहीं हो सकती है। (Yah śādī nahīṃ ho saktī hai.) 8. इनको कोंकणी अाती थी। (Inko Koṃkaṇī ātī thi.) 9. उनको अाज हमारा घर पे अाना पाता है। (Unko āj hamārā ghar pe ānā pātā hai.) 10. (क्या) तुमें शहनाई बजाना आता है (क्या)? [(Kyā) tumeṃ śehnāī bajānā ātā hai (kyā)?] Section 7 A. Conjugate the following nouns in the given perfect tense for the given pronoun. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
मैं खाया हूँ यह/बह नहायी है ये/वे तैरे थे हम पीये थे अाप लाये थे अाप बनायीं हैं तुम दी थी तुम/अाप लोग जगे हैं मैं पड़ी थी तू जीया है
B. Translate the following phrases into Hindi. 1. ख़चर् करते हुआ लड़का 2. गुज़ारती हुई औरत
3. उड़ती हुई (हवाई) जहाज़ 4. मिक्खयाँ मारते हुए दादाजी 5. अनुवाद करती हुई लड़की 6. चलाती हुई व्यिक्त 7. िनकलता/िनकलती हुअा/हुई साला/साली 8. अंदर जाते हुए िशकशक 9. गाती हुई िचिड़या 10. अदा करते हुए िपत C. Make the transitive forms and the causative forms for the given verb, if they exist. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
C. Translate the following sentences in Hindi, using the passive voice. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
खाना खाया गया। (Khānā khāyā gayā.) थािलयां धोये गये हैं। (Thāliyāṃ dhoye gaye haiṃ.) इडिलयां अाली से बने जाएं गे। (Iḍliyāṃ Ālī se bane jāeṃge.) यह/वह एकत्र/इकट्ठा िकया गया है। (Yah/vah ekatr/ikaṭṭhā kiyā gayā hai.) (क्या) दवाई ख़रीदी गई (क्या)? [(Kyā) davāī ḥarīdī gaī (kyā)?] मेज़ अािलया से डाली गई। (Mez āliyā se ḍalī gaī.) (क्या) अापको कुछ िदया गया (क्या)? [(Kyā) āpko kuchh diyā gayā (kyā)?] (क्या) सब तैयार हो जा रहा है (क्या)? [(Kyā) sab taiyār ho jā rahā hai (kyā)?] (क्या) तुझसे योजना िकया गया (क्या)? [(Kyā) tujhse yojnā kiyā gayā (kyā)?] खाना मुझसे बना गया। (Khānā mujhse banā gayā.)
Section 9 A. Conjugate the following verbs in the immediate future tense for the given pronouns. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
मैं खाने वाला था (Maiṃ khāne vālā thā) यह/वह नहाने वाली है (Yah/vah nahāne vālī hai) ये/वे तैरने वाले थे (Ye/ve tairne vāle the) हम पीने वाले हैं (Ham pīne vāle haiṃ) अाप लाने वाला थे (Āp lāne vālā the) अाप बनाते वाली थी (Āp banāne vālī thī) तुम देने वाली थी (Tum dene vālī thī)
8. तुम/अाप लोग जगने वाले थे (Tum/āp log jagne vāle the) 9. मैं पड़ने वाली हूँ (Maiṃ parhne vālī hūṃ) 10. तू जीने वाला था (Tū jīne vālā tha) Section 10 A. Conjugate the following verbs in the presumptive present tense for the given pronouns. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
B. Translate the following sentences into Hindi, using conditional statements. 1. अगर/जो तुम देर से नहीं अाती, तो पानी/जल गरम होती। (Agar/jo tum der se nahīṃ ātī, to pānī/jal garam hotī.) 2. अगर/जो अाप के पास वक़त नहीं है, तो मैं अाप के िलए दवाई लाती हूँ । (Agar/jo āp ke pās vaqt nahīṃ hai, to maiṃ āp ke lie davāī lātī hūṃ.) 3. अगर/जो सो जाएं , तो सुबह पर सब ठीक हो जाए। (Agar/jo so jāeṃ, to subah par ṭhīk ho jāe.) 4. अगर/जो तुमहरा छोटा भाई अभी अाए, तो हम खेल सकते हैं। (Agar/jo tumhārā chhoṭā bhāī abhī āe, to ham khel sakte haiṃ.) 5. अगर/जो अाप समीर को ले जाते हैं, तो मैं इतना अाभारी हूंगा।(Agar/jo āp Samīr ko le jāte haiṃ, to maiṃ itnā ābhārī hūṃgā.) 6. अगर/जो मैं गाऊंगी, तो तू अगला हफ़ता गाएगा। (Agar/jo maiṃ gāūṃgī, to tū aglā haftā gāegā.) 7. अगर/जो तुम नाच सकते हो, तो मेरे साथ अाते हो। (Agar/jo tum nāch sakte ho, to mere sāth āte ho.) 8. अगर/जो तुम/अाप लोग सबज़ी खाते हैं, तो डेज़टर् खा सकते हैं। [Agar/jo (tum/āp) log sabzī khāte haiṃ, to dezarṭ khā sakte haiṃ.) 9. अगर/जो वे पहुँ चा, तो जलदी अाएं गे। (Agar/jo ve pahuṃcha, to jaldī, āenge.) 10. अगर/जो वह गाना जाने, तो वह ख़ुशी होगी। (Agar/jo vah gānā jāne, to vah ḥuśī hogī.)