ma nufa cturi-solution-ma nua l Chapter 2 Funda menta ls of the Mecha nica l Beha vior of Ma teria ls Questions increa ses. Is this phenomenon t...

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Fundamentals of the Mechanical Behavior of Materials Questions increases. Is this phenomenon true for both tensile and compressive strains? Explain.

2.1 Can you calculate the percent elongation of materials based only on the information given in Fig. 2.6? Explain.

The difference between the engineering and true strains becomes larger because of the way the strains are defined, respectively, as can be seen by inspecting Eqs. (2.1) on p. 30 and (2.9) on p. 35. This is true for both tensile and compressive strains.

Recall that the percent elongation is defined by Eq. (2.6) on p. 33 and depends on the original gage length (lo ) of the specimen. From Fig. 2.6 on p. 37 only the necking strain (true and engineering) and true fracture strain can be determined. Thus, we cannot calculate the percent elongation of the specimen; also, note that the elongation is a function of gage length and increases with gage length.

2.4 Using the same scale for stress, we note that the tensile true-stress-true-strain curve is higher than the engineering stress-strain curve. Explain whether this condition also holds for a compression test.

2.2 Explain if it is possible for the curves in Fig. 2.4 to reach 0% elongation as the gage length is increased further.

During a compression test, the cross-sectional area of the specimen increases as the specimen height decreases (because of volume constancy) as the load is increased. Since true stress is defined as ratio of the load to the instantaneous cross-sectional area of the specimen, the true stress in compression will be lower than the engineering stress for a given load, assuming that friction between the platens and the specimen is negligible.

The percent elongation of the specimen is a function of the initial and final gage lengths. When the specimen is being pulled, regardless of the original gage length, it will elongate uniformly (and permanently) until necking begins. Therefore, the specimen will always have a certain finite elongation. However, note that as the specimen’s gage length is increased, the contribution of localized elongation (that is, necking) will decrease, but the total elongation will not approach zero.

2.5 Which of the two tests, tension or compression, requires a higher capacity testing machine than the other? Explain.

2.3 Explain why the difference between engineering strain and true strain becomes larger as strain

The compression test requires a higher capacity machine because the cross-sectional area of the 1

specimen increases during the test, which is the opposite of a tension test. The increase in area requires a load higher than that for the tension test to achieve the same stress level. Furthermore, note that compression-test specimens generally have a larger original cross-sectional area than those for tension tests, thus requiring higher forces.

stress-true strain curve represents the specific work done at the necked (and fractured) region in the specimen where the strain is a maximum. Thus, the answers will be different. However, up to the onset of necking (instability), the specific work calculated will be the same. This is because the strain is uniform throughout the specimen until necking begins. 2.10 The note at the bottom of Table 2.5 states that as temperature increases, C decreases and m increases. Explain why.

2.6 Explain how the modulus of resilience of a material changes, if at all, as it is strained: (1) for an elastic, perfectly plastic material, and (2) for an elastic, linearly strain-hardening material.

The value of C in Table 2.5 on p. 43 decreases with temperature because it is a measure of the strength of the material. The value of m increases with temperature because the material becomes more strain-rate sensitive, due to the fact that the higher the strain rate, the less time the material has to recover and recrystallize, hence its strength increases.

2.7 If you pull and break a tension-test specimen rapidly, where would the temperature be the highest? Explain why.

Since temperature rise is due to the work input, the temperature will be highest in the necked region because that is where the strain, hence the energy dissipated per unit volume in plastic 2.11 You are given the K and n values of two different materials. Is this information sufficient deformation, is highest. to determine which material is tougher? If not, what additional information do you need, and 2.8 Comment on the temperature distribution if the why? specimen in Question 2.7 is pulled very slowly. Although the K and n values may give a good estimate of toughness, the true fracture stress and the true strain at fracture are required for accurate calculation of toughness. The modulus of elasticity and yield stress would provide information about the area under the elastic region; however, this region is very small and is thus usually negligible with respect to the rest of the stress-strain curve.

If the specimen is pulled very slowly, the temperature generated will be dissipated throughout the specimen and to the environment. Thus, there will be no appreciable temperature rise anywhere, particularly with materials with high thermal conductivity.

2.9 In a tension test, the area under the true-stresstrue-strain curve is the work done per unit volume (the specific work). We also know that the area under the load-elongation curve rep- 2.12 Modify the curves in Fig. 2.7 to indicate the effects of temperature. Explain the reasons for resents the work done on the specimen. If you your changes. divide this latter work by the volume of the specimen between the gage marks, you will deThese modifications can be made by lowering termine the work done per unit volume (assumthe slope of the elastic region and lowering the ing that all deformation is confined between general height of the curves. See, for example, the gage marks). Will this specific work be Fig. 2.10 on p. 42. the same as the area under the true-stress-truestrain curve? Explain. Will your answer be the 2.13 Using a specific example, show why the deforsame for any value of strain? Explain. mation rate, say in m/s, and the true strain rate are not the same. If we divide the work done by the total volume of the specimen between the gage lengths, we The deformation rate is the quantity v in obtain the average specific work throughout the Eqs. (2.14), (2.15), (2.17), and (2.18) on pp. 41specimen. However, the area under the true 46. Thus, when v is held constant during de2

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formation (hence a constant deformation rate), the true strain rate will vary, whereas the engineering strain rate will remain constant. Hence, the two quantities are not the same.

However, the volume of material subjected to the maximum bending moment (hence to maximum stress) increases. Thus, the probability of failure in the four-point test increases as this distance increases.

2.14 It has been stated that the higher the value of m, the more diffuse the neck is, and likewise, 2.17 Would Eq. (2.10) hold true in the elastic range? the lower the value of m, the more localized the Explain. neck is. Explain the reason for this behavior. Note that this equation is based on volume conAs discussed in Section 2.2.7 starting on p. 41, stancy, i.e., Ao lo = Al. We know, however, that with high m values, the material stretches to because the Poisson’s ratio ν is less than 0.5 in a greater length before it fails; this behavior the elastic range, the volume is not constant in is an indication that necking is delayed with a tension test; see Eq. (2.47) on p. 69. Thereincreasing m. When necking is about to before, the expression is not valid in the elastic gin, the necking region’s strength with respect range. to the rest of the specimen increases, due to strain hardening. However, the strain rate in 2.18 Why have different types of hardness tests been developed? How would you measure the hardthe necking region is also higher than in the rest ness of a very large object? of the specimen, because the material is elongating faster there. Since the material in the There are several basic reasons: (a) The overall necked region becomes stronger as it is strained hardness range of the materials; (b) the hardat a higher rate, the region exhibits a greater reness of their constituents; see Chapter 3; (c) the sistance to necking. The increase in resistance thickness of the specimen, such as bulk versus to necking thus depends on the magnitude of foil; (d) the size of the specimen with respect to m. As the tension test progresses, necking bethat of the indenter; and (e) the surface finish comes more diffuse, and the specimen becomes of the part being tested. longer before fracture; hence, total elongation increases with increasing values of m (Fig. 2.13 2.19 Which hardness tests and scales would you use on p. 45). As expected, the elongation after for very thin strips of material, such as alunecking (postuniform elongation) also increases minum foil? Why? with increasing m. It has been observed that Because aluminum foil is very thin, the indentathe value of m decreases with metals of increastions on the surface must be very small so as not ing strength. to affect test results. Suitable tests would be a 2.15 Explain why materials with high m values (such microhardness test such as Knoop or Vickers as hot glass and silly putty) when stretched under very light loads (see Fig. 2.22 on p. 52). slowly, undergo large elongations before failure. The accuracy of the test can be validated by obConsider events taking place in the necked reserving any changes in the surface appearance gion of the specimen. opposite to the indented side. The answer is similar to Answer 2.14 above.

2.20 List and explain the factors that you would consider in selecting an appropriate hardness test 2.16 Assume that you are running four-point bendand scale for a particular application. ing tests on a number of identical specimens of the same length and cross-section, but with inHardness tests mainly have three differences: creasing distance between the upper points of loading (see Fig. 2.21b). What changes, if any, (a) type of indenter, would you expect in the test results? Explain. (b) applied load, and As the distance between the upper points of loading in Fig. 2.21b on p. 51 increases, the magnitude of the bending moment decreases.

(c) method of indentation measurement (depth or surface area of indentation, or rebound of indenter). 3

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The hardness test selected would depend on the 2.23 Describe the difference between creep and estimated hardness of the workpiece, its size stress-relaxation phenomena, giving two examand thickness, and if an average hardness or the ples for each as they relate to engineering aphardness of individual microstructural compoplications. nents is desired. For instance, the scleroscope, Creep is the permanent deformation of a part which is portable, is capable of measuring the that is under a load over a period of time, usuhardness of large pieces which otherwise would ally occurring at elevated temperatures. Stress be difficult or impossible to measure by other relaxation is the decrease in the stress level in techniques. a part under a constant strain. Examples of The Brinell hardness measurement leaves a creep include: fairly large indentation which provides a good measure of average hardness, while the Knoop (a) turbine blades operating at high temperatest leaves a small indentation that allows, for tures, and example, the determination of the hardness of (b) high-temperature steam linesand furnace individual phases in a two-phase alloy, as well as components. inclusions. The small indentation of the Knoop test also allows it to be useful in measuring the Stress relaxation is observed when, for example, hardness of very thin layers on parts, such as a rubber band or a thermoplastic is pulled to plating or coatings. Recall that the depth of ina specific length and held at that length for a dentation should be small relative to part thickperiod of time. This phenomenon is commonly ness, and that any change on the bottom surobserved in rivets, bolts, and guy wires, as well face appearance makes the test results invalid. as thermoplastic components. 2.21 In a Brinell hardness test, the resulting impression is found to be an ellipse. Give possible 2.24 Referring to the two impact tests shown in Fig. 2.31, explain how different the results explanations for this phenomenon. would be if the specimens were impacted from the opposite directions. There are several possible reasons for this phenomenon, but the two most likely are Note that impacting the specimens shown in anisotropy in the material and the presence of Fig. 2.31 on p. 60 from the opposite directions surface residual stresses in the material. would subject the roots of the notches to compressive stresses, and thus they would not act 2.21 Referring to Fig. 2.22 on p. 52, note that the as stress raisers. Thus, cracks would not propamaterial for indenters are either steel, tungsten gate as they would when under tensile stresses. carbide, or diamond. Why isn’t diamond used Consequently, the specimens would basically for all of the tests? behave as if they were not notched. While diamond is the hardest material known, it would not, for example, be practical to make 2.25 If you remove layer ad from the part shown in Fig. 2.30d, such as by machining or grinding, and use a 10-mm diamond indenter because the which way will the specimen curve? (Hint: Ascosts would be prohibitive. Consequently, a sume that the part in diagram (d) can be modhard material such as those listed are sufficient eled as consisting of four horizontal springs held for most hardness tests. at the ends. Thus, from the top down, we have compression, tension, compression, and tension 2.22 What effect, if any, does friction have in a hardsprings.) ness test? Explain. The effect of friction has been found to be minimal. In a hardness test, most of the indentation occurs through plastic deformation, and there is very little sliding at the indenter-workpiece interface; see Fig. 2.25 on p. 55.

Since the internal forces will have to achieve a state of static equilibrium, the new part has to bow downward (i.e., it will hold water). Such residual-stress patterns can be modeled with a set of horizontal tension and compression 4

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springs. Note that the top layer of the material ad in Fig. 2.30d on p. 60, which is under compression, has the tendency to bend the bar upward. When this stress is relieved (such as by removing a layer), the bar will compensate for it by bending downward.

(d) Fish hook: A fish hook needs to have high strength so that it doesn’t deform permanently under load, and thus maintain its shape. It should be stiff (for better control during its use) and should be resistant the environment it is used in (such as salt water). (e) Automotive piston: This product must have high strength at elevated temperatures, high physical and thermal shock resistance, and low mass. (f) Boat propeller: The material must be stiff (to maintain its shape) and resistant to corrosion, and also have abrasion resistance because the propeller encounters sand and other abrasive particles when operated close to shore. (g) Gas turbine blade: A gas turbine blade operates at high temperatures (depending on its location in the turbine); thus it should have high-temperature strength and resistance to creep, as well as to oxidation and corrosion due to combustion products during its use. (h) Staple: The properties should be closely parallel to that of a paper clip. The staple should have high ductility to allow it to be deformed without fracture, and also have low yield stress so that it can be bent (as well as unbent when removing it) easily without requiring excessive force.

2.26 Is it possible to completely remove residual stresses in a piece of material by the technique described in Fig. 2.32 if the material is elastic, linearly strain hardening? Explain. By following the sequence of events depicted in Fig. 2.32 on p. 61, it can be seen that it is not possible to completely remove the residual stresses. Note that for an elastic, linearly strain hardening material, σc0 will never catch up with σt0 . 2.27 Referring to Fig. 2.32, would it be possible to eliminate residual stresses by compression instead of tension? Assume that the piece of material will not buckle under the uniaxial compressive force. Yes, by the same mechanism described in Fig. 2.32 on p. 61. 2.28 List and explain the desirable mechanical properties for the following: (1) elevator cable, (2) bandage, (3) shoe sole, (4) fish hook, (5) automotive piston, (6) boat propeller, (7) gasturbine blade, and (8) staple. The following are some basic considerations:

2.29 Make a sketch showing the nature and distribution of the residual stresses in Figs. 2.31a and b before the parts were split (cut). Assume that the split parts are free from any stresses. (Hint: Force these parts back to the shape they were in before they were cut.)

(a) Elevator cable: The cable should not elongate elastically to a large extent or undergo yielding as the load is increased. These requirements thus call for a material with a high elastic modulus and yield stress.

As the question states, when we force back the split portions in the specimen in Fig. 2.31a on p. 60, we induce tensile stresses on the outer surfaces and compressive on the inner. Thus the original part would, along its total cross section, have a residual stress distribution of tension-compression-tension. Using the same technique, we find that the specimen in Fig. 2.31b would have a similar residual stress distribution prior to cutting.

(b) Bandage: The bandage material must be compliant, that is, have a low stiffness, but have high strength in the membrane direction. Its inner surface must be permeable and outer surface resistant to environmental effects.

(c) Shoe sole: The sole should be compliant for comfort, with a high resilience. It should be tough so that it absorbs shock and should have high friction and wear re- 2.30 It is possible to calculate the work of plastic sistance. deformation by measuring the temperature rise 5

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in a workpiece, assuming that there is no heat loss and that the temperature distribution is uniform throughout. If the specific heat of the material decreases with increasing temperature, will the work of deformation calculated using the specific heat at room temperature be higher or lower than the actual work done? Explain.

(b) A thin, solid round disk (such as a coin) and made of a soft material is brazed between the ends of two solid round bars of the same diameter as that of the disk. When subjected to longitudinal tension, the disk will tend to shrink radially. But because it is thin and its flat surfaces are restrained by the two rods from moving, the disk will be subjected to tensile radial stresses. Thus, a state of triaxial (though not exactly hydrostatic) tension will exist within the thin disk.

If we calculate the heat using a constant specific heat value in Eq. (2.65) on p. 73, the work will be higher than it actually is. This is because, by definition, as the specific heat decreases, less work is required to raise the workpiece temperature by one degree. Consequently, the calcu- 2.33 Referring to Fig. 2.19, make sketches of the state of stress for an element in the reduced lated work will be higher than the actual work section of the tube when it is subjected to (1) done. torsion only, (2) torsion while the tube is internally pressurized, and (3) torsion while the 2.31 Explain whether or not the volume of a metal tube is externally pressurized. Assume that the specimen changes when the specimen is subtube is closed end. jected to a state of (a) uniaxial compressive stress and (b) uniaxial tensile stress, all in the These states of stress can be represented simply elastic range. by referring to the contents of this chapter as well as the relevant materials covered in texts For case (a), the quantity in parentheses in on mechanics of solids. Eq. (2.47) on p. 69 will be negative, because of the compressive stress. Since the rest of the 2.34 A penny-shaped piece of soft metal is brazed terms are positive, the product of these terms is to the ends of two flat, round steel rods of the negative and, hence, there will be a decrease in same diameter as the piece. The assembly is volume (This can also be deduced intuitively.) then subjected to uniaxial tension. What is the For case (b), it will be noted that the volume state of stress to which the soft metal is subwill increase. jected? Explain.

2.32 We know that it is relatively easy to subject The penny-shaped soft metal piece will tend a specimen to hydrostatic compression, such as to contract radially due to the Poisson’s ratio; by using a chamber filled with a liquid. Devise a however, the solid rods to which it attached will means whereby the specimen (say, in the shape prevent this from happening. Consequently, the of a cube or a thin round disk) can be subjected state of stress will tend to approach that of hyto hydrostatic tension, or one approaching this drostatic tension. state of stress. (Note that a thin-walled, internally pressurized spherical shell is not a correct 2.35 A circular disk of soft metal is being comanswer, because it is subjected only to a state pressed between two flat, hardened circular of plane stress.) steel punches having the same diameter as the disk. Assume that the disk material is perfectly Two possible answers are the following: plastic and that there is no friction or any temperature effects. Explain the change, if any, in (a) A solid cube made of a soft metal has all its the magnitude of the punch force as the disk is six faces brazed to long square bars (of the being compressed plastically to, say, a fraction same cross section as the specimen); the of its original thickness. bars are made of a stronger metal. The six arms are then subjected to equal tension Note that as it is compressed plastically, the forces, thus subjecting the cube to equal disk will expand radially, because of volume tensile stresses. constancy. An approximately donut-shaped 6

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material will then be pushed radially out- 2.40 What test would you use to evaluate the hardward, which will then exert radial compressive ness of a coating on a metal surface? Would it stresses on the disk volume under the punches. matter if the coating was harder or softer than The volume of material directly between the the substrate? Explain. punches will now subjected to a triaxial compressive state of stress. According to yield criteria (see Section 2.11), the compressive stress The answer depends on whether the coating is exerted by the punches will thus increase, even relatively thin or thick. For a relatively thick though the material is not strain hardening. coating, conventional hardness tests can be conTherefore, the punch force will increase as deducted, as long as the deformed region under formation increases. the indenter is less than about one-tenth of the coating thickness. If the coating thickness 2.36 A perfectly plastic metal is yielding under the is less than this threshold, then one must eistress state σ1 , σ2 , σ3 , where σ1 > σ2 > σ3 . ther rely on nontraditional hardness tests, or Explain what happens if σ1 is increased. else use fairly complicated indentation models Consider Fig. 2.36 on p. 67. Points in the into extract the material behavior. As an examterior of the yield locus are in an elastic state, ple of the former, atomic force microscopes uswhereas those on the yield locus are in a plasing diamond-tipped pyramids have been used to tic state. Points outside the yield locus are not measure the hardness of coatings less than 100 admissible. Therefore, an increase in σ1 while nanometers thick. As an example of the latthe other stresses remain unchanged would reter, finite-element models of a coated substrate quire an increase in yield stress. This can also being indented by an indenter of a known gebe deduced by inspecting either Eq. (2.36) or ometry can be developed and then correlated Eq. (2.37) on p. 64. to experiments. 2.37 What is the dilatation of a material with a Poisson’s ratio of 0.5? Is it possible for a material to have a Poisson’s ratio of 0.7? Give a rationale for your answer.

2.41 List the advantages and limitations of the stress-strain relationships given in Fig. 2.7. It can be seen from Eq. (2.47) on p. 69 that the dilatation of a material with ν = 0.5 is always zero, regardless of the stress state. To examine the case of ν = 0.7, consider the situation where Several answers that are acceptable, and the the stress state is hydrostatic tension. Equation student is encouraged to develop as many as (2.47) would then predict contraction under a possible. Two possible answers are: (1) there tensile stress, a situation that cannot occur. is a tradeoff between mathematical complexity and accuracy in modeling material behavior 2.38 Can a material have a negative Poisson’s ratio? and (2) some materials may be better suited for Explain. certain constitutive laws than others. Solid material do not have a negative Poisson’s ratio, with the exception of some composite materials (see Chapter 10), where there can be a negative Poisson’s ratio in a given direction. 2.42 Plot the data in Table 2.1 on a bar chart, show2.39 As clearly as possible, define plane stress and ing the range of values, and comment on the plane strain. results. Plane stress is the situation where the stresses in one of the direction on an element are zero; plane strain is the situation where the strains in one of the direction are zero.

By the student. An example of a bar chart for the elastic modulus is shown below. 7

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Metallic materials

that the hardness is too high, thus the material may not have sufficient ductility for the intended application. The supplier is reluctant to accept the return of the material, instead claiming that the diamond cone used in the Rockwell testing was worn and blunt, and hence the test needed to be recalibrated. Is this explanation plausible? Explain.

Tungsten Titanium Stainless steels Steels Nickel Molybdenum

Refer to Fig. 2.22 on p. 52 and note that if an indenter is blunt, then the penetration, t, under a given load will be smaller than that using a sharp indenter. This then translates into a higher hardness. The explanation is plausible, but in practice, hardness tests are fairly reliable and measurements are consistent if the testing equipment is properly calibrated and routinely serviced.

Magnesium Lead Copper Aluminum 0

100

200

300

400

500

Elastic modulus (GPa) Non-metallic materials Spectra fibers

2.44 Explain why a 0.2% offset is used to determine the yield strength in a tension test.

Kevlar fibers Glass fibers

The value of 0.2% is somewhat arbitrary and is used to set some standard. A yield stress, representing the transition point from elastic to plastic deformation, is difficult to measure. This is because the stress-strain curve is not linearly proportional after the proportional limit, which can be as high as one-half the yield strength in some metals. Therefore, a transition from elastic to plastic behavior in a stress-strain curve is difficult to discern. The use of a 0.2% offset is a convenient way of consistently interpreting a yield point from stress-strain curves.

Carbon fibers Boron fibers Thermosets Thermoplastics Rubbers Glass Diamond Ceramics 0

200

400

600

800

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1200

Elastic modulus (GPa)

2.45 Referring to Question 2.44, would the offset method be necessary for a highly-strained(a) There is a smaller range for metals than hardened material? Explain. for non-metals; The 0.2% offset is still advisable whenever it (b) Thermoplastics, thermosets and rubbers can be used, because it is a standardized apare orders of magnitude lower than metproach for determining yield stress, and thus als and other non-metals; one should not arbitrarily abandon standards. (c) Diamond and ceramics can be superior to However, if the material is highly cold worked, others, but ceramics have a large range of there will be a more noticeable ‘kink’ in the values. stress-strain curve, and thus the yield stress is 2.43 A hardness test is conducted on as-received far more easily discernable than for the same metal as a quality check. The results indicate material in the annealed condition. Typical comments regarding such a chart are:

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Problems 2.46 A strip of metal is originally 1.5 m long. It is stretched in three steps: first to a length of 1.75 m, then to 2.0 m, and finally to 3.0 m. Show that the total true strain is the sum of the true strains in each step, that is, that the strains are additive. Show that, using engineering strains, the strain for each step cannot be added to obtain the total strain.

Assuming volume constancy, we may write lf = lo

do df

2

=

15 1.20

2 = 156.25 ≈ 156

Letting l0 be unity, the longitudinal engineering strain is e1 = (156 − 1)/1 = 155. The diametral engineering strain is calculated as

The true strain is given by Eq. (2.9) on p. 35 as l = ln lo

ed =

1.2 − 15 = −0.92 15

The longitudinal true strain is given by Eq. (2.9) on p. 35 as l = ln (155) = 5.043 = ln lo

Therefore, the true strains for the three steps are: 1.75 1 = ln = 0.1541 1.5 2.0 2 = ln = 0.1335 1.75 3.0 = 0.4055 3 = ln 2.0

The diametral true strain is 1.20 = −2.526 d = ln 15 Note the large difference between the engineering and true strains, even though both describe the same phenomenon. Note also that the sum of the true strains (recognizing that the radial strain is r = ln 0.60 = −2.526) in the three 7.5 principal directions is zero, indicating volume constancy in plastic deformation.

The sum of these true strains is = 0.1541 + 0.1335 + 0.4055 = 0.6931. The true strain from step 1 to 3 is 3 = ln = 0.6931 1.5

2.48 A material has the following properties: UTS = 50, 000 psi and n = 0.25 Calculate its strength coefficient K.

Therefore the true strains are additive. Using the same approach for engineering strain as defined by Eq. (2.1), we obtain e1 = 0.1667, e2 = 0.1429, and e3 = 0.5. The sum of these strains is e1 +e2 +e3 = 0.8096. The engineering strain from step 1 to 3 is e=

Let us first note that the true UTS of this material is given by UTStrue = Knn (because at necking = n). We can then determine the value of this stress from the UTS by following a procedure similar to Example 2.1. Since n = 0.25, we can write Ao UTStrue = UTS = UTS e0.25 Aneck = (50, 000)(1.28) = 64, 200 psi

3 − 1.5 1.5 l − lo = = =1 lo 1.5 1.5

Note that this is not equal to the sum of the engineering strains for the individual steps. 2.47 A paper clip is made of wire 1.20-mm in diameter. If the original material from which the wire is made is a rod 15-mm in diameter, calculate the longitudinal and diametrical engineering and true strains that the wire has undergone.

Therefore, since UTStrue = Knn , K=

UTStrue 64, 200 = = 90, 800 psi n n 0.250.25

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(a) Calculate the maximum tensile load that this cable can withstand prior to necking. (b) Explain how you would arrive at an answer if the n values of the three strands were different from each other.

2.49 Based on the information given in Fig. 2.6, calculate the ultimate tensile strength of annealed 70-30 brass. From Fig. 2.6 on p. 37, the true stress for annealed 70-30 brass at necking (where the slope becomes constant; see Fig. 2.7a on p. 40) is found to be about 60,000 psi, while the true strain is about 0.2. We also know that the ratio of the original to necked areas of the specimen is given by Ao = 0.20 ln Aneck or

(a) Necking will occur when = n = 0.3. At this point the true stresses in each cable are (from σ = Kn ), respectively, σA = (450)0.30.3 = 314 MPa σB = (600)0.30.3 = 418 MPa σC = (300)0.30.3 = 209 MPa σD = (760)0.30.3 = 530 MPa

Aneck = e−0.20 = 0.819 Ao

The areas at necking are calculated as follows (from Aneck = Ao e−n ):

Thus,

AA = (7)e−0.3 = 5.18 mm2 UTS = (60, 000)(0.819) = 49, 100 psi

AB = (2.5)e−0.3 = 1.85 mm2 AC = (3)e−0.3 = 2.22 mm2

2.50 Calculate the ultimate tensile strength (engineering) of a material whose strength coefficient is 400 MPa and of a tensile-test specimen that necks at a true strain of 0.20.

AD = (2)e−0.3 = 1.48 mm2 Hence the total load that the cable can support is

In this problem we have K = 400 MPa and n = 0.20. Following the same procedure as in Example 2.1, we find the true ultimate tensile strength is

P

=

(314)(5.18) + (418)(1.85) +(209)(2.22) + (530)(1.48) = 3650 N

(b) If the n values of the four strands were different, the procedure would consist of plotting the load-elongation curves of the four strands on the same chart, then obtaining graphically the maximum load. Alternately, a computer program can be written to determine the maximum load.

σ = (400)(0.20)0.20 = 290 MPa and Aneck = Ao e−0.20 = 0.81Ao Consequently, UTS = (290)(0.81) = 237 MPa

2.52 Using only Fig. 2.6, calculate the maximum load in tension testing of a 304 stainless-steel 2.51 A cable is made of four parallel strands of difround specimen with an original diameter of 0.5 ferent materials, all behaving according to the in. n equation σ = K , where n = 0.3 The materials, strength coefficients, and cross sections are We observe from Fig. 2.6 on p. 37 that necking as follows: begins at a true strain of about 0.1, and that the true UTS is about 110,000 psi. The origiMaterial A: K = 450 MPa, Ao = 7 mm2 ; nal cross-sectional area is Ao = π(0.25 in)2 = 0.196 in2 . Since n = 0.1, we follow a procedure Material B: K = 600 MPa, Ao = 2.5 mm2 ; similar to Example 2.1 and show that Material C: K = 300 MPa, Ao = 3 mm2 ; Ao = e0.1 = 1.1 Material D: K = 760 MPa, Ao = 2 mm2 ; Aneck 10

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Thus UTS =

110, 000 = 100, 000 psi 1.1

Hence the maximum load is F = (UTS)(Ao ) = (100, 000)(0.196)

2.55 A cylindrical specimen made of a brittle material 1 in. high and with a diameter of 1 in. is subjected to a compressive force along its axis. It is found that fracture takes place at an angle of 45◦ under a load of 30,000 lb. Calculate the shear stress and the normal stress acting on the fracture surface. Assuming that compression takes place without friction, note that two of the principal stresses will be zero. The third principal stress acting on this specimen is normal to the specimen and its magnitude is

or F = 19, 600 lb. 2.53 Using the data given in Table 2.1, calculate the values of the shear modulus G for the metals listed in the table. The important equation is Eq. (2.24) on p. 49 which gives the shear modulus as G=

σ3 =

E 2(1 + ν)

30, 000 = 38, 200 psi π(0.5)2

The Mohr’s circle for this situation is shown below.

The following values can be calculated (midrange values of ν are taken as appropriate): Material Al & alloys Cu & alloys Pb & alloys Mg & alloys Mo & alloys Ni & alloys Steels Stainless steels Ti & alloys W & alloys Ceramics Glass Rubbers Thermoplastics Thermosets

E (GPa) 69-79 105-150 14 41-45 330-360 180-214 190-200 190-200 80-130 350-400 70-1000 70-80 0.01-0.1 1.4-3.4 3.5-17

ν 0.32 0.34 0.43 0.32 0.32 0.31 0.30 0.29 0.32 0.27 0.2 0.24 0.5 0.36 0.34

G (GPa) 26-30 39-56 4.9 15.5-17.0 125-136 69-82 73-77 74-77 30-49 138-157 29-417 28-32 0.0033-0.033 0.51-1.25 1.3-6.34

2=90°

The fracture plane is oriented at an angle of 45◦ , corresponding to a rotation of 90◦ on the Mohr’s circle. This corresponds to a stress state on the fracture plane of σ = −19, 100 psi and τ = 19, 100 psi.

2.56 What is the modulus of resilience of a highly cold-worked piece of steel with a hardness of 2.54 Derive an expression for the toughness of a 300 HB? Of a piece of highly cold-worked copmaterial whose behavior is represented by the per with a hardness of 150 HB? n equation σ = K ( + 0.2) and whose fracture strain is denoted as f . Referring to Fig. 2.24 on p. 55, the value of c in Eq. (2.29) on p. 54 is approximately 3.2 Recall that toughness is the area under the for highly cold-worked steels and around 3.4 stress-strain curve, hence the toughness for this for cold-worked aluminum. Therefore, we can material would be given by approximate c = 3.3 for cold-worked copper. Z f However, since the Brinell hardness is in units of kg/mm2 , from Eq. (2.29) we can write Toughness = σ d 0 Z f H 300 2 n Tsteel = = = 93.75 kg/mm = 133 ksi = K ( + 0.2) d 3.2 3.2 0 i K h n+1 H 150 = (f + 0.2) − 0.2n+1 2 = = 45.5 kg/mm = 64.6 ksi TCu = n+1 3.3 3.3 11

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From Table 2.1, Esteel = 30 × 106 psi and ECu = 15 × 106 psi. The modulus of resilience is calculated from Eq. (2.5). For steel: Modulus of Resilience =

(133, 000)2 Y2 = 2E 2(30 × 106 )

or a modulus of resilience for steel of 295 inlb/in3 . For copper, Modulus of Resilience =

The volume is calculated as V = πr2 l = π(0.0075)2 (0.04) = 7.069 × 10−6 m3 . The work done is the product of the specific work, u, and the volume, V . Therefore, the results can be tabulated as follows.

Material 1100-O Al Cu, annealed 304 Stainless, annealed 70-30 brass, annealed

(62, 200)2 Y2 = 2E 2(15 × 106 )

or a modulus of resilience for copper of 129 inlb/in3 .

u (MN/m3 ) 222 338 1529 977

Work (Nm) 1562 2391 10,808 6908

Note that these values are slightly different than 2.58 A material has a strength coefficient K = the values given in the text; this is due to the 100, 000 psi Assuming that a tensile-test specfact that (a) highly cold-worked metals such as imen made from this material begins to neck these have a much higher yield stress than the at a true strain of 0.17, show that the ultimate annealed materials described in the text, and tensile strength of this material is 62,400 psi. (b) arbitrary property values are given in the statement of the problem. The approach is the same as in Example 2.1. Since the necking strain corresponds to the 2.57 Calculate the work done in frictionless compresmaximum load and the necking strain for this sion of a solid cylinder 40 mm high and 15 mm material is given as = n = 0.17, we have, as in diameter to a reduction in height of 75% for the true ultimate tensile strength: the following materials: (1) 1100-O aluminum, (2) annealed copper, (3) annealed 304 stainless UTStrue = (100, 000)(0.17)0.17 = 74, 000 psi. steel, and (4) 70-30 brass, annealed. The cross-sectional area at the onset of necking is obtained from Ao ln = n = 0.17. Aneck

The work done is calculated from Eq. (2.62) on p. 71 where the specific energy, u, is obtained from Eq. (2.60). Since the reduction in height is 75%, the final height is 10 mm and the absolute value of the true strain is 40 = ln = 1.386 10

Consequently, Aneck = Ao e−0.17

K and n are obtained from Table 2.3 as follows: Material 1100-O Al Cu, annealed 304 Stainless, annealed 70-30 brass, annealed

K (MPa) 180 315 1300 895

and the maximum load, P , is

n 0.20 0.54 0.30 0.49

P

= σA = (UTStrue )Ao e−0.17 = (74, 000)(0.844)(Ao ) = 62, 400Ao lb.

Since UTS= P/Ao , we have UTS = 62,400 psi.

The u values are then calculated from Eq. (2.60). For example, for 1100-O aluminum, 2.59 A tensile-test specimen is made of a material n represented by the equation σ = K ( + n) . where K is 180 MPa and n is 0.20, u is calcu(a) Determine the true strain at which necking lated as will begin. (b) Show that it is possible for an Kn+1 (180)(1.386)1.2 3 engineering material to exhibit this behavior. u= = = 222 MN/m n+1 1.2 12

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(a) In Section 2.2.4 on p. 38 we noted that instability, hence necking, requires the following condition to be fulfilled: dσ =σ d

in2 and the original lengths are a = 8 in. and b = 4.5 in. The material for specimen a has a true-stress-true-strain curve of σ = 100, 0000.5 . Plot the true-stress-true-strain curve that the material for specimen b should have for the bar to remain horizontal during the experiment.

Consequently, for this material we have Kn ( + n)

n−1

= K ( + n)

n

a

This is solved as n = 0; thus necking begins as soon as the specimen is subjected to tension. (b) Yes, this behavior is possible. Consider a tension-test specimen that has been strained to necking and then unloaded. Upon loading it again in tension, it will immediately begin to neck. 2.60 Take two solid cylindrical specimens of equal diameter but different heights. Assume that both specimens are compressed (frictionless) by the same percent reduction, say 50%. Prove that the final diameters will be the same.

htf hsf = hto hso and from volume constancy,

Dto Dtf

2

hsf = hso

Dso Dsf

2

and

2

1

c

c x

b

From the equilibrium of vertical forces and to keep the bar horizontal, we note that 2Fa = Fb . Hence, in terms of true stresses and instantaneous areas, we have 2σa Aa = σb Ab

Let’s identify the shorter cylindrical specimen with the subscript s and the taller one as t, and their original diameter as D. Subscripts f and o indicate final and original, respectively. Because both specimens undergo the same percent reduction in height, we can write

htf = hto

F

From volume constancy we also have, in terms of original and final dimensions Aoa Loa = Aa La and Aob Lob = Ab Lb where Loa = (8/4.5)Lob = 1.78Lob . From these relationships we can show that 8 Lb σb = 2 Kσa 4.5 La Since σa = K0.5 where K = 100, 000 psi, we a can now write Lb √ 16K a σb = 4.5 La Hence, for a deflection of x, s 16K 4.5 − x 8+x σb = ln 4.5 8+x 8

Because Dto = Dso , we note from these relationships that Dtf = Dsf . 2.61 A horizontal rigid bar c-c is subjecting specimen a to tension and specimen b to frictionless compression such that the bar remains horizontal. (See the accompanying figure.) The force F is located at a distance ratio of 2:1. Both specimens have an original cross-sectional area of 1

The true strain in specimen b is given by 4.5 − x b = ln 4.5 By inspecting the figure in the problem statement, we note that while specimen a gets

13

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longer, it will continue exerting some force Fa . However, specimen b will eventually acquire a cross-sectional area that will become infinite as x approaches 4.5 in., thus its strength must approach zero. This observation suggests that specimen b cannot have a true stress-true strain curve typical of metals, and that it will have a maximum at some strain. This is seen in the plot of σb shown below. 50,000

σ=

2P πdt

→

P =

σπdt 2

Therefore P =

(500 × 106 )π(0.04)(0.005) = 157 kN. 2

20,000

2.64 In Fig. 2.32a, let the tensile and compressive residual stresses both be 10,000 psi and the modulus of elasticity of the material be 30×106 psi, with a modulus of resilience of 30 in.-lb/in3 . If the original length in diagram (a) is 20 in., what should be the stretched length in diagram (b) so that, when unloaded, the strip will be free of residual stresses?

10,000

Note that the yield stress can be obtained from Eq. (2.5) on p. 31 as

40,000 True stress (psi)

Equation (2.20) is used to solve this problem. Noting that σ = 500 MPa, d = 40 mm = 0.04 m, and t = 5 mm = 0.005 m, we can write

30,000

0

0

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Absolute value of true strain

Mod. of Resilience = MR =

2.5

Y2 2E

Thus, Y =

2.62 Inspect the curve that you obtained in Problem 2.61. Does a typical strain-hardening material behave in that manner? Explain.

p p 2(MR)E = 2(30)(30 × 106 )

or Y = 42, 430 psi. Using Eq. (2.32), the strain required to relieve the residual stress is:

Based on the discussions in Section 2.2.3 starting on p. 35, it is obvious that ordinary metals would not normally behave in this manner. However, under certain conditions, the following could explain such behavior:

=

σc Y 10, 000 42, 430 + = + = 0.00175 E E 30 × 106 30 × 106

Therefore, = ln

lf lo

= ln

lf 20 in.

= 0.00175 • When specimen b is heated to higher and higher temperatures as deformation proTherefore, lf = 20.035 in. gresses, with its strength decreasing as x is increased further after the maximum value 2.65 Show that you can take a bent bar made of an elastic, perfectly plastic material and straighten of stress. it by stretching it into the plastic range. (Hint: • In compression testing of brittle materials, Observe the events shown in Fig. 2.32.) such as ceramics, when the specimen begins to fracture. The series of events that takes place in straightening a bent bar by stretching it can be visu• If the material is susceptible to thermal alized by starting with a stress distribution as softening, then it can display such behavin Fig. 2.32a on p. 61, which would represent ior with a sufficiently high strain rate. the unbending of a bent section. As we apply 2.63 In a disk test performed on a specimen 40-mm tension, we algebraically add a uniform tensile in diameter and 5 m thick, the specimen fracstress to this stress distribution. Note that the tures at a stress of 500 MPa. What was the change in the stresses is the same as that deload on the disk at fracture? picted in Fig. 2.32d, namely, the tensile stress 14

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increases and reaches the yield stress, Y . The compressive stress is first reduced in magnitude, then becomes tensile. Eventually, the whole cross section reaches the constant yield stress, Y . Because we now have a uniform stress distribution throughout its thickness, the bar becomes straight and remains straight upon unloading.

affect yielding. In other words, the material will still yield according to yield criteria. Let’s consider the distortion-energy criterion, although the same derivation could be performed with the maximum shear stress criterion as well. Equation (2.37) on p. 64 gives 2

2.66 A bar 1 m long is bent and then stress relieved. The radius of curvature to the neutral axis is 0.50 m. The bar is 30 mm thick and is made of an elastic, perfectly plastic material with Y = 600 MPa and E = 200 GPa. Calculate the length to which this bar should be stretched so that, after unloading, it will become and remain straight.

σ10 = σ1 + p σ20 = σ2 + p σ30 = σ3 + p which represents a new loading with an additional hydrostatic pressure, p. The distortionenergy criterion for this stress state is 2

2Y 2

=

2

[(σ1 + p) − (σ2 + p)]

2

+ [(σ2 + p) − (σ3 + p)]

2

Since Y = 600 MPa and E = 200 GPa, we find that the elastic limit for this material is at an elastic strain of

+ [(σ3 + p) − (σ1 + p)] which can be simplified as

600 MPa Y = = 0.003 E 200 GPa

2

2

2

(σ1 − σ2 ) + (σ2 − σ3 ) + (σ3 − σ1 ) = 2Y 2 which is the original yield criterion. Hence, the yield criterion is unaffected by the superposition of a hydrostatic pressure.

which is much smaller than 0.05. Following the description in Answer 2.65 above, we find that the strain required to straighten the bar is

2.68 Give two different and specific examples in which the maximum-shear-stress and the distortion-energy criteria give the same answer.

e = (2)(0.003) = 0.006 or →

2

or

(0.030) = 0.03 2(0.50)

lf − l o = 0.006 lo

2

(σ10 − σ20 ) + (σ20 − σ30 ) + (σ30 − σ10 ) = 2Y 2

where t is the thickness and ρ is the radius to the neutral axis. Hence in this case,

e=

2

Now consider a new stress state where the principal stresses are

When the curved bar becomes straight, the engineering strain it undergoes is given by the expression t e= 2ρ

e=

2

(σ1 − σ2 ) + (σ2 − σ3 ) + (σ3 − σ1 ) = 2Y 2

lf = 0.006lo + lo

or lf = 1.006 m. 2.67 Assume that a material with a uniaxial yield stress Y yields under a stress state of principal stresses σ1 , σ2 , σ3 , where σ1 > σ2 > σ3 . Show that the superposition of a hydrostatic stress, p, on this system (such as placing the specimen in a chamber pressurized with a liquid) does not

In order to obtain the same answer for the two yield criteria, we refer to Fig. 2.36 on p. 67 for plane stress and note the coordinates at which the two diagrams meet. Examples are: simple tension, simple compression, equal biaxial tension, and equal biaxial compression. Thus, acceptable answers would include (a) wire rope, as used on a crane to lift loads; (b) spherical pressure vessels, including balloons and gas storage tanks, and (c) shrink fits.

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2.69 A thin-walled spherical shell with a yield stress 2.71 What would be the answer to Problem 2.70 if the maximum-shear-stress criterion were used? Y is subjected to an internal pressure p. With appropriate equations, show whether or not the Because σ2 is an intermediate stress and using pressure required to yield this shell depends on Eq. (2.36), the answer would be the particular yield criterion used. σ1 − 0 = Y Here we have a state of plane stress with equal hence the yield stress in plane strain will be biaxial tension. The answer to Problem 2.68 equal to the uniaxial yield stress, Y . leads one to immediately conclude that both the maximum shear stress and distortion energy 2.72 A closed-end, thin-walled cylinder of original criteria will give the same results. We will now length l, thickness t, and internal radius r is demonstrate this more rigorously. The princisubjected to an internal pressure p. Using the pal membrane stresses are given by generalized Hooke’s law equations, show the pr change, if any, that occurs in the length of this σ1 = σ 2 = 2t cylinder when it is pressurized. Let ν = 0.33. and

A closed-end, thin-walled cylinder under internal pressure is subjected to the following principal stresses: pr pr σ2 = ; σ3 = 0 σ1 = ; 2t t where the subscript 1 is the longitudinal direction, 2 is the hoop direction, and 3 is the thickness direction. From Hooke’s law given by Eq. (2.33) on p. 63,

σ3 = 0 Using the maximum shear-stress criterion, we find that σ1 − 0 = Y hence

2tY r Using the distortion-energy criterion, we have p=

(0 − 0)2 + (σ2 − 0)2 + (0 − σ1 )2 = 2Y 2

1 [σ1 − ν (σ2 + σ3 )] E 1 pr 1 pr = − +0 E 2t 3 t pr = 6tE Since all the quantities are positive (note that in order to produce a tensile membrane stress, the pressure is positive as well), the longitudinal strain is finite and positive. Thus the cylinder becomes longer when pressurized, as it can also be deduced intuitively. 1

Since σ1 = σ2 , then this gives σ1 = σ2 = Y , and the same expression is obtained for pressure. 2.70 Show that, according to the distortion-energy criterion, the yield stress in plane strain is 1.15Y where Y is the uniaxial yield stress of the material.

=

A plane-strain condition is shown in Fig. 2.35d on p. 67, where σ1 is the yield stress of the material in plane strain (Y 0 ), σ3 is zero, and 2 = 0. From Eq. 2.43b on p. 68, we find 2.73 A round, thin-walled tube is subjected to tenthat σ2 = σ1 /2. Substituting these into the sion in the elastic range. Show that both the distortion-energy criterion given by Eq. (2.37) thickness and the diameter of the tube decrease on p.64, as tension increases. 2 σ 1 2 σ 1 + − 0 + (0 − σ1 )2 = 2Y 2 σ1 − The stress state in this case is σ1 , σ2 = σ3 = 0. 2 2 From the generalized Hooke’s law equations and given by Eq. (2.33) on p. 63, and denoting the 3σ12 2 axial direction as 1, the hoop direction as 2, and = 2Y 2 the radial direction as 3, we have for the hoop hence strain: 2 σ1 = √ Y ≈ 1.15Y νσ1 1 2 = [σ2 − ν (σ1 + σ3 )] = − 3 E E 16

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Taking the natural log of both sides, l1 l2 l3 ln = ln(1) = 0 l o l o lo

Therefore, the diameter is negative for a tensile (positive) value of σ1 . For the radial strain, the generalized Hooke’s law gives 3 =

νσ1 1 [σ3 − ν (σ1 + σ2 )] = − E E

since ln(AB) = ln(A) + ln(B),

Therefore, the radial strain is also negative and the wall becomes thinner for a positive value of σ1 .

l1 l2 l3 ln + ln + ln =0 lo lo lo

From the definition of true strain given by 2.74 Take a long cylindrical balloon and, with a thin l1 Eq. (2.9) on p. 35, ln = 1 , etc., so that felt-tip pen, mark a small square on it. What l0 will be the shape of this square after you blow up the balloon: (1) a larger square, (2) a rectan1 + 2 + 3 = 0. gle, with its long axis in the circumferential directions, (3) a rectangle, with its long axis in the 2.76 What is the diameter of an originally 30-mmlongitudinal direction, or (4) an ellipse? Perdiameter solid steel ball when it is subjected to form this experiment and, based on your obsera hydrostatic pressure of 5 GPa? vations, explain the results, using appropriate equations. Assume that the material the balFrom Eq. (2.46) on p. 68 and noting that, for loon is made of is perfectly elastic and isotropic, this case, all three strains are equal and all three and that this situation represents a thin-walled stresses are equal in magnitude, closed-end cylinder under internal pressure. 1 − 2ν (−3p) 3 = This is a simple graphic way of illustrating the E generalized Hooke’s law equations. A balloon is a readily available and economical method of where p is the hydrostatic pressure. Thus, from demonstrating these stress states. It is also enTable 2.1 on p. 32 we take values for steel of couraged to assign the students the task of preν = 0.3 and E = 200 GPa, so that dicting the shape numerically; an example of a valuable experiment involves partially inflating 1 − 2ν 1 − 0.6 = (−p) = (−5) the balloon, drawing the square, then expandE 200 ing it further and having the students predict the dimensions of the square. or = −0.01. Therefore Although not as readily available, a rubber tube Df = −0.01 ln can be used to demonstrate the effects of torDo sion in a similar manner. Solving for Df , 2.75 Take a cubic piece of metal with a side length lo and deform it plastically to the shape of a Df = Do e−0.01 = (20)e−0.01 = 19.8 mm rectangular parallelepiped of dimensions l1 , l2 , and l3 . Assuming that the material is rigid and perfectly plastic, show that volume constancy 2.77 Determine the effective stress and effective strain in plane-strain compression according to requires that the following expression be satisthe distortion-energy criterion. fied: 1 + 2 + 3 = 0. Referring to Fig. 2.35d on p. 67 we note that, for this case, σ3 = 0 and σ2 = σ1 /2, as can be seen from Eq. (2.44) on p. 68. According to the distortion-energy criterion and referring to Eq. (2.52) on p. 69 for effective stress, we find

The initial volume and the final volume are constant, so that lo l o l o = l 1 l 2 l 3

→

l1 l2 l3 =1 l o lo lo 17

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where V is the volume of the sphere. We integrate this equation between the limits Vo and Vf , noting that

that σ ¯

= = =

1/2 1 σ 1 2 σ 1 2 2 √ + + (σ1 ) σ1 − 2 2 2 1/2 1 1 1 √ σ1 + +1 2 4 4 ! √ √ 1 3 3 √ √ σ1 = σ1 2 2 2

p=

2tY r

V =

4πr3 3

and

so that dV = 4πr2 dr

Note that for this case 3 = 0. Since volume constancy is maintained during plastic deformation, we also have 3 = −1 . Substituting these into Eq. (2.54), the effective strain is found to be 2 1 ¯ = √ 3

Also, from volume constancy, we have ro2 to r2 Combining these expressions, we obtain Z rf rf dr 2 2 W = 8πY ro to = 8πY ro to ln r ro ro t=

2.78 (a) Calculate the work done in expanding a 2mm-thick spherical shell from a diameter of 100 mm to 140 mm, where the shell is made of a material for which σ = 200+500.5 MPa. (b) Does your answer depend on the particular yield criterion used? Explain.

which is the same expression obtained earlier. To obtain a numerical answer to this problem, note that Y should be replaced with an average value Y¯ . Also note that 1 = 2 = ln(140/100) = 0.336. Thus, 50(0.336)1.5 = 206 MPa Y¯ = 200 + 1.5 Hence the work done is rf 2 ¯ W = 8π Y ro to ln ro

For this case, the membrane stresses are given by pt σ1 = σ 2 = 2t and the strains are fr 1 = 2 = ln fo

= =

8π(206 × 106 )(0.1)2 (0.001) ln(70/50) 17.4kN-m

The yield criterion used does not matter beNote that we have a balanced (or equal) biaxial cause this is equal biaxial tension; see the anstate of plane stress. Thus, the specific energy swer to Problem 2.68. (for a perfectly-plastic material) will, according to either yield criteria, be 2.79 A cylindrical slug that has a diameter of 1 in. and is 1 in. high is placed at the center of rf u = 2σ1 1 = 2Y ln a 2-in.-diameter cavity in a rigid die. (See the ro accompanying figure.) The slug is surrounded The work done will be by a compressible matrix, the pressure of which is given by the relation W = (Volume)(u) ∆V rf psi pm = 40, 000 = 4πro2 to 2Y ln Vom ro where m denotes the matrix and Vom is the origrf 2 = 8πY ro to ln inal volume of the compressible matrix. Both ro the slug and the matrix are being compressed Using the pressure-volume method of work, we by a piston and without any friction. The inibegin with the formula tial pressure on the matrix is zero, and the slug Z material has the true-stress-true-strain curve of W = p dV σ = 15, 0000.4 . 18

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F

with which we can determine the value of σ for any d. The cross-sectional area of the workpiece at any d is

d

1"

Compressible matrix

The absolute value of the true strain in the slug is given by 1 = ln , 1−d

Aw =

1" 2"

π in2 4(1 − d)

and that of the matrix is

Obtain an expression for the force F versus piston travel d up to d = 0.5 in. The total force, F , on the piston will be

Am = π −

π in2 4(1 − d)

The required compressive stress on the slug is

F = Fw + Fm , where the subscript w denotes the workpiece and m the matrix. As d increases, the matrix pressure increases, thus subjecting the slug to transverse compressive stresses on its circumference. Hence the slug will be subjected to triaxial compressive stresses, with σ2 = σ3 . Using the maximum shear-stress criterion for simplicity, we have σ1 = σ + σ 2 where σ1 is the required compressive stress on the slug, σ is the flow stress of the slug material corresponding to a given strain, and given as σ = 15, 0000.4 , and σ2 is the compressive stress due to matrix pressure. Lets now determine the matrix pressure in terms of d. The volume of the slug is equal to π/4 and the volume of the cavity when d = 0 is π. Hence the original volume of the matrix is Vom = 43 π. The volume of the matrix at any value of d is then π 3 Vm = π(1 − d) − = π − d in3 , 4 4

Note that when d = 34 in., the volume of the matrix becomes zero. The matrix pressure, hence σ2 , is now given by

The following data gives some numerical results: d (in.) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Aw (in2 ) 0.872 0.98 1.121 1.31 1.571

0.105 0.223 0.357 0.510 0.692

σ (psi) 6089 8230 9934 11,460 12,950

F (lb) 22,070 41,590 61,410 82,030 104,200

And the following plot shows the desired results. 120 80 40 0

4(40, 000) 160, 000 σ2 = d= d (psi) 3 3

160, 000 d. 3

We may now write the total force on the piston as 160, 000 160, 000 F = Aw σ + d + Am d lb. 3 3

Force (kip)

from which we obtain ∆V Vom − Vm 4 = = d. Vom Vom 3

σ1 = σ + σ2 = σ +

0

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Displacement (in.)

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2.80 A specimen in the shape of a cube 20 mm on each side is being compressed without friction in a die cavity, as shown in Fig. 2.35d, where the width of the groove is 15 mm. Assume that the linearly strain-hardening material has the truestress-true-strain curve given by σ = 70 + 30 MPa. Calculate the compressive force required when the height of the specimen is at 3 mm, according to both yield criteria.

(a) For a perfectly-elastic material as shown in Fig 2.7a on p. 40, this expression becomes 2 1 Z 1 E21 = u= E d = E 2 0 2 0 (b) For a rigid, perfectly-plastic material as shown in Fig. 2.7b, this is Z 1 u= Y d = Y ()01 = Y 1

We note that the volume of the specimen is constant and can be expressed as

0

(c) For an elastic, perfectly plastic material, this is identical to an elastic material for 1 < Y /E, and for 1 > Y /E it is

(20)(20)(20) = (h)(x)(x) where x is the lateral dimensions assuming the specimen expands uniformly during compression. Since h = 3 mm, we have x = 51.6 mm. Thus, the specimen touches the walls and hence this becomes a plane-strain problem (see Fig. 2.35d on p. 67). The absolute value of the true strain is 20 = 1.90 = ln 3

Z u

1

Z σ d =

Y /E

Z

1

E d +

0

0

Y d Y /E

2 Y E Y + Y 1 − 2 E E 2 2 Y Y Y + Y 1 − = Y 1 − 2E E 2E

= =

(d) For a rigid, linearly strain hardening material, the specific energy is Z 1 Ep 21 u= (Y + Ep ) d = Y 1 + 2 0

We can now determine the flow stress, Yf , of the material at this strain as Yf = 70 + 30(1.90) = 127 MPa The cross-sectional area on which the force is acting is

(e) For an elastic, linear strain hardening material, the specific energy is identical to an elastic material for 1 < Y /E and for 1 > Y /E it is Z 1 Y u = Y + Ep − d E 0 Z 1 Ep = Y 1− + Ep d E 0 Ep Ep 21 = Y 1− 1 + E 2

Area = (20)(20)(20)/3 = 2667 mm2 According to the maximum shear-stress criterion, we have σ1 = Yf , and thus Force = (127)(2667) = 338 kN According to the distortion energy criterion, we have σ1 = 1.15Yf , or Force = (1.15)(338) = 389 kN. 2.81 Obtain expressions for the specific energy for a material for each of the stress-strain curves shown in Fig. 2.7, similar to those shown in Section 2.12.

=

2.82 A material with a yield stress of 70 MPa is subjected to three principal (normal) stresses of σ1 , σ2 = 0, and σ3 = −σ1 /2. What is the value of σ1 when the metal yields according to the von Mises criterion? What if σ2 = σ1 /3?

Equation (2.59) on p. 71 gives the specific energy as Z 1 u= σ d

The distortion-energy criterion, Eq. (2.37) on p. 64, is 2

2

given by 2

(σ1 − σ2 ) + (σ2 − σ3 ) + (σ3 − σ1 ) = 2Y 2

0

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Substituting Y = 70 MPa and σ1 , σ2 = 0 and 2.84 A 50-mm-wide, 1-mm-thick strip is rolled to a σ3 = −σ1 /2, we have final thickness of 0.5 mm. It is noted that the strip has increased in width to 52 mm. What 2 σ 2 σ 1 1 2 is the strain in the rolling direction? 2(70)2 = (σ1 ) + − + − − σ1 2 2 The thickness strain is thus, σ1 = 52.9 MPa 0.5 mm l = ln = −0.693 t = ln lo 1 mm If Y = 70 MPa and σ1 , σ2 = σ1 /3 and σ3 = −σ1 /2 is the stress state, then The width strain is 2 σ 2 σ σ 1 1 1 52 mm l + − 2(70)2 = σ1 − = ln = 0.0392 w = ln 3 3 2 lo 50 mm σ 2 1 + − − σ1 = 2.72σ12 2 Therefore, from Eq. (2.48), the strain in the rolling (or longitudinal) direction is l = 0 − Thus, σ1 = 60.0 MPa. Therefore, the stress 0.0392 + 0.693 = 0.654. level to initiate yielding actually increases when σ2 is increased. 2.85 An aluminum alloy yields at a stress of 50 MPa 2.83 A steel plate has the dimensions 100 mm × 100 mm × 5 mm thick. It is subjected to biaxial tension of σ1 = σ2 , with the stress in the thickness direction of σ3 = 0. What is the largest possible change in volume at yielding, using the von Mises criterion? What would this change in volume be if the plate were made of copper? From Table 2.1 on p. 32, it is noted that for steel we can use E = 200 GPa and ν = 0.30. For a stress state of σ1 = σ2 and σ3 = 0, the von Mises criterion predicts that at yielding, 2

2

2

(σ1 − σ2 ) + (σ2 − σ3 ) + (σ3 − σ1 ) = 2Y 2 or 2

2

in uniaxial tension. If this material is subjected to the stresses σ1 = 25 MPa, σ2 = 15 MPa and σ3 = −26 MPa, will it yield? Explain. According to the maximum shear-stress criterion, the effective stress is given by Eq. (2.51) on p. 69 as: σ ¯ = σ1 − σ3 = 25 − (−26) = 51 MPa However, according to the distortion-energy criterion, the effective stress is given by Eq. (2.52) on p. 69 as: q 1 2 2 2 σ ¯=√ (σ1 − σ2 ) + (σ2 − σ3 ) + (σ3 − σ1 ) 2 or

2

(σ1 − σ1 ) + (σ1 − 0) + (0 − σ1 ) = 2Y 2

r σ ¯=

Resulting in σ1 = Y . Equation (2.47) gives: ∆

= = =

1 − 2ν (σx + σy + σz ) E 1 − 2(0.3) [(350 MPa) + (350 MPa] 200 GPa = 0.0014

Since the original volume is (100)(100)(5) = 50,000 mm3 , the stressed volume is 50,070 mm3 , or the volume change is 70 mm3 .

(25 − 15)2 + (15 + 26)2 + (−26 − 25)2 2

or σ ¯ = 46.8 MPa. Therefore, the effective stress is higher than the yield stress for the maximum shear-stress criterion, and lower than the yield stress for the distortion-energy criterion. It is impossible to state whether or not the material will yield at this stress state. An accurate statement would be that yielding is imminent, if it is not already occurring.

For copper, we have E = 125 GPa and ν = 0.34. 2.86 A cylindrical specimen 1-in. in diameter and Following the same derivation, the dilatation 1-in. high is being compressed by dropping a for copper is 0.0006144; the stressed volume is weight of 200 lb on it from a certain height. 50,031 mm3 and thus the change in volume is After deformation, it is found that the temper31 mm3 . ature rise in the specimen is 300 ◦ F. Assuming 21

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Similarly, for the second step where h1 = 70 mm and h2 = 40 mm,

no heat loss and no friction, calculate the final height of the specimen, using the following data for the material: K = 30, 000 psi, n = 0.5, density = 0.1 lb/in3 , and specific heat = 0.3 BTU/lb·◦ F.

h2 − h 1 40 − 70 = = −0.429 h1 70 h2 40 2 = ln = ln = −0.560 h1 70 e2 =

This problem uses the same approach as in Example 2.8. The volume of the specimen is V =

Note that if the operation were conducted in one step, the following would result:

π(1)2 (1) πd2 h = = 0.785 in3 4 4

h2 − ho 40 − 100 = = −0.6 ho 100 h2 40 = ln = ln = −0.916 ho 100

The expression for heat is given by Heat

e=

= cp ρV ∆T = (0.3)(0.1)(0.785)(300)(778) = 5500ft-lb = 66, 000 in-lb.

As was shown in Problem 2.46, this indicates that the true strains are additive while the engineering strains are not.

where the unit conversion 778 ft-lb = 1 BTU has been applied. Since, ideally, Kn+1 n+1 (30, 000)1.5 (0.785) 1.5

2.88 Assume that the specimen in Problem 2.87 has an initial diameter of 80 mm and is made of 1100-O aluminum. Determine the load required for each step.

Heat = Work = V u = V = Solving for , 1.5 =

1.5(66, 000) = 4.20 (0.785)(30, 000)

Therefore, = 2.60. Using absolute values, we have ho 1 in. ln = ln = 2.60 hf hf Solving for hf gives hf = 0.074 in.

Based on these diameters the cross-sectional area at the steps is calculated as: π 2 d = 7181 mm2 4 1 π A2 = d22 = 12, 566 mm2 4 As calculated in Problem 2.87, 1 = 0.357 and total = 0.916. Note that for 1100-O aluminum, K = 180 MPa and n = 0.20 (see Table 2.3 on p. 37) so that Eq. (2.11) on p. 35 yields A1 =

2.87 A solid cylindrical specimen 100-mm high is compressed to a final height of 40 mm in two steps between frictionless platens; after the first step the cylinder is 70 mm high. Calculate the engineering strain and the true strain for both steps, compare them, and comment on your observations. In the first step, we note that ho = 100 mm and h1 = 70 mm, so that from Eq. (2.1) on p. 30, e1 =

From volume constancy, we calculate r r ho 100 d1 = do = 95.6 mm = 80 h1 70 r r ho 100 d2 = do = 126.5 mm = 80 h2 40

σ1 = 180(0.357)0.20 = 146.5 MPa σ2 = 180(0.916)0.20 = 176.9 Mpa

70 − 100 h1 − ho = = −0.300 ho 100

Therefore, the loads are calculated as:

and from Eq. (2.9) on p. 35, h1 70 1 = ln = ln = −0.357 ho 100

P1 = σ1 A1 = (146.5)(7181) = 1050 kN P2 = (176.9)(12, 566) = 2223 kN 22

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2.89 Determine the specific energy and actual energy 2.91 The area of each face of a metal cube is 400 m2 , and the metal has a shear yield stress, k, of 140 expended for the entire process described in the MPa. Compressive loads of 40 kN and 80 kN preceding two problems. are applied at different faces (say in the x- and From Eq. (2.60) on p. 71 and using total = y-directions). What must be the compressive 0.916, K = 180 MPa and n = 0.20, we have load applied to the z-direction to cause yielding according to the Tresca criterion? Assume 1.2 n+1 (180)(0.916) K = = 135 MPa u= a frictionless condition. n+1 1.2 Since the area of each face is 400 mm2 , the stresses in the x- and y- directions are

2.90 A metal has a strain hardening exponent of 0.22. At a true strain of 0.2, the true stress is 20,000 psi. (a) Determine the stress-strain relationship for this material. (b) Determine the ultimate tensile strength for this material.

σx = −

This solution follows the same approach as in Example 2.1. From Eq. (2.11) on p. 35, and recognizing that n = 0.22 and σ = 20, 000 psi for = 0.20, σ = Kn

→

40, 000 = −100 MPa 400

80, 000 = −200 MPa 400 where the negative sign indicates that the stresses are compressive. If the Tresca criterion is used, then Eq. (2.36) on p. 64 gives σy = −

20, 000 = K(0.20)0.22

σmax − σmin = Y = 2k = 280 MPa

or K = 28, 500 psi. Therefore, the stress-strain relationship for this material is σ = 28, 5000.22 psi To determine the ultimate tensile strength for the material, realize that the strain at necking is equal to the strain hardening exponent, or = n. Therefore,

It is stated that σ3 is compressive, and is therefore negative. Note that if σ3 is zero, then the material does not yield because σmax − σmin = 0 − (−200) = 200 MPa < 280 MPa. Therefore, σ3 must be lower than σ2 , and is calculated from: σmax − σmin = σ1 − σ3 = 280 MPa

σult = K(n)n = 28, 500(0.22)0.22 = 20, 400 psi

or

The cross-sectional area at the onset of necking σ3 = σ1 − 280 = −100 − 280 = −380 MPa is obtained from 2.92 A tensile force of 9 kN is applied to the ends of Ao = n = 0.22 ln a solid bar of 6.35 mm diameter. Under load, Aneck the diameter reduces to 5.00 mm. Assuming Consequently, uniform deformation and volume constancy, (a) determine the engineering stress and strain, (b) Aneck = Ao e−0.22 determine the true stress and strain, (c) if the original bar had been subjected to a true stress and the maximum load is of 345 MPa and the resulting diameter was 5.60 mm, what are the engineering stress and engiP = σA = σult Aneck . neering strain for this condition? Hence, First note that, in this case, do = 6.35 mm, df P = (20, 400)(Ao )e−0.22 = 16, 370Ao = 5.00 mm, P =9000 N, and from volume constancy, Since UTS= P/A , we have o

UTS =

16, 370Ao = 16, 370 psi Ao

lo d2o = lf d2f

→

lf d2 6.352 = 2o = = 1.613 lo df 5.002

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(a) The engineering stress is calculated from Eq. (2.3) on p. 30 as: σ=

P = Ao

9000 π 2 4 (6.35)

This problem uses a similar approach as for Example 2.1. First, we note from Table 2.3 on p. 37 that for cold-rolled 1112 steel, K = 760 MPa and n = 0.08. Also, the initial crosssectional area is Ao = π4 (10)2 = 78.5 mm2 . For annealed 1112 steel, K = 760 MPa and n = 0.19. At necking, = n, so that the strain will be = 0.08 for the cold-rolled steel and = 0.19 for the annealed steel. For the coldrolled steel, the final length is given by Eq. (2.9) on p. 35 as l = n = ln lo

= 284 MPa

and the engineering strain is calculated from Eq. (2.1) on p. 30 as: e=

l − lo lf = − 1 = 1.613 − 1 = 0.613 lo lo

(b) The true stress is calculated from Eq. (2.8) on p. 34 as: σ=

P = A

9000 π 2 4 (5.00)

Solving for l,

= 458 MPa

l = en lo = e0.08 (25) = 27.08 mm

and the true strain is calculated from Eq. (2.9) on p. 35 as: lf = ln = ln 1.613 = 0.478 lo

The elongation is, from Eq. (2.6), Elongation =

lf − lo 27.08 − 25 × 100 = × 100 lo 25

or 8.32 %. To calculate the ultimate strength, we can write, for the cold-rolled steel,

(c) If the final diameter is df = 5.60 mm, then the final area is Af = π4 d2f = 24.63 mm2 . If the true stress is 345 MPa, then

UTStrue = Knn = 760(0.08)0.08 = 621 MPa

P = σA = (345)(24.63) = 8497 ≈ 8500 N

As in Example 2.1, we calculate the load at necking as:

Therefore, the engineering stress is calculated as before as

P = UTStrue Ao e−n

σ=

P = Ao

So that

8500 = 268 MPa π 2 (6.35) 4

UTS =

Similarly, from volume constancy,

This expression is evaluated as

lf d2 6.352 = 2o = = 1.286 lo df 5.602

UTS = (621)e−0.08 = 573 MPa Repeating these calculations for the annealed specimen yields l = 30.23 mm, elongation = 20.9%, and UTS= 458 MPa.

Therefore, the engineering strain is e=

lf − 1 = 1.286 − 1 = 0.286 lo

2.93 Two identical specimens 10-mm in diameter and with test sections 25 mm long are made of 1112 steel. One is in the as-received condition and the other is annealed. What will be the true strain when necking begins, and what will be the elongation of these samples at that instant? What is the ultimate tensile strength for these samples?

P UTStrue Ao e−n = = UTStrue e−n Ao Ao

2.94 During the production of a part, a metal with a yield strength of 110 MPa is subjected to a stress state σ1 , σ2 = σ1 /3, σ3 = 0. Sketch the Mohr’s circle diagram for this stress state. Determine the stress σ1 necessary to cause yielding by the maximum shear stress and the von Mises criteria. For the stress state of σ1 , σ1 /3, 0 the following figure the three-dimensional Mohr’s circle: 24

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Because the radius is 5 mm and one-half the penetration diameter is 1.5 mm, we can obtain α as 1.5 −1 α = sin = 17.5◦ 5 The depth of penetration, t, can be obtained from

3

1

2

t = 5 − 5 cos α = 5 − 5 cos 17.5◦ = 0.23 mm 2.96 The following data are taken from a stainless steel tension-test specimen:

For the von Mises criterion, Eq. (2.37) on p. 64 gives: 2

2

2

(σ1 − σ2 ) + (σ2 − σ3 ) + (σ3 − σ1 ) 2 σ 1 2 σ 1 2 + = σ1 − − 0 + (0 − σ1 ) 3 3 4 2 1 2 14 2 = σ + σ + σ12 = σ 9 1 9 1 9 1 =

Solving for σ1 gives σ1 = 125 MPa. According to the Tresca criterion, Eq. (2.36) on p. 64 on p. 64 gives

or σ1 = 110 MPa.

The following are calculated from Eqs. (2.6), (2.9), (2.10), and (2.8) on pp. 33-35:

2.95 Estimate the depth of penetration in a Brinell hardness test using 500-kg load, when the sample is a cold-worked aluminum with a yield stress of 200 MPa.

∆l 0 0.02 0.08 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.86 0.98

Note from Fig. 2.24 on p. 55 that for coldworked aluminum with a yield stress of 200 MPa, the Brinell hardness is around 65 kg/mm2 . From Fig. 2.22 on p. 52, we can estimate the diameter of the indentation from the expression: 2P √ (πD)(D − D2 − d2 )

from which we find that d = 3.091 mm for D = 10mm. To calculate the depth of penetration, consider the following sketch:

5 mm

Extension, ∆l (in.) 0 0.02 0.08 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.86 0.98

Also, Ao = 0.056 in2 , Af = 0.016 in2 , lo = 2 in. Plot the true stress-true strain curve for the material.

σ1 − σ 3 = σ 1 = 0 = Y

HB =

Load, P (lb) 1600 2500 3000 3600 4200 4500 4600 (max) 4586 (fracture)

3 mm

l 2.0 2.02 2.08 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.86 2.98

0 0.00995 0.0392 0.0953 0.182 0.262 0.357 0.399

A (in2 ) 0.056 0.0554 0.0538 0.0509 0.0467 0.0431 0.0392 0.0376

σ (ksi) 28.5 45.1 55.7 70.7 90. 104 117 120

The true stress-true strain curve is then plotted as follows: True stress, (ksi)

2Y 2

160 120 80 40 0

0

0.2

0.4

True strain,

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2.97 A metal is yielding plastically under the stress 2.98 It has been proposed to modify the von Mises yield criterion as: state shown in the accompanying figure. a

a

a

(σ1 − σ2 ) + (σ2 − σ3 ) + (σ3 − σ1 ) = C

20 MPa

where C is a constant and a is an even integer larger than 2. Plot this yield criterion for a = 4 and a = 12, along with the Tresca and von Mises criteria, in plane stress. (Hint: See Fig. 2.36 on p. 67).

40 MPa

For plane stress, one of the stresses, say σ3 , is zero, and the other stresses are σA and σB . The yield criterion is then

50 MPa

a

a

a

(σA − σB ) + (σB ) + (σA ) = C

(a) Label the principal axes according to their proper numerical convention (1, 2, 3). (b) What is the yield stress using the Tresca criterion? (c) What if the von Mises criterion is used? (d) The stress state causes measured strains of 1 = 0.4 and 2 = 0.2, with 3 not being measured. What is the value of 3 ?

For uniaxial tension, σA = Y and σB = 0 so that C = 2Y a . These equations are difficult to solve by hand; the following solution was obtained using a mathematical programming package: von Mises a=4 a=12 Tresca

(a) Since σ1 ≥ σ2 ≥ σ3 , then from the figure σ1 = 50 MPa, σ2 = 20 MPa and σ3 = −40 MPa. (b) The yield stress using the Tresca criterion is given by Eq. (2.36) as

B Y

A Y

σmax − σmin = Y So that Y = 50 MPa − (−40 MPa) = 90 MPa (c) If the von Mises criterion is used, then Eq. (2.37) on p. 64 gives

Note that the solution for a = 2 (von Mises) and a = 4 are so close that they cannot be distinguished in the plot. When zoomed into a portion of the curve, one would see that the a = 4 curve lies between the von Mises curve and the a = 12 curve.

(σ1 − σ2 )2 + (σ2 − σ3 )2 + (σ3 − σ1 )2 = 2Y 2 or 2Y 2 = (50 − 20)2 + (20 + 40)2 + (50 + 40)2 or 2Y 2 = 12, 600 which is solved as Y = 79.4 MPa. (d) If the material is deforming plastically, then from Eq. (2.48) on p. 69,

2.99 Assume that you are asked to give a quiz to students on the contents of this chapter. Prepare three quantitative problems and three qualitative questions, and supply the answers. By the student. This is a challenging, openended question that requires considerable focus and understanding on the part of the student, and has been found to be a very valuable homework problem.

1 + 2 + 3 = 0.4 + 0.2 + 3 = 0 or 3 = −0.6. 26

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Chapter 3

Structure and Manufacturing Properties of Metals Questions 3.1 What is the difference between a unit cell and a single crystal? A unit cell is the smallest group of atoms showing the characteristic lattice structure of a particular metal. A single crystal consists of a number of unit cells; some examples are whiskers, chips for semiconductor devices, and turbine blades. 3.2 Explain why we should study the crystal structure of metals. By studying the crystal structure of metals, information about various properties can be inferred. By relating structure to properties, one can predict processing behavior or select appropriate applications for a metal. Metals with face-centered cubic structure, for example, tend to be ductile whereas hexagonal close-packed metals tend to be brittle.

higher the ductility of the metal. Also, the slip system and the number of active slip systems give direct understanding of the material’s plastic behavior. For example, an hcp material has few slip systems. Thus, in a bulk material, few grains will be preferentially oriented with respect to a slip system and high stresses will be required to initiate plastic deformation. On the other hand, fcc materials, have many slip systems and thus a lower stress will be required for plastic deformation. See also Section 3.3.1 starting on p. 87. 3.5 Explain what is meant by structure-sensitive and structure-insensitive properties of metals.

3.3 What effects does recrystallization have on the properties of metals?

As described in Section 3.3.3 starting on p. 89, those properties that depend on the structure of a metal are known as structure-sensitive properties (yield and fracture strength, electrical conductivity). Those that are not (other physical properties and elastic constants) are called structure-insensitive properties. 3.6 What is the relationship between nucleation rate and the number of grains per unit volume of a metal?

As shown in Figs. 3.17 on p. 96 and 3.18 on p. 97, strength and hardness are reduced, ductility is increased, and residual stresses are relieved.

This relationship is described at the beginning of Section 3.4 starting on p. 91. Generally, rapid cooling produces smaller grains, whereas slow cooling produces larger grains.

3.4 What is the significance of a slip system? The greater the number of slip systems, the 29

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3.7 Explain the difference between recovery and recrystallization. These phenomena are described in Section 3.6 on p. 96. Recovery involves relief of residual stresses, reduction in the number of dislocations, and increase in ductility. In recrystalization, new equiaxed and stress-free grains are formed, replacing the older grains.

is the plane spacing), and the b/a ratio depends on the slip system of the chemical structure. (See also Section 3.3.1 starting on p. 87.) 3.10 Explain the difference between preferred orientation and mechanical fibering.

3.8 (a) Is it possible for two pieces of the same metal to have different recrystallization temperatures? Explain. (b) Is it possible for recrystallization to take place in some regions of a workpiece before other regions do in the same workpiece? Explain. (a) Two pieces of the same metal can have different recrystallization temperatures if the pieces have been cold worked to different amounts. The piece that was cold worked to a greater extent will have more stored energy to drive the recrystallization process, and hence its recrystallization temperature will be lower. See also Fig. 3.18 on p. 97. (b) Recrystallization may occur in some regions before others if i. the workpiece was unevenly worked, as is generally the case in deformation processing of materials, since varying amounts of cold work have different recrystallization temperatures, or ii. the part has varying thicknesses; the thinner sections will heat up to the recrystallization temperature faster. 3.9 Describe why different crystal structures exhibit different strengths and ductilities. Different crystal structures have different slip systems, which consist of a slip plane (the closest packed plane) and a slip direction (the closepacked direction). The fcc structure has 12 slip systems, bcc has 48, and hcp has 3. The ductility of a metal depends on how many of the slip systems can be operative. In general, fcc and bcc structures possess higher ductility than hcp structures, because they have more slip systems. The shear strength of a metal decreases for decreasing b/a ratio (b is inversely proportional to atomic density in the slip plane and a

Preferred orientation is anisotropic behavior in a polycrystalline workpiece that has crystals aligned in nonrandom orientations. Crystals become oriented nonrandomly in a workpiece when it is deformed, because the slip direction of a crystal tends to align along the general deformation direction. Mechanical fibering is caused by the alignment of impurities, inclusions, or voids during plastic working of a metal; hence, the properties vary with the relative orientation of the stress applied to the orientation of the defect. (See also preferred orientation in Section 3.5 on p. 95.) 3.11 Give some analogies to mechanical fibering (such as layers of thin dough sprinkled with flour). This is an open-ended problem with many acceptable answers. Some examples are plywood, laminated products (such as countertops), winter clothing, pastry with layers of cream or jam, and pasta dishes with layers of pasta and cheese. 3.12 A cold-worked piece of metal has been recrystallized. When tested, it is found to be anisotropic. Explain the probable reason for this behavior. The anisotropy of the workpiece is likely due to preferred orientation resulting from the recrystallization process. Copper is an example of a metal that has a very strong preferred orientation after annealing. As shown in Fig. 3.19 on p. 97, no recrystallization occurs below a critical deformation, being typically five percent. 3.13 Does recrystallization completely eliminate mechanical fibering in a workpiece? Explain. Mechanical fibering involves the alignment of impurities, inclusions, and voids in the workpiece during deformation. Recrystallization generally modifies the grain structure, but will not eliminate mechanical fibering.

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3.14 Explain why we may have to be concerned with the orange-peel effect on metal surfaces.

the strength will be lower. (See also Eq. (3.8) on p. 92.)

Orange peel not only influences surface appearance of parts, which may or may not be desirable, but also affects their surface characteristics such as friction, wear, lubrication, and corrosion and electrical properties, as well as subsequent finishing, coating, and painting operations. (See also surface roughness in practice in Section 4.3 on p. 137.)

3.17 What is the significance of some metals, such as lead and tin, having recrystallization temperatures at about room temperature?

3.15 How can you tell the difference between two parts made of the same metal, one shaped by cold working and the other by hot working? Explain the differences you might observe. Note that there are several methods that can be used to determine the differences between the two parts. Some of the methods of distinguishing hot vs. cold worked parts are: (a) The surface finish of the cold-worked part would be smoother than the hot-worked part, and possibly shinier.

For these metals, room temperature is sufficiently high for recrystallization to occur without heating. These metals can be cold worked to large extent without requiring a recrystallization cycle to restore their ductility, hence formability. However, as the strain rate increases, their strength at room temperature increases because the metal has less time to recrystallize, thus exhibiting a strain hardening behavior. 3.18 You are given a deck of playing cards held together with a rubber band. Which of the material-behavior phenomena described in this chapter could you demonstrate with this setup? What would be the effects of increasing the number of rubber bands holding the cards together? Explain. (Hint: Inspect Figs. 3.5 and 3.7.)

(b) If hardness values could be taken on the parts, the cold-worked part would be harder.

The following demonstrations can be made with a deck of cards sliding against each other:

(c) The cold-worked part would likely contain residual stresses and exhibit anisotropic behavior.

(a) Slip planes; permanent slip of cards with no rubber band, similar to that shown in Fig. 3.5a on p. 86.

(d) Metallographic examination of the parts can be made: the hot-worked part would generally have equiaxed grains due to recrystallization, while the cold-worked part would have grains elongated in the general direction of deformation.

(b) Surface roughness that develops along the edges of the deck of cards, similar to the lower part of Fig. 3.7 on p. 88.

(e) The two parts can be subjected to mechanical testing and their properties compared. 3.16 Explain why the strength of a polycrystalline metal at room temperature decreases as its grain size increases.

(c) Friction between the cards, simulating the shear stress required to cause slip, similar to Fig. 3.5 on p. 86. Friction between the cards can be decreased using talcum powder, or increased by moisture or soft glue (that has not set yet). (d) Failure by slip, similar to Fig. 3.22b on p. 99. (e) Presence of a rubber band indicates elastic behavior and recovery when unloaded.

Strength increases as more entanglements of dislocations take place with grain boundaries and with each other. Metals with larger grains have less grain-boundary area per unit volume, and hence they are not be able to generate as many entanglements at grain boundaries, thus

(f) The greater the number of rubber bands, the higher the shear modulus, G, which is related to the elastic modulus, E. (g) The deck of cards is highly anisotropic. 31

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3.19 Using the information given in Chapters 2 and 3, list and describe the conditions that induce brittle fracture in an otherwise ductile piece of metal. Brittle fracture can be induced typically by: (a) high deformation rates, (b) the presence of stress concentrations, such as notches and cracks, (c) state of stress, especially high hydrostatic tension components,

These are explained briefly in Section 3.7 on p. 98. Basically, cold working has the advantages of refining the materials grain structure while increasing mechanical properties such as strength, but it does result in anisotropy and reduced ductility. Hot working does not result in strengthening of the workpiece, but the ductility of the workpiece is preserved, and there is little or no anisotropy. Warm working is a compromise. 3.22 Explain why parts may crack when suddenly subjected to extremes of temperature.

(d) radiation damage, and (e) lower temperatures, particularly for metals with bcc structure. In each case, the stress required to cause yielding is raised above the stress needed to cause failure, or the stress needed for crack propagation is below the yield stress of the metal (as with stress concentrations). 3.20 Make a list of metals that would be suitable for a (1) paper clip, (2) bicycle frame, (3) razor blade, (4) battery cable, and (5) gas-turbine blade. Explain your reasoning. In the selection of materials for these applications, the particular requirements that are significant to these components are briefly outlined as follows:

Thermal stresses result from temperature gradients in a material; the temperature will vary significantly throughout the part when subjected to extremes of temperature. The higher the temperature gradient, the more severe thermal stresses to which the part will be subjected, and the higher stresses will increase the probability of cracking. This is particularly important in brittle and notch-sensitive materials. (See also Section 3.9.5 starting on p. 107 regarding the role of coefficient of thermal expansion and thermal conductivity in development of thermal stresses.) 3.23 From your own experience and observations, list three applications each for the following metals and their alloys: (1) steel, (2) aluminum, (3) copper, (4) magnesium, and (5) gold.

(a) Yield stress, elastic modulus, corrosion resistance. (b) Strength, toughness, wear resistance, density.

There are numerous acceptable answers, including: (a) steel: automobile bodies, structural members (buildings, boilers, machinery), fasteners, springs, bearings, knives.

(c) Strength, resistance to corrosion and wear. (d) Yield stress, toughness, elastic modulus, corrosion resistance, and electrical conductivity.

(b) aluminum: aircraft bodies, baseball bats, cookware, beverage containers, automotive pistons.

(e) Strength, creep resistance, resistance to various types of wear, and corrosion resistance at high temperature.

(c) copper: electrical wire, cookware, battery cable terminals, printed circuit boards. (d) lead: batteries, toy soldiers, solders, glass crystal.

Students are encouraged to suggest a variety of metals and discuss the relative advantages and limitations with regard to particular applications.

(e) gold: jewelry, electrical connections, tooth fillings, coins, medals.

3.21 Explain the advantages and limitations of cold, warm, and hot working of metals, respectively.

3.24 List three applications that are not suitable for each of the following metals and their alloys:

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(1) steel, (2) aluminum, (3) copper, (4) magnesium, and (5) gold.

(c) High thermal conductivity: cookware, car radiators, precision instruments that resist thermal warping. The student is encouraged to site other examples.

There are several acceptable answers, including: (a) steel: electrical contacts, aircraft fuselage, car tire, portable computer case. (b) aluminum: cutting tools, shafts, gears, flywheels. (c) copper: aircraft fuselage, bridges, submarine, toys. (d) lead: toys, cookware, aircraft structural components, automobile body panels. (e) gold: any part or component with a large mass and that requires strength and stiffness. 3.25 Name products that would not have been developed to their advanced stages, as we find them today, if alloys with high strength and corrosion and creep resistance at elevated temperatures had not been developed. Some simple examples are jet engines and furnaces. The student is encouraged to cite numerous other examples. 3.26 Inspect several metal products and components and make an educated guess as to what materials they are made from. Give reasons for your guess. If you list two or more possibilities, explain your reasoning. This is an open-ended problem and is a good topic for group discussion in class. Some examples, such as an aluminum baseball bat or beverage can, can be cited and students can be asked why they believe the material is aluminum. 3.27 List three engineering applications each for which the following physical properties would be desirable: (1) high density, (2) low melting point, and (3) high thermal conductivity. Some examples are given below. (a) High density: adding weight to a part (such as an anchor for a boat), flywheels, counterweights. (b) Low melting point: Soldering wire, fuse elements (such as in sprinklers to sense fires).

3.28 Two physical properties that have a major influence on the cracking of workpieces, tools, or dies during thermal cycling are thermal conductivity and thermal expansion. Explain why. Cracking results from thermal stresses that develop in the part during thermal cycling. Thermal stresses may be caused both by temperature gradients and by anisotropy of thermal expansion. High thermal conductivity allows the heat to be dissipated faster and more evenly throughout the part, thus reducing the temperature gradient. If the thermal expansion is low, the stresses will be lower for a given temperature gradient. When thermal stresses reach a certain level in the part, cracking will occur. If a material has higher ductility, it will be able to undergo more by plastic deformation before possible fracture, and the tendency for cracking will thus decrease. 3.29 Describe the advantages of nanomaterials over traditional materials. Since nanomaterials have fine structure, they have very high strength, hardness, and strength-to-weight ratios compared to traditional materials. The student is encouraged to review relevant sections in the book; see, for example, pages 125-126, as well as nanoceramics and nanopowders. 3.30 Aluminum has been cited as a possible substitute material for steel in automobiles. What concerns, if any, would you have prior to purchasing an aluminum automobile? By the student. Some of the main concerns associated with aluminum alloys are that, generally, their toughness is lower than steel alloys; thus, unless the automobile is properly designed and tested, its crashworthiness could suffer. A perceived advantage is that weight savings with aluminum result in higher fuel efficiencies, but steel requires much less energy to produce from ore, so these savings are not as high as initially believed.

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3.31 Lead shot is popular among sportsmen for hunting, but birds commonly ingest the pellets (along with gravel) to help digest food. What substitute materials would you recommend for lead, and why?

tation. Thus, none of the traditional metallic characteristics are present, such as deformation by slip, anisotropy, or grain effects. Because this is very similar to the microstructure and behavior of glass, hence the term.

Obviously, the humanitarian concern is associated with the waterfowl ingesting lead and, therefore, perishing from lead poisoning; the ideal material would thus be one that is not poisonous. On the other hand, it is important for the shot material to be effective for its purpose, as otherwise a bird is only wounded. Effective shot has a high density, thus a material with a very high density is desired. Referring to Table 3.2 on p. 98, materials with a very high density but greater environmental friendliness are gold and tungsten, but obviously tungsten would be the more logical choice.

3.33 Which of the materials described in this chapter has the highest (a) density, (b) electrical conductivity, (c) thermal conductivity, (d) strength, and (e) cost? As can be seen from Table 3.3 on p. 106, the highest density is for tungsten, and the highest electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity in silver. The highest ultimate strength mentioned in the chapter is for Monel K-500 at 1050 MPa, and the highest cost (which varies from time to time) is usually is associated with superalloys.

3.32 What are metallic glasses? Why is the word “glass” used for these materials? These materials are described in Section 3.11.9 starting on p. 125. They are produced through such processes as rapid solidification (described in Section 5.10.8 starting on p. 235) so that the material has no grain structure or orien-

3.34 What is twinning? How does it differ from slip? This is illustrated in Fig. 3.5 on p. 86. In twinning, a grain deforms to produce a mirror-image about a plane of twinning. Slip involves sliding along a plane. An appropriate analogy to differentiate these mechanisms is to suggest that twinning is similar to bending about a plane, and slip is similar to shearing.

Problems 3.35 Calculate the theoretical (a) shear strength and (b) tensile strength for aluminum, plain-carbon steel, and tungsten. Estimate the ratios of their theoretical strength to actual strength. Equation (3.3) and Eq. (3.5) give the shear and tensile strengths, respectively, as τ=

G 2π

E 10 The values of E and ν are obtained from Table 2.1 on p. 32, and G is calculated using Eq. (2.24) on p. 49, E G= 2(1 − ν) σ=

Thus, the following table can be generated: Material Al Steel W

E (GPa) 79 200 400

ν 0.34 0.33 0.27

G (GPa) 60 149 274

τ (GPa) 9.5 23.7 43.6

σ (GPa) 7.9 20 40

3.36 A technician determines that the grain size of a certain etched specimen is 6. Upon further checking, it is found that the magnification used was 150, instead of 100 as required by ASTM standards. What is the correct grain size? To answer this question, one can either interpolate from Table 3.1 on p. 93 or obtain the data for a larger number of grain sizes, as well as the grain diameter as a function of the ASTM No.

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The following data is from the Metals Handbook, ASM International: ASTM No -3 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Grains per mm2 1 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1024 2048

Grains per mm3 0.7 5.6 16 45 128 360 1020 2900 8200 23,000 65,000

Let’s assume that the beam has a square cross section with a side of length h. Note, however, that any cross section will result in the same trends, so students shouldn’t be discouraged from considering, for example, circular cross sections. The moment of inertia for a square cross section is h4 I= 12 The moment of inertia will increase as temperature increases, because the cross section will become larger due to thermal expansion. The weight per length, w, is given by

Avg. grain dia., mm 1.00 0.50 0.35 0.25 0.18 0.125 0.091 0.062 0.044 0.032 0.022

Since the magnification ratio is 150/100=1.5, the diameter was magnified 1.5 times more than it should have been. Thus, the grains appeared larger than they actually are. Because the grain size of 6 has an average diameter of 0.044 mm, the actual diameter is thus d=

w=

0.044 mm = 0.0293mm 1.5

As can be seen from the table, this corresponds to a grain size of about 7. 3.37 Estimate the number of grains in a regular paper clip if its ASTM grain size is 9. As can be seen in Table 3.1 on p. 93, an ASTM grain size of 9 has 185,000 grains/mm3 . An ordinary paper clip (although they vary depending on the size of paper clip considered) hass a wire diameter of 0.80 mm and a length of 100 mm. Therefore, the paper clip volume is V =

does the natural frequency of the beam change, if any, as its temperature is increased?

W L

where W is the weight of the beam. Since L increases with increasing temperature, the weight per length will decrease with increasing temperature. Also note that the modulus of elasticity will decrease with increasing temperature (see Fig. 2.9 on p. 41). Consider the ratio of initial frequency (subscript 1) to frequency at elevated temperature (subscript 2): q q q E1 I1 E1 I1 0.56 Ew11IL14g 4 (W/L )L L31 f1 1 1 1 q =q = =q E2 I2 E2 I2 f2 0.56 E2 I24g 4 3 w2 L2

(W/L2 )L2

L2

Simplifying further, s s f1 E1 I1 L32 E1 h41 L32 = = 3 f2 E2 I2 L1 E2 h42 L3a Letting α be the coefficient of thermal expansion, we can write

π(0.80)2 (100) πd2 l = = 50.5 mm3 4 4

h2 = h1 (1 + α∆T )

The number of grains can thus be calculated as (50.5)(185,000)=9.34 million.

L2 = L1 (1 + α∆T )

3.38 The natural frequency f of a cantilever beam is given by the expression r EIg f = 0.56 , wL4 where E is the modulus of elasticity, I is the moment of inertia, g is the gravitational constant, w is the weight of the beam per unit length, and L is the length of the beam. How

Therefore, the frequency ratio is s f1 E1 h41 L32 = f2 E2 h42 L31 s 3 E1 h41 L31 (1 + α∆T ) = 4 E2 h41 (1 + α∆T ) L31 s E1 = E2 (1 + α∆T )

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To compare these effects, consider the case of carbon steel. Figure 2.9 on p. 41 shows a drop in elastic modulus from 190 to 130 GPa over a temperature increase of 1000◦ C. From Table 3.3 on p. 106, the coefficient of thermal expansion for steel is 14.5 µm/m◦ C (average of the extreme values given in the table), so that the change in frequency is: s E1 f1 = f2 E2 (1 + α∆T ) s 190 = 130 [1 + (14.5 × 10−6 ) (1000)]

(a) For a simply-supported beam, the deflection can be obtained from any solid mechanics book as δ=

P L3 48EI

For a round cross section with diameter of 20 mm, the moment of inertia is I=

πd4 π(0.020)4 = = 7.85 × 10−9 m4 64 64

From Table 2.1, E for steel is around 200 GPa. The load is 50 kg or 490 N; therefore, the deflection is

or f1 /f2 = 1.20. Thus, the natural frequency of the beam decreases when heated. This is a general trend (and not just for carbon steel), namely that the thermal changes in elastic modulus plays a larger role than the thermal expansion of the beam. 3.39 A strip of metal is reduced in thickness by cold working from 25 mm to 15 mm. A similar strip is reduced from 25 mm to 10 mm. Which one of these strips will recrystallize at a lower temperature? Why?

δ=

(490 N)(1 m)3 P L3 = 48EI 48(200 GPa)(7.85 × 10−9 m4 )

or δ = 0.00650 m = 6.5 mm. (b) It is useful to express the diameter as a function of deflection: δ=

P L3 64P L3 = 48EI 48πEd4

Solving for d, we have

In the first case, reducing the strip from 25 to 15 mm involves a true strain (absolute value) of 25 = ln = 0.511 15

d=

4P L3 3πEδ

1/4

Thus, the following table can be constructed, with the elastic moduli taken from Table 2.1 on p. 32.

and for the second case, 25 = ln = 0.916 10

Material 2024-T4 Al Arch. bronze 99.5% Ti

A review of Fig. 3.18 will indicate that, because of the higher degree of cold work and hence higher stored energy, the second case will involve recrystallization at a lower temperature than the first case. 3.40 A 1-m long, simply-supported beam with a round cross section is subjected to a load of 50 kg at its center. (a) If the shaft is made from AISI 303 steel and has a diameter of 20 mm, what is the deflection under the load? (b) For shafts made from 2024-T4 aluminum, architectural bronze, and 99.5% titanium, respectively, what must the diameter of the shaft be for the shaft to have the same deflection as in part (a)?

E (GPa) 79 110 80

d (mm) 25.2 23.2 25.1

3.41 If the diameter of the aluminum atom is 0.5 nm, estimate the number of atoms in a grain with an ASTM size of 5. If the grain size is 5, there are 2900 grains per mm3 of aluminum, and each grain has a volume of 1/2900 = 3.45 × 10−4 mm3 . Recall that for an fcc material there are four atoms per unit cell, with a total volume of 16πR3 /3, and that the diagonal, a, of the unit cell is given by √ a= 2 2 R

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400

APFfcc

Note that as long as all the atoms in the unit cell are of the same size, the atomic packing factors do not depend on the atomic radius. Therefore, the volume of the grain taken up by atoms is (3.45×10−4 )(0.74) = 2.55×10−4 mm3 . (Recall that 1 mm=106 nm.) The diameter of an aluminum atom is 0.5 nm, thus its radius is 0.25 nm or 0.25 × 10−6 mm. The volume of an aluminum atom is 4π(0.25 × 10−6 )3 4πR3 = V = 3 3 −20

3

or 6.54 × 10 mm . Dividing the volume of aluminum in the grain by the volume of an aluminum atom gives the total number of atoms in the grain as (2.55 × 10−4 )/(6.54 × 10−20 ) = 3.90 × 1015 .

The plots are shown below, based on the data given in Tables 2.1 on p. 32, 3.3 on p. 106, and 16.4 on p. 971. Average values have been used to obtain these plots.

Yield stress (MPa)

1200 1000

Steel

250 200

Stainless steel

Nickel

150 Copper Titanium Aluminum

50 0

Lead

Magnesium

0

5000

10,000 15,000

400 350

Molybdenum

300 250 200 Steel Nickel

150 Copper

100

Aluminum

50

Titanium

Magnesium

0.1

1

10

100

1000

Relative Cost

3.43 The following data is obtained in tension tests of brass: Grain Size (µm) 15 20 50 75 100

Molybdenum

20,000

Density (kg/m3)

Yield stress (MPa) 150 140 105 90 75

Nickel

Does this material follow the Hall-Petch effect? If so, what is the value of k?

Tungsten

Copper

400

First, it is obvious from this table that the material becomes stronger as the grain size decreases, which is the expected result. However, it is not clear whether Eq. (3.8) on p. 92 is applicable. It is possible to plot the yield stress as a function of grain diameter, but it is better to plot it as a function of d−1/2 , as follows:

Aluminum

200 0

Steel

Titanium

800 600

Molybdenum

300

0

3.42 Plot the following for the materials described in this chapter: (a) yield stress versus density, (b) modulus of elasticity versus strength, and (c) modulus of elasticity versus relative cost. Hint: See Table 16.4.

Tungsten

350

100

Elastic modulus (GPa)

16πR /3 = √ 3 = 0.74 2R 2 3

Elastic modulus (GPa)

Hence,

Magnesium Lead

0

5000 10,000 15,000 Density (kg/m3)

20,000

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Yield strength (MPa)

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Material Plastics Wood Glasses Lead Graphite Ti alloys Pb alloys Ti Ceramics Steels Ni alloys Mg alloys Mg Iron Nickel Columbium Tantalum Aluminum Al Alloys Cu alloys Gold Berylium Si Silver Copper Molybdenum Tungsten

160 140 120 100 80 60 0.05

d-1/2

0.3

The least-squares curve fit for a straight line is

Y = 35.22 + 458d−1/2

k 0.4 0.4 1.7 35. 10. 12. 46 17. 17. 52 63 138 154. 74. 92 52 54 222 239 234 317. 146 148. 429 393 142 166.

α 72 2. 4.6 29.4 7.86 8.1 27.1 8.35 5.5 11.7 12.7 26 26 11.5 13.3 7.1 6.5 23.6 23 16.5 19.3 8.5 7.63 19.3 16.5 5.1 4.5

k/α 0.00556 0.20 0.37 1.19 1.27 1.48 1.70 2.04 3.09 4.44 4.96 5.31 5.92 6.43 6.91 7.3 8.30 9.40 10.3 14.18 16.4 17.1 19.3 22.2 23.8 27.8 36.9

This data is shown graphically as follows: with an R factor of 0.990. This suggests that a linear curve fit is proper, and it can be concluded that the material does follow the Hall√ Petch effect, with a value of k = 458 MPa- µm.

3.44 It can be shown that thermal distortion in precision devices is low for high values of thermal conductivity divided by the thermal expansion coefficient. Rank the materials in Table 3.3 according to their suitability to resist thermal distortion.

The following table can be compiled, using maximum values of thermal conductivity and minimum values of thermal expansion coefficient (to show optimum behavior for low thermal distortion):

Tungsten Molybdenum Copper Silver Silver alloys Berylium Cu-alloys Al-alloys Aluminum Tantalum Columbium Nickel Magnesium Mg-alloys Ni-alloys Steel Ceramics Titanium Lead alloys Ti-alloys Graphite Lead Glasses Wood Plastics

Increasing performance

0

10

20

30

40

k/ (106 N/s)

3.45 Assume that you are asked to give a quiz to students on the contents of this chapter. Prepare three quantitative problems and three qualitative questions, and supply the answers. By the student. This is a challenging, openended question that requires considerable focus and understanding on the part of the students, and has been found to be a very valuable homework problem.

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Chapter 4

Surfaces, Tribology, Dimensional Characteristics, Inspection, and Product Quality Assurance Questions 4.1 Explain what is meant by surface integrity. Why should we be interested in it? Whereas surface roughness describes the geometric features of a surface, surface integrity consists of not only the geometric description but also the mechanical and metallurgical properties and characteristics. As described in Section 4.2 starting on p. 132, surface integrity has a major effect on properties, such as fatigue strength and resistance to corrosion, and hence the service life of a product. 4.2 Why are surface-roughness design requirements in engineering so broad? Give appropriate examples. As described in Section 4.3 starting on p. 134, surface-roughness design requirements for typical engineering applications can vary by as much as two orders of magnitude for different parts. The reasons and considerations for this wide range include the following: (a) Precision required on mating surfaces, such as seals, gaskets, fittings, and tools and dies. For example, ball bearings and gages require very smooth surfaces, whereas surfaces for gaskets and brake drums can be quite rough.

(b) Tribological considerations, that is, the effect of surface roughness on friction, wear, and lubrication. (c) Fatigue and notch sensitivity, because rougher surfaces generally have shorter fatigue lives. (d) Electrical and thermal contact resistance, because the rougher the surface, the higher the resistance will be. (e) Corrosion resistance, because the rougher the surface, the more the possibility that corrosive media may be entrapped. (f) Subsequent processing, such as painting and coating, in which a certain degree of roughness can result in better bonding. (g) Appearance, because, depending on the application, a rough or smooth surface may be preferred. (h) Cost considerations, because the finer the finish, the higher is the cost. 4.3 We have seen that a surface has various layers. Describe the factors that influence the thickness of each of these layers. These layers generally consist of a workhardened layer, oxides, adsorbed gases, and various contaminants (see Fig. 4.1 on p. 132). The

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thickness of these layers is influenced by the nature of surface-generation process employed (casting, forming, machining, grinding, polishing, etc.) and the environment to which the surface is exposed during and after its generation. Thus, for example, dull cutting tools or severe surface deformation during metalworking operations produce a relatively thick work-hardened layer. In addition to production methods and choice of processing parameters, an equally important factor is the effect of the environment and temperature on the workpiece material.

Surface defects can have several effects on the performance of engineering components in service. Among these effects are premature failure under various types of loading, crevice corrosion, adverse effects on lubrication, and whether the components will function smoothly or there will be vibration or chatter.

4.4 What is the consequence of oxides of metals being generally much harder than the base metal? Explain. The consequences are numerous, and the oxide can be beneficial as well as detrimental. In sliding contact, the oxide is a hard surface that, as a result, is wear resistant [see Eq. (4.6) on p. 145], and it can also protect the substrate from further chemical attack. However, if an oxide wear particle spalls from the surface, a detrimental three-body wear situation can result. Also, as discussed in Chapter 2, the hard surface layers may be detrimental from a fatigue standpoint if their ductility is compromised. Finally, if a material is plastically deformed, as in the processes described in Chapters 6 and 7, the oxide layer may crack or even break off, resulting in a surface finish that may be unacceptable for the particular application.

The manner in which their importance for a particular operation can be assessed is by observing the defect type and its geometry, and how these defects would relate to component performance. The direction and depth of a crack, for example, should be reviewed with respect to the direction of tensile stresses or direction of relative movement between the surfaces. Another example is the possibility of crevice corrosion in the presence of a hostile environment. 4.7 Explain why the same surface roughness values do not necessarily represent the same type of surface. As can be seen in Eqs. (4.1) and (4.2) on p. 134, there is an infinite range of values for a, b, c, d, etc. that would give the same arithmetic mean value Ra or the root-mean-square average value Rq . This can be seen graphically, as the surfaces shown below are examples that result in the same Ra values but are very different geometrically and have different tribological performance (from Bhushan, B., Introduction to Tribology, Wiley, 2002).

4.5 What factors would you consider in specifying the lay of a surface?

(a)

Specifying the lay of a surface requires considerations such as the nature of the mating surfaces and their application, direction of relative sliding, frictional effects, lubricant entrapment, and optical factors such as appearance and reflectivity of the surface. Physical properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity may also be significant.

(b)

4.6 Describe the effects of various surface defects (see Section 4.3 starting on p. 134) on the performance of engineering components in service. How would you go about determining whether or not each of these defects is important for a particular application?

(f)

(c) (d) (e)

4.8 In using a surface-roughness measuring instrument, how would you go about determining the cutoff value? Give appropriate examples.

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The determination depends on various factors. For example, if waviness is repeatable, the cutoff need not be longer than the waviness cycle. Also, if there is poor control of processing parameters during manufacturing, such that the surface produced is highly irregular, then cutoff should be long enough to give a representative roughness value. If the quality of the workpiece material is poor, with numerous flaws, inclusions, impurities, etc., the cutoff must be long enough to be representative of the surface in general. The lay could also play a significant role in cutoff selection. The cutoff should be related to the spacing of asperities, which has been found to be about an order of magnitude larger than the roughness for most surfaces. Thus, several recommendations can be found in the technical literature for different methods of surface preparation. For example, the following data is recommended by a profilometer manufacturer: Ra (µm) 0.025 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.6 3.2 6.3 12.5

4.10 Give two examples each in which waviness of a surface would be (1) desirable and (2) undesirable. Suggested examples are, for desirable: suggested examples are aesthetic reasons, appearance, beneficial effects of trapping lubricants between two surfaces. For undesirable: unevenness between mating surfaces, difficulty of providing a tight seal, sliding is not smooth. The student is encouraged to give other examples. 4.11 Explain why surface temperature increases when two bodies are rubbed against each other. What is the significance of temperature rise due to friction? This topic is described in Section 4.4.1 starting on p. 138. When bodies rub against each other, friction causes energy dissipation which is in the form of heat generation at the surfaces. If the rubbing speed is very slow, and the thermal conductivity of the workpiece is very high, then the temperature rise may be negligible. More commonly, there can be a major temperature rise at the surface. The significance of this temperature rise is that surfaces may be more chemically active or may be develop higher thermal stresses and possibly result in heat checking. Note that this is not necessarily detrimental because chemical reactivity is required for many boundary and extremepressure lubricants to bond to a surface.

Cut-off length mm 0.08 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.8 0.8 2.5 2.5 2.5

4.12 To what factors would you attribute the fact that the coefficient of friction in hot working is higher than in cold working, as shown in Table 4.1?

4.9 What is the significance of the fact that the stylus path and the actual surface profile generally are not the same?

The factors that have a significant influence on friction are described in Section 4.4.1 starting on p. 138. For hot working, specifically, important factors are the tendency for increased junction strength (due to greater affinity), oxide formation, strength of oxide layers, and the effectiveness of lubricants at elevated temperatures.

This situation indicates that profilometer traces are not exact duplicates of actual surfaces and that such readings can be misleading for precise study of surfaces. (Note, however, that the roughness in Fig. 4.4 on p. 137 is highly exaggerated because of the differences between the horizontal and vertical scales.) For example, surfaces with deep narrow valleys will be measured smoother than they really are. This can have significant effects on the estimating the fatigue life, corrosion, and proper assessment of the capabilities of various manufacturing processes.

4.13 In Section 4.4.1, we note that the values of the coefficient of friction can be much higher than unity. Explain why. This phenomenon is largely a matter of definition of the coefficient of friction µ, and also 43

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indicates the desirable feature of the concept of friction factor, m, which can range between 0 and 1; see Eq. (4.5) on p. 140. Consider, for example, Eq. (4.3) on p. 139. If, for a variety of reasons, the mating surfaces have developed extensive microwelds during sliding, then the load is removed and the two surfaces are allowed to slide against each other, there would be considerable friction force, F , required. Since for this case the load N is now negligible, the coefficient of friction, µ = F/N , would indeed be very high. This can also be seen if the mating R surfaces consisted of adhesive tape or Velcro . 4.14 Describe the tribological differences between ordinary machine elements (such as meshing gears, cams in contact with followers, and ball bearings with inner and outer races) and elements of metalworking processes (such as forging, rolling, and extrusion, which involve workpieces in contact with tools and dies). The tribological differences are due to significant differences in parameters such as contact loads and stresses, relative speeds between sliding members, workpiece temperatures, temperature rise during application, types of materials involved, types of lubricants used, and the particular environment. Also, referring to Fig. 4.6 on p. 140, note that the manufacturing processes all take place at very high normal stresses and as a result, non-linear relationships between friction and normal force are uncommon. With machine elements such as gears, cams, and bearings, however, normal forces are not as high, and a Coulomb friction law as stated in Eq. (4.3) on p. 139 generally applies. Students are encouraged to develop a list with several specific examples.

(d) uneven lubricant layer over the mating surfaces, and (e) lack of symmetry of the test setup, such as platens that are not parallel. 4.16 Can the temperature rise at a sliding interface exceed the melting point of the metals? Explain. When the heat generated due to friction and that due to work of plastic deformation exceeds the rate of heat dissipation from the surfaces through conduction and convection, the surfaces will soften and even melt, and the heat input will be dissipated as heat of fusion necessary for changing from a solid to a liquid phase. This heat represents a high amount of energy, thus the surface temperature will not exceed the melting point. 4.17 List and briefly describe the types of wear encountered in engineering practice. This topic is discussed in Section 4.4.2 on p. 144. Basically, the types of wear are:

4.15 Give the reasons that an originally round specimen in a ring-compression test may become oval after deformation. The specimen may flow more easily in one direction than another for reasons such as: (a) anisotropy of the workpiece material,

• Adhesive wear, where material transfer occurs because one material has bonded to the other and relative motion shears the softer material; see Fig. 4.10 on p. 145. • Abrasive wear, where a hard asperity plows into a softer material, producing a chip, as shown in Fig. 4.10 on p. 145. This can be a two-body or a three-body phenomenon. • Corrosive wear, which occurs when chemical or electrochemical reactions take place, thereby removing material from surfaces. • Fatigue wear, common in bearings and gears, is due to damage associated with cyclic loading, where cracks propagate and cause material loss through spalling. • Erosion, caused by the abrasive action of loose hard particles. • Impact wear, refers to spalling associated with dynamic loading of a surface.

(b) the lay of the specimen surfaces, thus affecting frictional characteristics,

4.18 Explain why each of the terms in the Archard formula for adhesive wear, Eq. (4.6) on p. 145, should affect the wear volume.

(c) the lay on the surface of the flat dies employed,

The following observations can be made regarding this formula: 44

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(a) The wear coefficient, k, indicates the affinity of the two contacting surfaces to develop microwelds, as shown in Table 4.2 on p. 146. The greater the affinity, the greater the probability of forming strong microwelds, hence the higher the adhesive wear.

load decreases, the surfaces do not penetrate as much and, hence, the groove produced (by an abrasive particle sliding against a surface) is more shallow, thus abrasive wear is lower. 4.21 Does the presence of a lubricant affect abrasive wear? Explain.

(b) The greater the distance traveled, L, obviously the higher the amount of wear.

4.19 How can adhesive wear be reduced? How can fatigue wear be reduced?

Although it is not readily apparent from Eq. (4.6) on p. 145, the presence of a lubricant can affect abrasive wear by virtue of the fact that a lubricant can have some effect (although to a very minor extent) on the depth of penetration, as well as the manner in which the slivers are produced and their dimensions (as described in Chapter 8). It should also be noted that the presence of a lubricant will cause the wear particles to stick to the surfaces, thus interfering with the operation. This topic has not been studied to any extent, thus it would be suitable for literature search on the part of students.

Adhesive wear can be reduced by studying the effects outlined in the answer to Problem 4.18 above. Fatigue wear can be reduced by:

4.22 Explain how you would estimate the magnitude of the wear coefficient for a pencil writing on paper.

(a) reducing the load and sliding distance and increasing the hardness, consistent with Problem 4.18 above;

Referring to Eq. (4.6) on p. 145, since the wear volume, the force on the pencil, and the sliding distance can be determined, we can then calculate the dimensionless wear coefficient, k/H. The hardness of the pencil material can be measured through a microhardness test. The tribology of pencil on paper is an interesting area for inexpensive experimentation. Note also that different types of paper will result in different wear coefficients as well (e.g., rough construction paper vs. writing paper vs. newspaper, or even wax paper). This topic can easily be expanded into a design project to encourage students to develop wear tests to determine k.

(c) The greater the normal load, W , the greater the tendency to form strong microwelds, hence the greater the wear. (d) The higher the hardness of the softer body, the lower the possibility of forming strong junctions at the interface, hence the lower the wear. Note also the significant effect of lubrication on the magnitude of k, as to be expected.

(b) improving the quality of the contacting materials, such as eliminating inclusions, impurities, and voids; (c) improving the surface finish and integrity during the manufacturing process; (d) surface working, such as shot peening or other treatments; (e) reducing contact stresses; and (f) reducing the number of total cycles. (See also Section 2.7 starting on p. 56.) 4.20 It has been stated that as the normal load decreases, abrasive wear is reduced. Explain why this is so. For abrasive wear to occur, the harder or rougher surface must penetrate the softer surface to some depth. Thus, this phenomenon becomes similar to a hardness test, whereby the harder the surface, the less the penetration of the indenter. Consequently, as the normal

4.23 Describe a test method for determining the wear coefficient k in Eq. (4.6). What would be the difficulties in applying the results from this test to a manufacturing application, such as predicting the life of tools and dies? Several tests have been developed for evaluating wear coefficients, and this topic would be suitable as a student project. The following are among the more commonly used:

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• The pin-on-disk test uses a pin sliding over a rotating disk; wear volume is obtained from the change in the length and geometry of the pin or by using profilometry on the disk. • The pin-on-flat test uses a pin that reciprocates against a flat surface.

fine tolerances and good surface finishes are achieved through basically controlled wear mechanisms. The student is encouraged to think of more examples. 4.26 On the basis of the topics discussed in this chapter, do you think there is a direct correlation between friction and wear of materials? Explain.

• A ring test uses rotating rings and is especially used to evaluate fatigue wear. • An abrasive wear test that is commonly performed uses a rubber wheel to press loose abrasives against a workpiece.

The answer is no, not directly. Consider, for example, the fact that ball and roller bearings have very low friction yet they do undergo wear, especially by surface fatigue. Also, ceramics have low wear rate, yet they can have significant frictional resistance. The following data, obtained from J. Halling, Principles of Tribology, 1975, p. 9, clearly demonstrates that high friction does not necessarily correspond to high wear:

All of these tests have significant drawbacks when applied to manufacturing processes. Most importantly, it is difficult to reproduce the contact stresses encountered in a manufacturing environment, such as temperature and strain rate), which will then have a major effect on wear. Furthermore, there is a need to maintain the same surface condition as encountered in manufacturing operations. 4.24 Why is the abrasive wear resistance of a material a function of its hardness? Higher hardness indicates greater resistance to penetration, hence less penetration of the abrasive particles or hard protrusions into surfaces, and the grooves produced are not as deep. Thus, abrasive wear is a function of hardness. 4.25 We have seen that wear can have detrimental effects on engineering components, tools, dies, etc. Can you visualize situations in which wear could be beneficial? Give some examples. (Hint: Note that writing with a pencil is a wear process.) Consider, for example: (a) running-in periods of machinery, (b) burnishing, involving improvements in surface finish and appearance due to a small amount of controlled wear. (c) using sandpaper to remove splinters from wood, (d) using a scouring pad on cookware to remove dried or burnt food particles. (e) grinding and other manufacturing operations, as described in Chapter 9, where

Materials Mild steel on mild steel 60/40 leaded brass PTFE Stellite Ferritic stainless steel Polyethylene Tungsten carbide on itself

µ 0.62

Wear rate (cm3 /cm ×10−12 ) 157,000

0.24 0.18 0.60 0.53 0.65 0.35

24,000 2000 310 270 30 2

4.27 You have undoubtedly replaced parts in various appliances and automobiles because they were worn. Describe the methodology you would follow in determining the type(s) of wear these components have undergone. This is an open-ended problem, and the student should be asked to develop a methodology based on Section 4.4.2 starting on p. 144. The methodology should include inspection at a number of levels, for example, visual determination of the surface, as well as under a light microscope and scanning electron microscope. Surface scratches, for instance, are indicative of abrasive wear; spalling would suggest fatigue wear; and a burnished surface suggests adhesive wear. The wear particles must also be investigated. If the particles have a bulky form, they are likely to be adhesive wear particles, including surface oxides. Flakes are indicative of adhesive wear of metals that do not have an oxide

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surface. Abrasive wear results in slivers or wear particles with a larger aspect ratios. 4.28 Why is the study of lubrication regimes important? The reason is primarily due to the fact that each regime, ranging from full-fluid film to sliding of dry surfaces, has its own set of variables that affect performance, load-bearing capacity, friction, wear, temperature rise, and surface damage. Consequently, in the event of poor performance, one should concentrate and further investigate those particular parameters. Also, the lubricant film plays a major role in the ultimate workpiece surface roughness that is produced. The student may elaborate further, based on the topics covered in Section 4.4.3 starting on p. 149.

(d) Plain oils contain the base oil only, whereas compounded oils have various additives in the base oil to fulfill special criteria such as lubricity and workpiece surface brightening. 4.31 Explain the role of conversion coatings. Based on Fig. 4.13, what lubrication regime is most suitable for application of conversion coatings?

4.29 Explain why so many different types of metalworking fluids have been developed.

Conversion coatings provide a rough and porous surface on workpieces. The porosity is infiltrated by the lubricant, thus aiding in entrainment and retention of the lubricant in the metalworking process. Considering the regimes of lubrication, it is clear that conversion coatings are not useful in full-film lubrication, since a thick lubricant film already exits at the interfaces without the need for a rough surface. It is, however, beneficial for boundary or mixedlubrication regimes. 4.32 Explain why surface treatment of manufactured products may be necessary. Give several examples.

The student may discuss this topic, based on various topics listed in Section 4.4.4 starting on p. 151; thus, for example, end result expected (to reduce friction or wear), the particular manufacturing process employed, the materials used, the temperatures that will be encountered, costs involved, etc.

This topic is described at the beginning of Section 4.5 on p. 154. Examples are:

4.30 Differentiate between (1) coolants and lubricants, (2) liquid and solid lubricants, (3) direct and indirect emulsions, and (4) plain and compounded oils. The answers can be found in Section 4.4.4 starting on p. 151. Basically,

• Some surfaces may be coated with a hard material for wear resistance, such as ceramic-coated cutting or forming tools. • Jewelry and tableware are electroplated with gold or silver, for aesthetic and some functional reasons. • Bolts, nuts, and other fasteners are zinc coated for corrosion resistance.

(a) a coolant is mainly intended to remove heat, whereas a lubricant has friction and wear reduction functions as well. For example, water is an excellent coolant but is a poor lubricant (unless used in hydrodynamic lubrication), whereas water-soluble oils generally serve both functions. (b) The difference between liquid and solid lubricants is that they have different phases. However, although solid lubricants are solid at room temperature, they may not be so at operating temperatures. (c) Direct emulsions have oil suspended in water; indirect (invert) emulsions have water droplets suspended in oil.

• Some automotive parts are plated with decorative chrome (although not used as often now) for aesthetic reasons. The student is encouraged to develop additional specific applications, based on the materials covered in this section of the text. 4.33 Which surface treatments are functional, and which are decorative? Give several examples. A review of the processes described indicates that most surface treatments are functional. A few, such as electroplating, anodizing, porcelain enameling, and ceramic coating, are generally regarded as both functional and decorative.

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The students are encouraged to give specific examples from their personal experience and observations.

bulk prevents these layers from expanding laterally freely. Consequently, compressive residual stresses develop on the surface.

4.34 Give examples of several typical applications of mechanical surface treatment.

4.38 List several products or components that could not be made properly, or function effectively in service, without implementation of the knowledge involved in Sections 4.2 through 4.5.

The applications are described in Section 4.5.1 starting on p. 154. Some examples are: • The shoulders of shafts can be roller burnished to impart a compressive residual stress and thus improve fatigue life.

This is an open-ended problem that can be answered in many ways. Some examples of components that require the knowledge in Sections 4.2 through 4.5 include:

• Crankshafts, rotors, cams, and other similar parts are shot peened in order to increase surface hardness and wear resistance, as well as improve fatigue life.

• Brake drums, rotors, and shoes could not be designed properly without an understanding of friction and wear phenomena.

• Railroad rails can be hardened by explosive hardening.

• Crankshaft main bearings and piston bearings require an understanding of lubrication.

The student is encouraged to give additional examples.

• A wide variety of parts have functional coatings, such as galvanized sheet metal for automotive body panels, zinc coatings on bolts and nuts, and hard chrome coatings for wear resistance, and cutting tools can have nitride coatings through chemical vapor deposition.

4.35 Explain the difference between case hardening and hard facing. Case hardening is a heat treatment process (described in Section 5.11.3 on p. 241) performed on a manufactured part; hard facing involves depositing metal on a surface using various techniques described in the text.

• Aircraft fuselage components have a strict surface roughness requirement.

4.36 List several applications for coated sheet metal, including galvanized steel.

4.39 Explain the difference between direct- and indirect-reading linear measurements. In direct reading, the measurements are obtained directly from numbers on the measuring instruments, such as a rule, vernier caliper, or micrometer. In indirect reading, the measurements are made using calipers, dividers, and telescoping gages. These instruments do not have numbers on them and their setting is measured subsequently using a direct-measuring instrument.

There are numerous applications, ranging from galvanized sheet-steel car bodies for corrosion protection, to sheet-metal television cabinets, office equipment, appliances, and gutters and down spouts. Polymer-coated steels are typically used for food and beverage containers and also for some sheet-metal parts. The student is encouraged to develop lists for specific applications. 4.37 Explain how roller-burnishing processes induce residual stresses on the surface of workpieces.

4.40 Why have coordinate-measuring machines become important instruments in modern manufacturing? Give some examples of applications.

Roller burnishing, like shot peening, induces residual surface compressive stresses due to localized plastic deformation of the surface. These stresses develop because the surface layer tends to expand during burnishing, but the

These machines are built rigidly and are very precise, and are equipped with digital readouts and also can be linked to computers for on-line inspection of parts. They can be placed close to machine tools for efficient inspection and rapid 48

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feedback for correction of processing parameters before the next part is made. They are also being made more rugged to resist environmental effects in manufacturing plants, such as temperature variations, vibration, and dirt.

(b) Eccentricity may be defined as not having the same center, or referring to concentricity in which two or more features have a common axis. Thus, a round shaft may be mounted on a lathe at its ends in such a manner that its rotation is eccentric.

4.41 Give reasons why the control of dimensional tolerances in manufacturing is important. This topic is described in Section 4.7 starting on p. 170. Generally, for instance, products perform best when they are at their design specification, so dimensional tolerances should be controlled to obtain as good of performance as is possible. The student is encouraged to give several examples. 4.42 Give examples where it may be preferable to specify unilateral tolerances as opposed to bilateral tolerances in design. By the student. For example, when a shrink fit is required, it may be beneficial to specify a shaft and hole tolerance with a unilateral tolerance, so that a minimum contact pressure is assured. 4.43 Explain why a measuring instrument may not have sufficient precision. A caliper, for example, that can only measure to the nearest 0.001 in. is not precise enough to measure a 0.0005 in. press-fit clearance between two mating gears.

(c) Cylindricity is defined similarly to circularity, as the condition of a surface of revolution in which all points of the surface are equidistant from a common axis. A straight shaft with the same roundness along its axis would possess cylindricity; however, in a certain component, roundness may be confined to only certain narrow regions along the shaft, thus it does not have cylindricity over its total length.

4.45 It has been stated that dimensional tolerances for nonmetallic stock, such as plastics, are usually wider than for metals. Explain why. Consider physical and mechanical properties of the materials involved. Nonmetallic parts have wider tolerances because they often have low elastic modulus and strength, are soft, have high thermal expansion, and are therefore difficult to manufacture with high accuracy. (See also Chapter 10). 4.46 Describe the basic features of nondestructive testing techniques that use electrical energy.

4.44 Comment on the differences, if any, between (1) roundness and circularity, (2) roundness and eccentricity, and (3) roundness and cylindricity. (a) The terms roundness and circularity are usually interchangeable, with the term out of roundness being commonly used. Circularity is defined as the condition of a surface of revolution where all points of the surface intersected by any plane perpendicular to an axis or passing through a center are equidistant from the center. Also, we usually refer to a round shaft as being round, whereas there are components and parts in which only a portion of a surface is circular. (See, for example, circular interpolation in numerical control, described in Fig. 14.11c on p. 882).

Nondestructive testing techniques that use electrical energy are magnetic particle, ultrasonic, acoustic emission, radiography, eddy current, and holography. Their basic features are described in Section 4.8.1. 4.47 Identify the nondestructive techniques that are capable of detecting internal flaws and those that only detect external flaws. Internal flaws: ultrasonic, acoustic emission, radiography, and thermal. External flaws: liquid penetrants, magnetic particle, eddy current, and holography. Some of these techniques can be utilized for both types of defects. 4.48 Which of the nondestructive inspection techniques are suitable for nonmetallic materials? Why?

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By the student. Since nonmetallic materials are characterized by lack of electrical conductivity, techniques such as magnetic particle and eddy current would not be suitable.

will cause more of the sample points to fall outside the limits, as can be seen in Fig. 4.21c on p. 177, thus increasing the rejection rate.

4.49 Why is automated inspection becoming an important aspect of manufacturing engineering?

4.53 Identify factors that can cause a process to become out of control. Give several examples of such factors. This situation can occur because of various factors, such as:

As described throughout the text, almost all manufacturing equipment is now automated (see also Chapters 14 and 15). Consequently, inspection at various stages of production should also be automated in order to improve productivity, by keeping the flow of materials and products at an even, rapid pace.

(a) the gradual deterioration of coolant or lubricant, (b) debris interfering with the manufacturing operation,

4.50 Describe situations in which the use of destructive testing techniques is unavoidable. Destructive testing techniques will be necessary for determining, for example, the mechanical properties of products being made, because nondestructive techniques generally cannot do so. Such property determination requires test samples (as described throughout Chapter 2), such as from different regions of a forging or a casting, before proceeding with large-scale production of the product. This approach is particularly important for parts that are critical, such as jet-engine turbine components and medical implants.

(c) an increase or decrease in the temperature in a heat-treating operation, (d) a change in the properties of the incoming raw materials, and (e) a change in the environmental conditions, such as temperature, humidity, and air quality. The student is encouraged to give other examples. 4.54 In reading this chapter, you will have noted that the specific term dimensional tolerance is often used, rather than just the word tolerance. Do you think this distinction is important? Explain.

4.51 Should products be designed and built for a certain expected life? Explain. Product life cycle and cradle-to-cradle design are discussed in Section 16.4. The students are encouraged to review this material, as well as describe their own thoughts and cite their experiences with purchasing various products. This is an important topic, and includes several technical as well as economic considerations and personal choices. 4.52 What are the consequences of setting lower and upper specifications closer to the peak of the curve in Fig. 4.23? In statistical process control, setting the specifications closer to the center of the distribution

As a general term, tolerances relate not only to dimensions but to parameters such as the mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of materials, including their compositions. For example, in the electronics industry, there are tolerances with respect to part dimensions, but also with respect to electrical properties. In most mechanical engineering design applications, however, the distinction is not significant. 4.55 Give an example of an assignable variation and a chance variation. This topic is defined and described in Section 4.9.1 starting on p. 176, with an example on bending of beams to determine their strength. The students are encouraged to describe an example of their own.

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Problems 4.56 Referring to the surface profile in Fig. 4.3, give some numerical values for the vertical distances from the center line. Calculate the Ra and Rq values. Then give another set of values for the same general profile, and calculate the same quantities. Comment on your results. As an example, two students took the same figure and enlarged it, one with a copy machine, the other by scanning it into a computer and zooming in on the figure. The first student printed the figure on graph paper and interpolated numbers for points a through l. The second sketched a grid over the drawing and interpolated numbers as well. Their results are given as: Point a b c d e f g h i j k l

Student 1 3.8 2.5 4.0 5.5 2.0 -3.5 -5.0 -4.0 -4.0 -5.5 -3.5 -1.0

Student 2 5.0 3.0 5.5 7.5 2.5 -4.5 -6.5 -5.5 -5.0 -7.0 -4.5 -1.0

Ra 3.69 4.79 3.63

4.57 Calculate the ratio of Ra /Rq for (a) a sine wave, (b) a saw-tooth profile, (c) a square wave. This solution uses the continuous forms of roughness given by Eqs. (4.1) and (4.2) on p. 134. (a) The equation of a sine wave with amplitude a is 2πx y = a sin l Thus, Eq. (4.1) gives Z Z 1 l 2πx 2a l/2 2πx Ra = a sin dx = dx sin l 0 l l 0 l

Modified 2 3.79 2.27 4.17 5.69 1.90 -3.41 -4.93 -4.17 -3.79 -5.31 -3.41 -0.76

Integrating, Ra

l/2 2a l 2πx = − cos l 2π l 0 a a = − (cos π − cos 0) = − (−1 − 1) π π 2a = π

To evaluate Rq for a sine wave, recall that Z u 1 sin2 u du = − sin 2u 2 4 which can be obtained from any calculus book or table of integrals. Therefore, from Eq. (4.2), Z Z 1 l 2 1 l 2 2 2πx Rq2 = y dx = a sin dx l 0 l 0 l

Note that the scales are slightly off, due to the fact that the grids used were different. To have the same peak-to-peak value as Student 1, the values of Student 2 were scaled as in the Modified 2 column. The Ra and Rq values, as calculated from Eqs. (4.1) and (4.2) on p. 134, are: Source Student 1 Student 2 Modified 2

well; a second-order mapping of data points would improve the performance, however.

Evaluating the integral, l a2 l 2πx 1 4πx Rq2 = − sin l 2π 2l 4 l 0

Rq 5.45 5.12 3.88

= So that Rq =

Note that the roughness values depend on the scales used for the plots. When normalized linearly, so that the data has the same peak-topeak value, the Ra roughnesses match very well. However, the Rq roughness values do not match

a2 a2 [(π − 0) − (0 − 0)] = 2π 2 √a , 2

and

√ Ra 2a/π 2 2 = √ = ≈ 0.90 Rq π a/ 2 (b) For a saw-tooth profile, we can use symmetry to evaluate Ra and Rq over one-fourth of

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the saw tooth. The equation for the curve over this range is: 4a x y= l so that, from Eq. (4.1), 4 Ra = l

Z

l/4

0

The volume of the original specimen is (see Fig. 4.8 on p. 142): V =

or V = 0.0828 in3 . Note that the volume must remain constant, so that

4ax dx l

hπ 2 do − d2i = 0.0828 in3 4

Evaluating the integral, Ra =

16a l2

1 2 x 2

l/4 = 0

16a 1 l2 2

l2 a −0 = 16 2

or h=

From Eq. (4.2), 4 l

Rq2 =

Z

l/4

y 2 dx =

0

Z

4 l

l/4

0

64a2 l3

Therefore, Rq =

1 3 x 3

l/4

√a 3

and

= 0

0.105 d2o − d2i

Specimen 1 has not been deformed, so its dimensions are taken from Fig. 4.8. The remaining dimensions are scaled to be consistent with these values. The height value cannot be directly measured because of the angle of view in the figure; so these are calculated from volume constancy. Sample measurements are as follows:

2

16a 2 x dx l2

Evaluating the integral, Rq2 =

π(0.25) πh 2 do − d2i = 0.752 − 0.3752 4 4

64a2 1 l3 a2 = 3 l 3 64 3

ID 1 2 3 4

√ Ra a/2 3 √ = ≈ 0.866 = Rq 2 a/ 3

di di (in.) 0.375 0.477 0.282 0.1757

do (in.) 0.75 0.97 1.04 1.04

h (in.) 0.25 0.147 0.104 0.100

(c) For a square wave with amplitude a, Ra =

1 l

Z

Z

l

l

a dx = 0

The reduction in height is calculated from

a l (x)0 = a l

% Reduction in height =

and Rq2

1 = l

a2 dx =

0

ho − hf × 100 ho

and the values of the coefficient of friction are then obtained from Fig. 4.8a on p. 142 to obtain the following:

a2 l (x)0 = a2 l

so that Rq = a. Therefore, Ra a = = 1.0 Rq a 4.58 Refer to Fig. 4.7b and make measurements of the external and internal diameters(in the horizontal direction in the photograph) of the four specimens shown. Remembering that in plastic deformation the volume of the rings remains constant, calculate (a) the reduction in height and (b) the coefficient of friction for each of the three compressed specimens.

ID 1 2 3 4

% Reduction in height 0 41.2 58.4 60

% Reduction in di 0 -27.2 24.8 53.1

µ — 0.01 0.10 0.20

Note that the fricton coefficient increases as the test progresses. This is commonly observed in lubricated specimens, where the lubricant film is initially thick, but breaks down as the contact area between the ring and die increases.

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4.59 Using Fig. 4.8a, make a plot of the coefficient of friction versus the change in internal diameter for a reduction in height of (1) 25%, (2) 50%, and (3) 60%. Typical data obtained from Fig. 4.8a on p. 142 are summarized in the table below. Note that particular results may vary. % Change in Internal Diameter 20% Red. 40% Red. 60% Red. in height in height in height -12 -30 — -7 -16 -40 -4 -10 -24 -3 -5 -12 0 0 0 4 10 25 8 22 53 11 28 70 13 34 80 15 38 —

µ 0 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.055 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.577

4.61 How would you go about estimating forces required for roller burnishing? (Hint: Consider hardness testing.) The procedure would consist of first determining the contact area between the roller and the surface being burnished. The force is then the product of this area and the compressive stress on the workpiece material. Because of the constrained volume of material subjected to plastic deformation, the level of this stress is on the order of the hardness of the material, as described in Section 2.6.8 on p. 54, or about three times the yield stress for cold-worked metals; see also Fig. 2.24 on p. 55. 4.62 Estimate the plating thickness in electroplating a 50-mm solid metal ball using a current of 1 A and a plating time of 2 hours. Assume that c = 0.08. Note that the surface area of a sphere is A = 4πr2 , so that the volume of the plating is V = 4πr2 h, where h is the plating thickness. From Eq. (4.7) on p. 159,

The plot follows:

Friction Coefficient,

V = cIt = 4πr2 h 0.5

Solving for the plating thickness, and using proper units, we find

Red = 0.40

0.4

Red. = 0.20

0.3

h=

(0.08)(1)(7200) cIt = = 0.073 mm 4πr2 4π(25)2

0.2 0.1 0

4.63 Assume that a steel rule expands by 1% because of an increase in environmental temperature. What will be the indicated diameter of a shaft whose actual diameter is 50.00 mm?

Red = 0.60

-50

0

50

100

Reduction in internal diameter, %

The indicated diameter will be 50.00 0.01(50.00) = 49.50 mm. 4.60 In Example 4.1, assume that the coefficient of friction is 0.20. If all other initial parameters remain the same, what is the new internal diameter of the ring specimen? If µ=0.20, Fig. 4.8a on p. 142 shows that the reduction in inner diameter is about 34% for a reduction in height of 50%. Since the original ID is 15 mm, we therefore have

or IDfinal

4.64 Examine Eqs. (4.2) and (4.10). What is the relationship between Rq and σ? What would be the equation for the standard deviation of a continuous curve? The two equations are very similar. Note that if the mean is zero, then Eq. (4.10) on p. 178 is almost exactly the same as Eq. (4.2) on p. 134. When a large number of data points are considered, the equations are the same. Rq roughness can actually be thought of as the standard deviation of a curve about its mean line. The standard deviation of a continuous curve can

15 mm − IDfinal = 0.34 15 mm = 9.9 mm. 53

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simply be expressed by the analog portion of Eq. (4.2): s Z 1 l 2 y dx σ= l 0

4.67 In an inspection with a sample size of 10 and a sample number of 40, it was found that the average range was 10 and the average of averages was 75. Calculate the control limits for averages and ranges.

or, if the mean is µ, s Z 1 l 2 σ= (y − µ) dx l 0

From Table 4.3, we find that for a sample size of 10, we have A2 = 0.308, D4 = 1.777 and D3 = 0.223. Equations (4.11) and (4.12) on p. 180 give the upper and lower control limits for the averages as

4.65 Calculate the control limits for averages and ranges for the following: number of samples = ¯ = 7. ¯ = 50; R 7; x

¯ = (75) + (0.308)(10) = 78.080 ¯ + A2 R UCLx¯ = x ¯ = (75) − (0.308)(10) = 71.920 ¯ − A2 R LCLx¯ = x

From Table 4.3, we find that for a sample size of 7, we have A2 = 0.419, D4 = 1.924 and D3 = 0.078. Equations (4.11) and (4.12) give the upper and lower control limits for the averages as ¯ = 50 + (0.419)(7) = 52.933 ¯ + A2 R UCLx¯ = x

For the ranges, Eqs. (4.13) and (4.14) yield ¯ = (1.777)(10) = 17.77 UCLR = D4 R ¯ = (0.223)(10) = 2.23 LCRR = D3 R 4.68 Determine the control limits for the data shown in the following table:

¯ = 50 − (0.419)(7) = 47.067 ¯ − A2 R LCLx¯ = x For the ranges, Eqs. (4.13) and (4.14) yield

x1 0.65 0.69 0.65 0.64 0.68 0.70

¯ = (1.924)(7) = 13.468 UCLR = D4 R ¯ = (0.078)(7) = 0.546 LCRR = D3 R 4.66 Calculate the control limits for the following: ¯ = 40.5; UCLR = number of samples = 7; x 4.85. From Table 4.3, we find that for a sample size of 7, we have A2 = 0.419, D4 = 1.924 and D3 = 0.078. If the UCLR is 4.85, then from Eq. (4.14), ¯ UCLR = D4 R

¯ = UCLR = 4.85 = 2.521 R D4 1.924 Therefore, Eqs. (4.11) and (4.12) give the upper and lower control limits for the averages as ¯ = (40.5)+(0.419)(2.521) = 41.556 ¯+A2 R UCLx¯ = x ¯ = (40.5)−(0.419)(2.521) = 39.444 ¯−A2 R LCLx¯ = x Equation (4.14) gives: ¯ = (0.078)(2.521) = 0.197 LCLR = D3 R

x3 0.67 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.70 0.65

x4 0.65 0.68 0.61 0.60 0.66 0.71

Since the number of samples is 4, from Table 4.3 on p. 180 we find that A2 = 0.729, D4 = 2.282, and D3 = 0. We calculate averages and ranges and fill in the chart as follows: x1 0.65 0.69 0.65 0.64 0.68 0.70

¯ solving for R,

x2 0.75 0.73 0.68 0.65 0.72 0.74

x2 0.75 0.73 0.68 0.65 0.72 0.74

x3 0.67 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.70 0.65

x4 0.65 0.68 0.61 0.60 0.66 0.71

x ¯ 0.6800 0.7000 0.6475 0.6225 0.6900 0.7000

R 0.10 0.05 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.09

Therefore, the average of averages is x ¯ = ¯ = 0.07. 0.6733, and the average range is R Eqs. (4.11) and (4.12) give the upper and lower control limits for the averages as ¯ = (0.6733) + (0.729)(0.07) ¯ + A2 R UCLx¯ = x

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For a sample size of 7, we note from Table 4.3 on p. 180 that A2 = 0.419, D4 = 1.924, and D3 = 0.078. Equations (4.11) and (4.12) give the upper and lower control limits for the averages as

or UCLx¯ =0.7243. ¯ = (0.6733) − (0.729)(0.07) ¯ − A2 R LCLx¯ = x or LCLx¯ =0.6223. For the ranges, Eqs. (4.13) and (4.14) yield ¯ = (2.282)(0.07) = 0.1600 UCLR = D4 R

¯ = (125)+(0.419)(17.82) = 132.46 ¯+A2 R UCLx¯ = x

¯ = (0)(0.07) = 0 LCRR = D3 R

¯ = (125)−(0.419)(17.82) = 117.53 ¯−A2 R LCLx¯ = x

4.69 Calculate the mean, median and standard deviation for all of the data in Problem 4.68.

¯ = (1.924)(17.82) = 34.28 UCLR = D4 R

The mean is given by Eq. (4.8) on p. 178 as x ¯=

For the ranges, Eqs. (4.13) and (4.14) yield

¯ = (0.078)(17.82) = 1.390 LCRR = D3 R

0.65 + 0.75 + 0.67 + . . . + 0.71 = 0.6733 24

The median is obtained by arranging the data and finding the value that defines where 50% of the data is above that value. For the data in Problem 4.68, the median is between 0.67 and 0.68, so it is reported as 0.675. The standard deviation is given by Eq. (4.10) on p. 178 as r (0.65 − 0.6733)2 + . . . + (0.71 − 0.6733)2 σ= 23 which in this case is determined as σ = 0.0411. 4.70 The average of averages of a number of samples of size 7 was determined to be 125. The average range was 17.82, and the standard deviation was 5.85. The following measurements were taken in a sample: 120, 132, 124, 130, 118, 132, 121, and 127. Is the process in control?

For the sample shown, the average is x ¯ = 125.3 and the range is R = 132 − 118 = 14. These are both within their respective control limits, therefore the process is in control. Note that the standard deviation is 5.85, and Eq. (4.14) on p. 180 allows an alternative method of calculation of the average range. 4.71 Assume that you are asked to give a quiz to students on the contents of this chapter. Prepare three quantitative problems and three qualitative questions, and supply the answers. By the student. This is a challenging, openended question that requires considerable focus and understanding on the part of the students, and has been found to be a very valuable homework problem.

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Chapter 5

Metal-Casting Processes and Equipment; Heat Treatment Questions The most important factor is the thermal conductivity of the mold material; the higher the conductivity, the higher the heat transfer and the greater the tendency for the fluid to solidify, hence possibly impeding the free flow of the molten metal. Also, the higher the cooling rate of the surfaces of the casting in contact with the mold, the smaller the grain size and hence the higher the strength. The type of surfaces developed in the preparation of mold materials may also be different. For example, sandmold surfaces are likely be rougher than those of metal molds whose surfaces can be prepared to varying degrees of roughness, including the directions of roughness (lay).

5.1 Describe the characteristics of (1) an alloy, (2) pearlite, (3) austenite, (4) martensite, and (5) cementite. (a) Alloy: composed of two or more elements, at least one element is a metal. The alloy may be a solid solution or it may form intermetallic compounds. (b) Pearlite: a two-phase aggregate consisting of alternating lamellae of ferrite and cementite; the closer the pearlite spacing of lamellae, the harder the steel. (c) Austenite: also called gamma iron, it has a fcc crystal structure which allows for a greater solubility of carbon in the crystal lattice. This structure also possesses a high ductility, which increases the steel’s formability.

5.3 How does the shape of graphite in cast iron affect its properties? The shape of graphite in cast irons has the following basic forms:

(d) Martensite: forms by quenching austenite. It has a bct (body-centered tetragonal) structure, and the carbon atoms in interstitial positions impart high strength. It is hard and very brittle.

(a) Flakes. Graphite flakes have sharp edges which act as stress raisers in tension. This shape makes cast iron low in tensile strength and ductility, but it still has high compressive strength. On the other hand, the flakes also act as vibration dampers, a characteristic important in damping of machine-tool bases and other structures. (b) Nodules. Graphite can form nodules or spheroids when magnesium or cerium is

(e) Cementite: also known as iron-carbide (Fe3 C), it is a hard and brittle intermetallic phase. 5.2 What are the effects of mold materials on fluid flow and heat transfer? 1

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added to the melt. This form has increased ductility, strength, and shock resistance compared to flakes, but the damping ability is reduced. (c) Clusters. Graphite clusters are much like nodules, except that they form from the breakdown of white cast iron upon annealing. Clusters have properties that are basically similar to flakes. (d) Compacted flakes. These are short and thick flakes with rounded edges. This form has properties that are between nodular and flake graphite.

indicates that the material around the pores has to support a greater load than if no pores were present; thus, the strength is also lowered. Considering thermal and electrical conductivity, an internal defect such as a pore decreases both the thermal and electrical conductivity, nting that air is a very poor conductor. 5.7 A spoked hand wheel is to be cast in gray iron. In order to prevent hot tearing of the spokes, would you insulate the spokes or chill them? Explain. Referring to Table 5.1 on p. 206, we note that, during solidification, gray iron undergoes an expansion of 2.5%. Although this fact may suggest that hot tearing cannot occur, consideration must also be given to significant contraction of the spokes during cooling. Since the hottearing tendency will be reduced as the strength increases, it would thus be advisable to chill the spokes to develop this strength.

5.4 Explain the difference between short and long freezing ranges. How are they determined? Why are they important? Freezing range is defined by Eq. (5.3) on p. 196 in terms of temperature difference. Referring to Fig. 5.6 on p. 197, note that once the phase diagram and the composition is known, we can determine the freezing range, TL − TS . As described in Section 5.3.2 on p. 196, the freezing range has an important influence on the formation and size of the mushy zone, and, consequently, affects structure-property relationships of the casting.

5.8 Which of the following considerations are important for a riser to function properly? (1) Have a surface area larger than that of the part being cast. (2) Be kept open to atmospheric pressure. (3) Solidify first. Explain.

5.5 We know that pouring molten metal at a high rate into a mold has certain disadvantages. Are there any disadvantages to pouring it very slowly? Explain.

Both (1) and (3) would result in a situation contrary to a riser’s purpose. That is, if a riser solidifies first, it cannot feed the mold cavity. However, concerning (2), an open riser has some advantages over closed risers. Recognizing that open risers have the danger of solidifying first, they must be sized properly for proper function. But if the riser is correctly sized so that it remains a reservoir of molten metal to accommodate part shrinkage during solidification, an open riser helps exhaust gases from the mold during pouring, and can thereby eliminate some associated defects. A so-called blind riser that is not open to the atmosphere may cause pockets of air to be trapped, or increased dissolution of air into the metal, leading to defects in the cast part. For these reasons, the size and placement of risers is one of the most difficult challenges in designing molds.

There are disadvantages to pouring metal slowly. Besides the additional time needed for mold filling, the liquid metal may solidify or partially solidify while still in the gating system or before completely filling the mold, resulting in an incomplete or partial casting. This can have extremely detrimental effects in a tree of parts, as in investment casting. 5.6 Why does porosity have detrimental effects on the mechanical properties of castings? Which physical properties are also affected adversely by porosity? Pores are, in effect, internal discontinuities that are prone to cracking and crack propagation. Thus, the toughness of a material will decrease as a result of porosity. Furthermore, the presence of pores in a piece of metal under tension

5.9 Explain why the constant C in Eq. (5.9) depends on mold material, metal properties, and temperature. 2

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The constant C takes into account various factors such as the thermal conductivity of the mold material and external temperature. For example, Zircon sand has a higher thermal conductivity than basic silica sand, and as a result, a casting in Zircon (of equal volume and surface area) will require less time to solidify than that cast in silica.

As gray cast iron solidifies, a period of graphitization occurs during the final stages, which causes an expansion that counteracts the shrinkage of the metal. This results in an overall expansion.

(a) The material from which the chill is made should be compatible with the metal being cast (it should have approximately the same composition of the metal being poured). (b) The chill must be clean, that is, without any lubricant or coating on the surface, because any gas evolved when the molten metal contacts the chill may not readily escape. (c) The chill may not fuse with the casting, developing regions of weakness or stress concentration. If these factors are understood and provided for, the fact that a piece of the chill remains within the casting is generally of no significant concern.

5.11 How can you tell whether a cavity in a casting are due to porosity or to shrinkage?

5.14 Are external chills as effective as internal chills? Explain.

Evidence of which type of porosity is present, i.e., gas or shrinkage, can be gained by studying the location and shape of the cavity. If the porosity is near the mold surface, core surface, or chaplet surface, it is most likely to be gas porosity. However, if the porosity occurs in an area considered to be a hot spot in the casting (see Fig. 5.37 on p. 249), it is most likely to be shrinkage porosity. Furthermore, gas porosity has smooth surfaces (much like the holes in Swiss cheese) and is often, though not always, generally spherical in shape. Shrinkage porosity has a more textured and jagged surface, and is generally irregular in shape.

The effectiveness will depend on the location of the region to be chilled in the mold. If a region needs to be chilled (say, for example, to directionally solidify a casting), an external chill can be as effective as an internal chill. Often, however, chilling is required at some depth beneath the surface of a casting to be effective. For this condition an internal chill would be more effective.

5.10 Explain why gray iron undergoes expansion, rather than contraction, during solidification.

5.15 Do you think early formation of dendrites in a mold can impede the free flow of molten metal into the mold? Explain. Consider the solidification of an alloy with a very long freezing range. The mushy zone for this alloy will also be quite large (see Fig. 5.6). Since the mushy condition consists of interlacing dendrites surrounded by liquid, it is apparent that this condition will restrict fluid flow, as also confirmed in practice.

5.12 Explain the reasons for hot tearing in castings. Hot tearing is a result of tensile stresses that develop upon contraction during solidification in molds and cores if they are not sufficiently collapsible and/or do not allow movement under the resulting pressure during shrinkage.

5.16 Is there any difference in the tendency for shrinkage void formation for metals with short freezing and long freezing ranges, respectively? Explain.

5.13 Would you be concerned about the fact that a portion of an internal chill is left within the casting? What materials do you think chills should be made of, and why?

In an alloy with a long freezing range, the presence of a large mushy zone is more likely to occur, and thus the formation of miocroporosity. However, in an alloy with a short freezing range, the formation of gross shrinkage voids is more likely to occur.

The fact that a part of the chill remains within the casting should be a consideration in the design of parts to be cast. The following factors are important: 3

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5.17 It has long been observed by foundrymen that low pouring temperatures (that is, low superheat) promote equiaxed grains over columnar grains. Also, equiaxed grains become finer as the pouring temperature decreases. Explain the reasons for these phenomena.

to ensure that it will not solidify first. A blind riser is less prone to this phenomenon, as it is in contact with the mold on all surfaces; thus a blind riser may be made smaller. 5.20 Would you recommend preheating the molds in permanent-mold casting? Also, would you remove the casting soon after it has solidified? Explain.

Equiaxed grains are present in castings near the mold wall where rapid cooling and solidification take place by heat transfer through the relatively cool mold. With low pouring temperature, cooling to the solidification temperature is faster because there is less heat stored in the molten metal. With a high pouring temperature, cooling to the solidification temperature is slower, especially away from the mold wall. The mold still dissipates heat, but the metal remains molten for a longer period of time, thus producing columnar grains in the direction of heat conduction. As the pouring temperature is decreased, equiaxed grains should become finer because the cooling is more rapid and large grains do not have time to form from the molten metal.

Preheating the mold in permanent-mold casting is advisable in order to reduce the chilling effect of the metal mold which could lead to low metal fluidity and the problems that accompany this condition. Also, the molds are heated to reduce thermal damage which may result from repeated contact with the molten metal. Considering casting removal, the casting should be allowed to cool in the mold until there is no danger of distortion or developing defects during shakeout. While this may be a very short period of time for small castings, large castings may require an hour or more. 5.21 In a sand-casting operation, what factors determine the time at which you would remove the casting from the mold?

5.18 What are the reasons for the large variety of casting processes that have been developed over the years?

This question is an important one for any casting operation, not just sand casting, because a decrease in production time will result in a decrease in product cost. Therefore, a casting ideally should be removed at the earliest possible time. Factors which affect time are the thermal conductivity of the mold-material and of the cast metal, the thickness and the overall size of the casting, and the temperature at which the metal is being poured.

By the student. There are several acceptable answers depending on the interpretation of the problem by the student. Students may approach this as processes that are application driven, material driven, or economics driven. For example, while investment casting is more expensive than sand casting, closer dimensional tolerances and better surface finish are possible. Thus, for certain parts such as barrels for handguns, investment casting is preferable. Consider also the differences between the hotand cold-chamber permanent-mold casting operations.

5.22 Explain why the strength-to-weight ratio of diecast parts increases with decreasing wall thickness. Because the metal die acts as a heat sink for the molten metal, the metal chills rapidly, developing a fine-grain hard skin with higher strength. As a result, the strength-to-weight ratio of diecast parts increases with decreasing wall thickness.

5.19 Why can blind risers be smaller than open-top risers? Risers are used as reservoirs for a casting in regions where shrinkage is expected to occur, i.e, areas which are the last to solidify. Thus, risers must be made large enough to ensure that they are the last to solidify. If a riser solidifies before the cavity it is to feed, it is useless. As a result, an open riser in contact with air must be larger

5.23 We note that the ductility of some cast alloys is very low (see Fig. 5.13). Do you think this should be a significant concern in engineering applications of castings? Explain. 4

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The low ductility of some cast alloys should certainly be taken into consideration in the engineering application of the casting. The low ductility will:

coating on the pattern (which then becomes the mold) consists of very fine silica, thus contributing to the fine surface detail of the cast product. 5.27 Explain why a casting may have a slightly different shape than the pattern used to make the mold.

(a) affect properties, such as toughness and fatigue, (b) have a significant influence on further processing and finishing of the casting, i.e., machining processes, such as milling, drilling, and tapping, and

After solidification, shrinkage continues until the casting cools to room temperature. Also, due to surface tension, the solidifying metal will, when surface tension is high enough, not fully conform to sharp corners and other intricate surface features. Thus, the cast shape will generally be slightly different from that of the pattern used.

(c) possibly affect tribological behavior. It should be noted that many engineering applications do not require high ductility; for example, when stresses are sufficiently small to ensure the material remains elastic and where impact loads do not occur.

5.28 Explain why squeeze casting produces parts with better mechanical properties, dimensional accuracy, and surface finish than expendablemold processes.

5.24 The modulus of elasticity of gray iron varies significantly with its type, such as the ASTM class. Explain why.

The squeeze-casting process consists of a combination of casting and forging. The pressure applied to the molten metal by the punch, or upper die, keeps the entrapped gases in solution, and thus porosity is generally not found in these products. Also, the rapid heat transfer results in a fine microstructure with good mechanical properties. Due to the applied pressure and the type of die used, i.e., metal, good dimensional accuracy and surface finish are typically found in squeeze-cast parts.

Because the shape, size, and distribution of the second-phase (i.e., the graphite flakes) vary greatly for gray cast irons, there is a large corresponding variation of properties attainable. The elastic modulus, for example, is one property which is affected by this factor. 5.25 List and explain the considerations involved in selecting pattern materials. Pattern materials have a number of important material requirements. Often, they are machined, thus good machinability is a requirement. The material should be sufficiently stiff to allow good shape development. The material must have sufficient wear and corrosion resistance so that the pattern has a reasonable life. The economics of the operation is affected also by material cost.

5.29 Why are steels more difficult to cast than cast irons?

5.26 Why is the investment-casting process capable of producing fine surface detail on castings?

5.30 What would you recommend to improve the surface finish in expendable-mold casting processes?

The primary reason steels are more difficult to cast than cast irons is that they melt at a higher temperature. The high temperatures complicate mold material selection, preparation, and techniques involved for heating and pouring of the metal.

The surface detail of the casting depends on the quality of the pattern surface. In investment casting, for example, the pattern is made of wax or a thermoplastic poured or injected into a metal die with good surface finish. Consequently, surface detail of the casting is very good and can be controlled. Furthermore, the

One method of improving the surface finish of castings is to use what is known as a facing sand, such as Zircon. This is a sand having better properties (such as permeability and surface finish) than bulk sand, but is generally more expensive. Thus, facing sand is used as a first 5

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layer against the pattern, with the rest of the mold being made of less expensive (silica) sand.

5.35 Explain the difference in the importance of drafts in green-sand casting vs. permanentmold casting.

5.31 You have seen that even though die casting produces thin parts, there is a limit to the minimum thickness. Why can’t even thinner parts be made by this process?

Draft is provided to allow the removal of the pattern without damaging the mold. If the mold material is sand and has no draft, the mold cavity is likely to be damaged upon pattern removal, due to the low strength of the sand mold. However, a die made of highstrength steel, which is typical for permanentmold castings, is not at all likely to be damaged during the removal of the part; thus smaller draft angles can be employed.

Because of the high thermal conductivity that metal dies exhibit, there is a limiting thickness below which the molten metal will solidify prematurely before filling the mold cavity. Also, the finite viscosities of the molten metal (which increases as it begins to cool) will require higher pressures to force the metal into the narrow passages of the die cavities.

5.36 Make a list of the mold and die materials used in the casting processes described in this chapter. Under each type of material, list the casting processes that are used, and explain why these processes are suitable for that particular mold or die material.

5.32 What differences, if any, would you expect in the properties of castings made by permanentmold vs. sand-casting methods? As described in the text, permanent-mold castings generally possess better surface finish, closer tolerances, more uniform mechanical properties, and more sound thin-walled sections than sand castings. However, sand castings generally can have more intricate shapes, larger overall size, and lower in cost (depending upon the alloy) than permanent-mold castings.

This is an open-ended problem, and students should be encouraged to develop an answer based on the contents of this chapter. An example of an acceptable answer would, in a brief form, be: • Sand: Used because of its ability to resist very high temperatures, availability, and low cost. Used for sand, shell, expandedpattern, investment, and ceramic-mold casting processes. • Metal: Such as steel or iron. Results in excellent surface finish and good dimensional accuracy. Used for die, slush, pressure, centrifugal, and squeeze-casting processes. • Graphite: Used for conditions similar to those for metal molds; however, lower pressures should be employed for this material. Used mainly in pressure- and centrifugal-casting. • Plaster of paris: Used in plaster-mold casting for the production of relatively small components, such as fittings and valves.

5.33 Which of the casting processes would be suitable for making small toys in large numbers? Explain. This is an open-ended problem, and the students should give a rationale for their choice. Refer also to Table 5.2 and note that die casting is one of the best processes for this application. The student should refer to the application requiring large production runs, so that tooling cost per casting can be low, the sizes possible in die casting are suitable for such toys, and the dimensional tolerances and surface finish are acceptable. 5.34 Why are allowances provided for in making patterns? What do they depend on? Shrinkage allowances on patterns are corrections for the shrinkage that occurs upon solidification of the casting and its subsequent contraction while cooling to room temperature. The allowance will therefore depend on the amount of contraction an alloy undergoes.

5.37 Explain why carbon is so effective in imparting strength to iron in the form of steel. Carbon has an atomic radius that is about 57% of the iron atom, thus it occupies an interstitial position in the iron unit cell (see Figs. 3.2 on 6

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p. 84 and 3.9 on p. 90). However, because its radius is greater than that of the largest hole between the Fe atoms, it strains the lattice, thus interfering with dislocation movement and leading to strain hardening. Also, the size of the carbon atom allows it to have a high solubility in the fcc high-temperature phase of iron (austenite). At low temperatures, the structure is bcc and has a very low solubility of carbon atoms. On quenching, the austenitic structure transforms to body-centered tetragonal (bct) martensite, which produces high distortion in the crystal lattice. Because it is higher, the strength increase is more than by other element additions.

Case hardening is a treatment that hardens only the surface layer of the part (see Table 5.7 on p. 242). The bulk retains its toughness, which allows for blunting of surface cracks as they propagate inward. Case hardening generally induces compressive residual stresses on the surface, thus retarding fatigue failure. Through hardened parts have a high hardness across the whole part; consequently, a crack could propagate easily through the cross section of the part, causing major failure. 5.42 Type metal is a bismuth alloy used to cast type for printing. Explain why bismuth is ideal for this process.

5.38 Describe the engineering significance of the existence of a eutectic point in phase diagrams.

When one considers the use of type or for precision castings such as mechanical typewriter impressions, one realizes that the type tool must have extremely high precision and smooth surfaces. A die casting using most metals would have shrinkage that would result in the distortion of the type, or even the metal shrinking away from the mold wall. Since bismuth expands during solidification, the molten metal can actually expand to fill molds fully, thereby ensuring accurate casting and repeatable typefaces.

The eutectic point corresponds to a composition of an alloy that has a lowest melting temperature for that alloy system. The low melting temperature associated with a eutectic point can, for example, help in controlling thermal damage to parts during joining, as is done in soldering. (See Section 12.13.3 starting on p. 776). 5.39 Explain the difference between hardness and hardenability.

5.43 Do you expect to see larger solidification shrinkage for a material with a bcc crystal structure or fcc? Explain.

Hardness represents the material’s resistance to plastic deformation when indented (see Section 2.6 starting on p. 51), while hardenability is the material’s capability to be hardened by heat treatment. (See also Section 5.11.1 starting on p. 236).

The greater shrinkage would be expected from the material with the greater packing efficiency or atomic packing factor (APF) in a solid state. Since the APF for fcc is 0.74 and for bcc it is 0.68, one would expect a larger shrinkage for a material with a fcc structure. This can also been seen from Fig. 3.2 on p. 84. Note, however, that for an alloy, the answer is not as simple, since it must be determined if the alloying element can fit into interstitial positions or serves as a substitutional element.

5.40 Explain why it may be desirable or necessary for castings to be subjected to various heat treatments. The morphology of grains in an as-cast structure may not be desirable for commercial applications. Thus, heat treatments, such as quenching and tempering (among others), are carried out to optimize the grain structure of castings. In this manner, the mechanical properties can be controlled and enhanced.

5.44 Describe the drawbacks to having a riser that is (a) too large, or (b) too small. The main drawbacks to having a riser too large are: the material in the riser is eventually scrapped and has to be recycled; the riser hass to be cut off, and a larger riser will cost more

5.41 Describe the differences between case hardening and through hardening insofar as engineering applications are concerned. 7

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to machine; an excessively large riser slows solidification; the riser may interfere with solidification elsewhere in the casting; the extra metal may cause buoyancy forces sufficient to separate the mold halves, unless they are properly weighted or clamped. The drawbacks to having too small a riser are mainly associated with defects in the casting, either due to insufficient feeding of liquid to compensate for solidification shrinkage, or shrinkage pores because the solidification front is not uniform.

5.47 Explain the significance of the “tree” in investment casting. The tree is important because it allows simultaneous casting of several parts. Since significant labor is involved in the production of each mold, this strategy of increasing the number of parts that are poured per mold is critical to the economics of investment casting. 5.48 Sketch the microstructure you would expect for a slab cast through (a) continuous casting, (b) strip casting, and (c) melt spinning.

5.45 If you were to incorporate lettering on a sand casting, would you make the letters protrude from the surface or recess into the surface? What if the part were to be made by investment casting?

Processing direction

The microstructures are as follows:

In sand casting, where a pattern must be prepared and used, it is easier to produce letters and numbers by machining them into the surface of a pattern; thus the pattern will have recessed letters. The sand mold will then have protruding letters, as long as the pattern is faithfully reproduced. The final part will then have recessed letters.

Continuous cast

Strip cast

Melt spun

Note that the continuous cast structure shows the columnar grains growing away from the mold wall. The strip-cast metal has been hot rolled immediately after solidification, and is shown as quenched, prior it is annealed to obtain an equiaxed structure. The melt-spun structure solidifies so rapidly that there are no clear grains (an amorphous metal).

In investment casting, the patterns are produced through injection molding. It is easier to include recessed lettering in the injection molding die (instead of machining protruding letters). Thus, the mold will have recessed letters and the pattern will have protruding letters. Since the pattern is a replica of the final part, the part will also have protruding letters.

5.49 The general design recommendations for a well in sand casting are that (a) its diameter should be twice the sprue exit diameter, and (b) the depth should be approximately twice the depth of the runner. Explain the consequences of deviating from these rules.

In summary, it is generally easier to produce recessed letters in sand castings and protruding letters in investment casting. 5.46 List and briefly explain the three mechanisms by which metals shrink during casting.

Refer to Figure 5.10 for terminology used in this problem. (a) Regarding this rule, if the well diameter is much larger than twice the exit diameter, liquid will not fill the well and aspiration of the molten metal may result. On the other hand, if the diameter is small compared to the sprue exit diameter, and recognizing that wells are generally not tapered, then there is a fear of aspiration within the well (see the discussion of sprue profile in Section 5.4 starting on p. 199.

Metals shrink by: (a) Thermal contraction in the liquid phase from superheat temperature to solidification temperature, (b) Solidification shrinkage, and (c) Thermal contraction in the solid phase from the solidification temperature to room temperature. 8

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(b) If the well is not deeper than the runner, then turbulent metal first splashed into the well is immediately fed into the casting, leading to aspiration and associated defects. If the well is much deeper, then the metal remains in the well and can solidify prematurely.

The cube and the pipe are left to be completed by the student. 5.52 What are the benefits and drawbacks to having a pouring temperature that is much higher than the metal’s melting temperature? What are the advantages and disadvantages in having the pouring temperature remain close to the melting temperature?

5.50 Describe the characteristics of thixocasting and rheocasting.

If the pouring temperature is much higher than that of the mold temperature, there is less danger that the metal will solidify in the mold, and it is likely that even intricate molds can be fully filled. This situation makes runners, gates, wells, etc., easier to design because their cross sections are less critical for complete mold filling. The main drawback is that there is an increased likelihood of shrinkage pores, cold shuts, and other defects associated with shrinkage. Also there is an increased likelihood of entrained air since the viscosity of the metal will be lower at the higher pouring temperature. If the pouring temperature is close to the melting temperature, there will be less likelihood of shrinkage porosity and entrained air. However, there is the danger of the molten metal solidifying in a runner before the mold cavity is completely filled; this may be overcome with higher injection pressures, but clearly has a cost implication.

Thixocasting and rheocasting involve casting operations where the alloy is in the slushy stage. Often, ultrasonic vibrations will be used to ensure that dendrites remain in solution, so that the metal is a slurry of molten continuous phase and suspended particles. In such casting operations, the molten metal has a lower superheat and, therefore, requires less cycle time, and shrinkage defects and porosity can be decreased. This is further described in Section 5.10.6 starting on p. 233. 5.51 Sketch the temperature profile you would expect for (a) continuous casting of a billet, (b) sand casting of a cube, (c) centrifugal casting of a pipe. This would be an interesting finite-element assignment if such software is made available to the students. Consider continuous casting. The liquid portion has essentially a constant temperature, as there is significant stirring of the liquid through the continuous addition of molten metal. The die walls extract heat, and the coolant spray at the die exterior removes heat even more aggressively. Thus, a sketch of the isotherms in continuous casting would be as follows: Mold

5.53 What are the benefits and drawbacks to heating the mold in investment casting before pouring in the molten metal? Heating the mold in investment casting is advisable in order to reduce the chilling effect of the mold, which otherwise could lead to low metal fluidity and the problems that accompany this condition. Molds are usually preheated to some extent. However, excessive heating will compromise the strength of the mold, resulting in erosion and associated defects.

Molten metal

Conduction boundary

5.54 Can a chaplet also act as a chill? Explain. A chaplet is used to position a core. It has a geometry that can either rest against a mold face or it can be inserted into a mold face. If the chaplet is a thermally conductive material, it can also serve as a chill.

Convection boundary Isotherms

9

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5.55 Rank the casting processes described in this chapter in terms of their solidification rate. For example, which processes extract heat the fastest from a given volume of metal and which is the slowest? There is, as expected, some overlap between the various processes, and the rate of heat transfer can be modified whenever desired. However, a general ranking in terms of rate of heat extraction is as follows: Die casting (cold chamber), squeeze casting, centrifugal casting, slush cast-

ing, die casting (hot chamber), permanent mold casting, shell mold casting, investment casting, sand casting, lost foam, ceramic-mold casting, and plaster-mold casting. 5.56 The heavy regions of parts typically are placed in the drag in sand casting and not in the cope. Explain why. A simple explanation is that if they were to be placed in the cope, they would develop a high buoyancy force that would tend to separate the mold and thus develop flashes on the casting.

Problems 5.57 Referring to Fig. 5.3, estimate the following quantities for a 20% Cu-80% Ni alloy: (1) liquidus temperature, (2) solidus temperature, (3) percentage of nickel in the liquid at 1400◦ C (2550◦ F), (4) the major phase at 1400◦ C, and (5) the ratio of solid to liquid at 1400◦ C. We estimate the following quantities from Fig. 5.3 on p. 192: (1) The liquidus temperature is 1400◦ C (2550◦ F). (2) The solidus temperature is 1372◦ C (2500◦ F). (3) At 2550◦ F, the alloy is still all liquid, thus the nickel concentration is 80%. (4) The major phase at 1400◦ C is liquid, with no solids present since the alloy is not below the liquidus temperature. (5) The ratio is zero, since no solid is present.

5.58 Determine the amount of gamma and alpha phases (see Fig. 5.4b) in a 10-kg, AISI 1060 steel casting as it is being cooled to the following temperatures: (1) 750◦ C, (2) 728◦ C, and (3) 726◦ C.

rule (see Example 5.1): xγ − xo %α = × 100% xγ − xα 0.77 − 0.60 × 100% = 0.77 − 0.022 = 23% or 2.3 kg

%γ

xo − xα × 100% xγ − xα 0.60 − 0.022 = × 100% 0.77 − 0.022 = 77% or 7.7 kg =

(c) At 726◦ C, the alloy is in the two-phase alpha and Fe3 C field. No gamma phase is present. Again the lever rule is used to find the amount of alpha present: 6.67 − 0.60 × 100% = 91% or 9.1 kg %α = 6.67 − 0.022 5.59 A round casting is 0.3 m in diameter and 0.5 m in length. Another casting of the same metal is elliptical in cross section, with a major-tominor axis ratio of 3, and has the same length and cross sectional area as the round casting. Both pieces are cast under the same conditions. What is the difference in the solidification times of the two castings?

We determine the following quantities from Fig. 5.6 on p. 197: (a) At 750◦ C, the alloy is just in the single-phase austenite (gamma) region, thus the percent gamma is 100% (10 kg), and alpha is 0%. (b) At 728◦ C, the alloy is in the two-phase gamma-alpha field, and the weight percentages of each is found by the lever 10

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For the same length and cross sectional area (thus the same volume), and the same casting conditions, the same C value in Eq. (5.11) on p. 205 on p. 205 should be applicable. The surface area and volume of the round casting is

Similarly, ho +

v2 p2 v2 po + o = h2 + + 2 +f ρg 2g ρg 2g

or

Around = 2πrl + 2πr2 = 0.613 m2

v2 =

Vround = πr2 l = 0.0353 in2

Substituting these results into the continuity equation given by Eq. (5.6), we have

Since the cross-sectional area of the ellipse is the same as that for the cylinder, and it has a major and minor diameter of a and b, respectively, where a = 3b, then

A1 v1 = A2 v2

r

(0.15)2 3 or b = 0.0866 m, so that a = 0.260 m. The surface area of the ellipse-based part is (see a basic geometry text for the area equation derivations): p Aellipse = 2πab + 2π a2 + b2 l = 1.002 m2 3b = r

2

→

b=

The volume is still 0.0353 in2 . According to Eq. (5.11) on p. 205, we thus have 2 2 Tround Aellipse (V /Around ) = = = 2.67 Tellipse (V /Aellipse )2 Around 5.60 Derive Eq. (5.7). We note that Eq. (5.5) on p. 200 gives a relationship between height, h, and velocity, v, and Eq. (5.6) on p. 201 gives a relationship between height, h, and cross sectional area, A. With the reference plate at the top of the pouring basin (and denoted as subscript 0), the sprue top is denoted as 1, and the bottom as 2. Note that h2 is numerically greater than h1 . At the top of the sprue we have vo = 0 and ho = 0. As a first approximation, assume that the pressures po , p1 and p2 are equal and that the frictional loss f is negligible. Thus, from Eq. (5.5) we have ho +

v2 p1 v2 po + o = h1 + + 1 +f ρg 2g ρg 2g

v12 2g

→

v1 =

which is the desired relationship. 5.61 Two halves of a mold (cope and drag) are weighted down to keep them from separating due to the pressure exerted by the molten metal (buoyancy). Consider a solid, spherical steel casting, 9 in. in diameter, that is being produced by sand casting. Each flask (see Fig. 5.10) is 20 in. by 20 in. and 15 in. deep. The parting line is at the middle of the part. Estimate the clamping force required. Assume that the molten metal has a density of 500 lb/ft3 and that the sand has a density of 100 lb/ft3 , The force exerted by the molten metal is the product of its cross-sectional area at the parting line and the pressure of the molten metal due to the height of the sprue. Assume that the sprue has the same height as the cope, namely, 15 in. The pressure of the molten metal is the product of height and density. Assuming a density for the molten metal of 500 lb/ft3 , the pressure at the parting line will be (500)(15/12) = 625 lb/ft2 , or 4.34 psi. The buoyancy force is the product of projected area and pressure, or (625)(π)(9/12)2 = 1100 lb. The net volume of the sand in each flask is 4π V = (20)(20)(15) − (0.5) (9)3 3 or V = 4473 in3 = 2.59 ft3 . For a sand density of 100 lb/ft3 , the cope weighs 454 lb. Under these circumstances, a clamping force of 1100 − 259 ≈ 850 lb is required.

or, solving for v1 , 0 = h1 +

p p 2gh1 = A2 2gh2 r √ 2gh2 h2 A1 = =√ A2 h1 2gh1

A1

πab = πr2 2

p 2gh2

p 2gh1 11

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The position of the parting line does have an influence on the answer to Problem 5.54, because (a) the projected area of the molten metal will be different and (b) the weight of the cope will also be different.

1500 Clamp force, lb

5.62 Would the position of the parting line in Problem 5.61 influence your answer? Explain.

3

261 lb/ft

0 0

5 10 15 Casting diameter, in.

20

5.64 Sketch a graph of specific volume vs. temperature for a metal that shrinks as it cools from the liquid state to room temperature. On the graph, mark the area where shrinkage is compensated for by risers. The graph is as follows. See also Fig. 5.1b on p. 189. Shrinkage of solid Specific density

=

500

-500

5.63 Plot the clamping force in Problem 5.61 as a function of increasing diameter of the casting, from 10 in. to 20 in. Note in this problem that as the diameter of the casting increases, the cross-sectional area of the molten metal increases, hence the buoyancy force also increases. At the same time, the weight of the cope decreases because of the larger space taken up by the molten metal. Using the same approach as in Problem 5.61, the weight of the casting as a function of diameter is given by π d3 Fb = ρV = (500) 6

1000

d3

The volume of sand in the cope is given by: 3 π 1 V = (20)(20)(15) − (0.5) d3 12 6

Shrinkage of liquid

Shrinkage compensated Solidification by riser shrinkage Shrinkage compensated by patternmaker's rule

3.47 ft3 − 0.261d3

=

Time

Therefore, the weight of the sand is given by: Fw

= ρsand V 3 = 100 lb/ft 3.47 ft3 − 0.261d3 3 = 347 lb − 26.1 lb/ft d3

5.65 A round casting has the same dimensions as in Problem 5.59. Another casting of the same metal is rectangular in cross-section, with a width-to-thickness ratio of 3, and has the same length and cross-sectional area as the round casting. Both pieces are cast under the same conditions. What is the difference in the solidification times of the two castings?

The required clamping force is given by equilibrium as Fc

= Fb − Fw 3 = 261 lb/ft d3 − 347 lb 3 + 26.1 lb/ft d3 3 = 287 lb/ft d3 − 347 lb

The castings have the same length and crosssectional area (thus the same volume) and the same casting conditions, hence the same C value. The total surface area of the round casting, with l = 500 mm and r = 150 mm, is

This equation is plotted below. Note that for a small diameter, no clamping force is needed, as the weight of the cope is sufficient to hold the cope and drag together.

Around

= = =

2πrl + 2πr2 2π(150)(500) + 2π(150)2 6.13 × 105 mm2

12

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The cross-sectional area of the round casting is πr2 = π(150)2 = 70, 680 mm2 . The rectangular cross section has sides x and 3x, so that 70, 680 = 3x2

→

Aplate

x = 153 mm

= =

2L2 + 4Lh 2(0.144)2 + 4(0.144)(0.075)

or Aplate = 0.0847 m2 . From Eq. (5.11) on p. 205 on p. 205, 2 0.00157 tplate = C = 3.43 × 10−4 C 0.0847

hence the perimeter of the rectangular casting with the same cross-sectional area and axes ratio of 3 is 1228 mm. The total surface area is Arect = 2(70, 680) + (1228)(500)

Therefore, the cylindrical casting will take longer to solidify and will thus require a larger riser.

or Arect = 7.55 × 105 mm2 . According to Chvorinov’s rule, cooling time for a constant volume is inversely proportional to surface area squared. Therefore, 2 6.13 × 105 trect = = 0.66 tround 7.55 × 105 5.66 A 75-mm thick square plate and a right circular cylinder with a radius of 100 mm and height of 50 mm each have the same volume. If each is to be cast using a cylindrical riser, will each part require the same size riser to ensure proper feeding of the molten metal? Explain. Recall that it is important for the riser to solidify after the casting has solidified. A casting that solidifies rapidly would most likely require a smaller riser than one which solidifies over a longer period of time. Lets now calculate the relative solidification times, using Chvorinov’s rule given by Eq. (5.11) on p. 205 on p. 205. For the cylindrical part, we have

5.67 Assume that the top of a round sprue has a diameter of 4 in. and is at a height of 12 in. from the runner. Based on Eq. (5.7), plot the profile of the sprue diameter as a function of its height. Assume that the sprue has a diameter of 1 in. at its bottom. From Eq. (5.7) on p. 201 and substituting for the area, it can be shown that r h d21 = d2 h1 Therefore, s r d=

Vcylinder = πr2 h = π(0.1 m)2 (0.050 m) or Vcylinder = 0.00157 m3 . The surface area of the cylinder is Acylinder

Solving for L yields L = 0.144 m. Therefore,

= 2πr2 + 2πrh = 2π(0.1)2 + 2π(0.1)(0.05) = 0.0942 m2

d21

h1 h

→

d = Ch−0.25

The difficulty here is that the reference location for height measurements is not known. Often chokes or wells are used to control flow, but this problem will be solved assuming that proper flow is to be attained by considering hydrodynamics in the design of the sprue. The boundary conditions are that at h = ho , d = 4 (where ho is the height at the top of the sprue from the reference location) and at h = ho +12 in., d = 1 in. The first boundary condition yields 4 = C(ho )−0.25

or C = 4h0.25 o

Thus, from Eq. (5.11) on p. 205 on p. 205, 2 0.00157 tcylinder = C = 2.78 × 10−4 C 0.0942

The second boundary condition yields 1 = C(ho + 12)−0.25 = 4h0.25 (ho + 12)−0.25 o

For a square plate with sides L and height h = 0.075 m, and the same volume as the cylinder, we have

This equation is solved as ho = 0.047 in., so that C = 1.863. These values are substituted into the expression above to obtain

Vplate = 0.00157 m3 = L2 h = L2 (0.075 m)

d = 1.863(h + 0.047)−0.25 13

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Note that ho is the location of the bottom of the sprue and that the sprue is axisymmetric. The sprue shape, based on this curve, is shown below. 4 in

5.69 When designing patterns for casting, patternmakers use special rulers that automatically incorporate solid shrinkage allowances into their designs. Therefore, a 12-in. patternmaker’s ruler is longer than a foot. How long should a patternmaker’s ruler be for the making of patterns for (1) aluminum castings (2) malleable cast iron and (3) high-manganese steel? It was stated in Section 5.12.2 on p. 248 that typical shrinkage allowances for metals are 18 to 14 in./ft, so it is expected that the ruler be around 12.125-12.25 in. long. Specific shrinkage allowances for these metals can be obtained from the technical literature or the internet. For example, from Kalpakjian, Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 3rd ed., p. 280, we obtain the following:

12 in

1 in

5.68 Estimate the clamping force for a diecasting machine in which the casting is rectangular, with projected dimensions of 75 mm x 150 mm. Would your answer depend on whether or not it is a hot-chamber or cold-chamber process? Explain. The clamping force is needed to compensate for the separating force developed when the metal is injected into the die. When the die is full, and the full pressure is developed, the separating force is F = pA, where p is the pressure and A is the projected area of the casting. Note that the answer will depend on whether the operation is hot- or cold-chamber, because pressures are higher in the cold-chamber than in the hotchamber process. The projected area is 11,250 mm2 . In the hotchamber process, an average pressure is taken as 15 MPa (see Section 5.10.3), although the pressure can range up to 35 MPa. If we use an average pressure, the required clamping force is Fhot = pA = (35)(11, 250) = 394 kN

Metal Aluminum Malleable cast Iron High-manganese steel

Shrinkage allowance, % 1.3 0.89 2.6

From the following formula, Lruler = Lo (1 + shrinkage) We find that for aluminum, LAl = (12)(1.013) = 12.156 in. For malleable cast iron, Liron = (12)(1.0089) = 12.107 in. and for high-manganese steel, Lsteel = (12)(1.026) = 12.312 in. Note that high-manganese steel and malleable cast iron were selected for this problem because they have extremely high and low shrinkage allowances, respectively. The aluminum ruler falls within the expected range, as do most other metals. 5.70 The blank for the spool shown in the accompanying figure is to be sand cast out of A-319, an aluminum casting alloy. Make a sketch of the wooden pattern for this part. Include all necessary allowances for shrinkage and machining.

For the cold-chamber process and using a midrange pressure of 45 MPa, the force will be Fcold = pA = (45)(11, 250) = 506 kN 14

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0.50 in.

5.71 Repeat Problem 5.70, but assume that the aluminum spool is to be cast using expendablepattern casting. Explain the important differences between the two patterns.

0.45 in.

A sketch for a typical expandable-pattern casting is shown below. A cross-sectional view is also provided to clearly show the differences between green-sand (from Problem 5.70) and evaporative-casting patterns. There will be some variations in the patterns produced by students depending on which dimensions are assigned a machining allowance. The important elements of this pattern are as follows (dimensions in inches):

3.00 in. 4.00 in.

The sketch for a typical green-sand casting pattern for the spool is shown below. A crosssectional view is also provided to clearly indicate shrinkage and machining allowances, as well as the draft angles. The important elements of this pattern are as follows (dimensions in inches):

(a) One-piece pattern, made of polystyrene. (b) Shrinkage allowance = 5/32 in./ft (c) Machining allowance = 1/16 in.

(a) Two-piece pattern.

(d) No draft angles are necessary.

(b) Locating pins will be needed in the pattern plate to ensure that these features align properly.

0.56 in.

(c) Shrinkage allowance = 5/32 in./ft. 0.52 in.

(d) Machining allowance = 1/16 in.

4.0

4.58 in.

5 in

3.0

4 in

.

(e) Draft = 3◦ .

.

5.72 In sand casting, it is important that the cope mold half be held down with sufficient force to keep it from floating when the molten metal is poured in. For the casting shown in the accompanying figure, calculate the minimum amount of weight necessary to keep the cope from floating up as the molten metal is poured in. (Hint: The buoyancy force exerted by the molten metal on the cope is related to the effective height of the metal head above the cope.)

1.50 in.

3° (typical)

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5.73 The optimum shape of a riser is spherical to ensure that it cools more slowly than the casting it feeds. Spherically shaped risers, however, are difficult to cast. (1) Sketch the shape of a blind riser that is easy to mold, but also has the smallest possible surface area-to-volume ratio. (2) Compare the solidification time of the riser in part (a) to that of a riser shaped like a right circular cylinder. Assume that the volume of each riser is the same, and that for each the height is equal to the diameter (see Example 5.2).

3.00 A

A

Section A-A

2.00

1.00

R = 0.75

3.00 2.50 2.00 1.00 0.50

A sketch of a blind riser that is easy to cast is shown below, consisting of a cylindrical and a hemispherical portions. Hemisphere

r 1.00 2.50

h=r 4.00 5.00

Material: Low-carbon steel Density: 0.26 lb/in3 All dimensions in inches

Note that the height of the cylindrical portion is equal to its radius (so that the total height of the riser is equal to its diameter). The volume, V , of this riser is 1 4πr3 5πr3 2 V = πr h + = 2 3 3

The cope mold half must be sufficiently heavy or be weighted sufficiently to keep it from floating when the molten metal is poured into the mold. The buoyancy force, F , on the cope is exerted by the metallostatic pressure (caused by the metal in the cope above the parting line) and can be calculated from the formula

Letting V be unity, we have

F = pA

r=

3 5π

1/3

where p is the pressure at the parting line and A is the projected area of the mold cavity. The pressure is

The surface area of the riser is

3

A = 2πrh + πr2 +

p = wh = (0.26 lb/in )(3.00 in.) = 0.78 psi The projected mold-cavity area can be calculated from the dimensions given on cross section AA in the problem, and is found to be 10.13 in2 . Thus, the force is

Substituting for r, we obtain A = 5.21. Therefore, from Eq. (5.11) on p. 205, the solidification time, t, for the blind riser will be t=C

F = (0.78)(10.13) = 7.9 lb

1 4πr2 = 5πr2 2

V A

2

=C

1 5.21

2 = 0.037C

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From Example 5.2, we know that the solidification time for a cylinder with a height equal to its diameter is 0.033C. Thus, this blind riser will cool a little slower, but not much so, and is easier to cast. 5.74 The part shown in the accompanying figure is a hemispherical shell used as an acetabular (mushroom shaped) cup in a total hip replacement. Select a casting process for this part and provide a sketch of all patterns or tooling needed if it is to be produced from a cobaltchrome alloy.

Solving for C, C = (4 min)

2d + 4h dh

If the height is doubled, then we can use d2 = d and h2 = 2h to obtain d 2 h2 t = C 2d2 + 4h2 d(2h) 2d + 4h = (4 min) dh 2d + 4(2h) 4d + 8h = (4 min) 2d + 8h

Dimensions in mm 3 R = 28 5 57

20

p. 205, and assuming n = 2 gives 2 V t = C A " # πd2 h/4 = C (πd2 /2 + πdh) dh = C = 4 min 2d + 4h

25

If d = h, then t = (4 min)

This is an industrially-relevant problem, as this is the casting used as acetabular cups for total hip replacements. There are several possible answers to this question, depending on the student’s estimates of production rate and equipment costs. In practice, this part is produced through an investment casting operation, where the individual parts with runners are injection molded and then attached to a central sprue. The tooling that would be required include: (1) a mold for the injection molding of wax into the cup shape. (2) Templates for placement of the cup shape onto the sprue, in order to assure proper spacing for even, controlled cooling. (3) Machining fixtures. It should be noted that the wax pattern will be larger than the desired casting, because of shrinkage as well as the incorporation of a shrinkage allowance.

12h 10h

= 4.8 min

If the diameter is doubled, so that d3 = 2d and h3 = h, then d 3 h3 t = C 2d3 + 4h3 (2d)(h) 2d + 4h = (4 min) dh 2(2d) + 4(h) 4d + 8h = (4 min) 4d + 4h or, for d = h, t = (4 min)

5.75 A cylinder with a height-to-diameter ratio of unity solidifies in four minutes in a sand casting operation. What is the solidification time if the cylinder height is doubled? What is the time if the diameter is doubled?

12h 8h

= 6 min

5.76 Steel piping is to be produced by centrifugal casting. The length is 12 feet, the diameter is 3 ft, and the thickness is 0.5 in. Using basic equations from dynamics and statics, determine the rotational speed needed to have the centripetal force be 70 times its weight. The centripetal force can be obtained from an undergraduate dynamics textbook as Fc =

From Chvorinov’s rule, given by Eq. (5.11) on

mv 2 r

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where m is the mass, v is the tangential velocity, and r is the radius. It is desired to have this force to be 70 times its weight, or 70 =

5.78 Small amounts of slag often persist after skimming and are introduced into the molten metal flow in casting. Recognizing that the slag is much less dense than the metal, design mold features that will remove small amounts of slag before the metal reaches the mold cavity.

mv 2 /r v2 Fc = = W mg rg

since r is the mean radius of the casting, or 1.25 ft, v can be solved as p p v = (70)rg = (70)(1.25)(32.2)

There are several dross-trap designs in use in foundries. (A good discussion of trap design is given in J. Campbell, Castings, 1991, Reed Educational Publishers, pp. 53-55.) A conventional and effective dross trap is illustrated below:

or v = 53 ft/sec or 637 in./sec. The rotational speed needed to obtain this velocity is ω=

v 53 ft/sec = = 42.4 rad/sec r 1.25 ft

This is equivalent to 405 rev/min. 5.77 A sprue is 12 in. long and has a diameter of 5 in. at the top, where the metal is poured. The molten metal level in the pouring basin is taken as 3 in. from the top of the sprue for design purposes. If a flow rate of 40 in3 /s is to be achieved, what should be the diameter of the bottom of the sprue? Will the sprue aspirate? Explain. Assuming the flow is frictionless, the velocity of the molten metal at the bottom of the sprue (h = 12 in. = 1 ft) is p p v = 2gh = 2(32.2)(1)

The following design is a swirl trap:

or v = 8.0 ft/s = 96 in./s. For a flow rate of 40 in3 /s, the area needs to be A=

It designed on the principle that a trap at the end of a runner will take the metal through the runner and keep it away from the gates. The design shown is a wedge-type trap. Metal entering the runner contacts the wedge, and the leading front of the metal wave is chilled and attaches itself to the runner wall, and thus it is kept out of the mold cavity. The wedge must be designed so as to avoid reflected waves that otherwise would recirculate the dross or the slag.

Top view Swirl chamber

Q 40 in3 /s = = 0.417 in2 v 96 in./s

For a circular runner, the diameter would then be 0.73 in., or roughly 34 in. Compare this to the diameter at the bottom of the sprue based on Eq. (5.7), where h1 = 3 in., h2 = 15 in., and A1 = 19.6 in2 . The diameter at the bottom of the sprue is calculated from: r h2 A1 = A2 h1 19.6 =p = 8.8 in2 h2 /h1 15/3 r 4 A2 = 3.34 in d= π Thus, the sprue confines the flow more than is necessary, and it will not aspirate. A2 = p

Inlet

Outlet

Side view Molten metal

Dross Outlet

Inlet

A1

This is based on the principle that the dross or slag is less dense than the metal. The metal enters the trap off of the center, inducing a swirl in the molten metal as the trap fills with molten metal. Because it is far less dense than the metal, the dross or slag remains in the center of 18

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the swirl trap. Since the metal is tapped from the outside periphery, dross or slag is excluded from the casting. 5.79 Pure aluminum is being poured into a sand mold. The metal level in the pouring basin is 10 in. above the metal level in the mold, and the runner is circular with a 0.4 in. diameter. What is the velocity and rate of the flow of the metal into the mold? Is the flow turbulent or laminar? Equation (5.5) on p. 200 gives the metal flow. Assuming the pressure does not change appreciably in the channel and that there is no friction in the sprue, the flow is h1 +

v2 v12 = h2 + 2 2g 2g

q p 2 2g∆h = 2(32.2 ft/s )(12 in/ft)(10 in)

or v2 = 87.9 in./s. If the opening is 0.4-in. in diameter, the area is π π 2 d = (0.4)2 = 0.126 in2 4 4

Q = v2 A = (87.9)(0.126) = 11.0 in3 /s. 3

Pure aluminum has a density of 2700 kg/m (see Table 3.3) and a viscosity of around 0.0015 Ns/m2 around 700◦ C. The Reynolds number, from Eq. (5.10) on p. 202, is then (using v = 87.9 in/s = 2.23 m/s and D = 0.4 in.=0.01016 m), vDρ η 3

=

πv2 2 π D = (87.9)(0.0196)2 4 4 0.0266 in3 /sec

Q = v2 A = =

This means that a 20 in3 casting would take 753 s (about 12 min) to fill and only if the initial flow rate could be maintained, which is generally not the case. Such a long filling time is not acceptable, since it is likely that metal will solidify in runners and thus not fill the mold completely. Also, with such small a small runner, additional mechanisms need to be considered. For example, surface tension and friction would severely reduce the velocity in the Reynolds number calculation above. This is generally the case with castings; to design a sprue and runner system that maintains laminar flow in the fluid would result in excessively long fill times.

Therefore, the flow rate is

=

(2.23)(2700) vDρ = D η 0.0015

For this diameter, the initial flow rate would be

or

Re

Using the data given in Problem 5.79, a Reynolds number of 2000 can be achieved by reducing the channel diameter, so that

or D = 0.000498 m = 0.0196 in.

v22 = 2g(h1 − h2 )

A=

5.80 For the sprue described in Problem 5.79, what runner diameter is needed to ensure a Reynolds number of 2000? How long will a 20 in3 casting take to fill with such a runner?

Re = 2000 =

Where the subscript 1 indicates the top of the sprue and 2 the bottom. If we assume that the velocity at the top of the sprue is very low (as would occur with the normal case of a pouring basin on top of the sprue with a large crosssectional area), then v1 = 0. The velocity at the bottom of the sprue is

v2 =

or Re= 40,782. As discussed in Section 5.4.1 starting on p. 199, this situation would represent turbulence, and the velocity and/or diameter should be decreased to bring Re below 20,000 or so.

(2.23 m/s)(0.01016 m)(2700 kg/m ) 2

0.0015 Ns/m

5.81 How long would it take for the sprue in Problem 5.79 to feed a casting with a square cross-section of 6 in. per side and a height of 4 in.? Assume the sprue is frictionless. Note that the volume of the casting is 144 in3 , with a constant cross-sectional area of 36 in2 . The velocity will change as the mold fills, because the pouring basin height above the molten metal will decrease. The velocity will vary according to: p p v = c 2gh = 2gh

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or = 0.0150. The final box dimensions are therefore 96.2 × 192.5 × 385 mm.

The flow rate is given by Q = vA =

√ vπd2 πd2 2gh = 4 4

For gray cast iron, the metal expands upon solidification. Assuming the mold will allow for expansion, the volume after solidification is given by

The mold cavity fills at a rate of Q/(36 in2 ), or √ dh Q πd2 2gh = =− dt A 4A

V = (1.025)(0.008 m3 ) = 0.0082 m3 If the box has the same aspect ratio as the initial mold cavity, the dimensions after solidification will be 100.8 × 201.7 × 403.3 mm. Using the data for iron in Table 3.3, the melting point is taken as 1537◦ C and the coefficient of thermal expansion as 11.5 µm/m◦ C. Therefore,

where the minus sign has been added so that h refers to the height difference between the metal level in the mold and the runner, which decreases with respect to time. Separating the variables, √ πd2 2g dh √ =− dt 4A h

◦

= α∆t = (11.5µm/m C)(1537◦ C − 25◦ C) or = 0.0174. Hence, the final dimensions are 99.0 × 198.1 × 396 mm. Note that even though the cast iron had to cool off from a higher initial temperature, the box of cast iron is much closer to the mold dimensions than the aluminum.

Integrating, √ √ 6in πd2 2g t (t)0 2 h =− 4A 10in From this equation and using d=0.4 in. and A = 36 in2 , t is found to be 14.7 s. As a comparison, using the flow rate calculated in Problem 5.79, the mold would require approximately 13 s to fill. 5.82 A rectangular mold with dimensions 100 mm × 200 mm × 400 mm is filled with aluminum with no superheat. Determine the final dimensions of the part as it cools to room temperature. Repeat the analysis for gray cast iron. Note that the initial volume of the box is (0.100)(0.200)(0.400)=0.008 m3 . From Table 5.1 on p. 206, the volumetric contraction for aluminum is 6.6%. Therefore, the box volume will be V = (1 − 0.066)(0.008 m3 ) = 0.007472 m3 Assuming the box has the same aspect ratio as the mold (1:2:4) and that warpage can be ignored, we can calculate the dimensions of the box after solidification as 97.7 mm × 195.5 mm × 391 mm. From Table 3.3 on p. 106, the melting point of aluminum is 660◦ C, with a coefficient of thermal expansion of 23.6 µm/m◦ C. Thus, the total strain in cooling from 660◦ C to room temperature (25◦ C) is ◦

= α∆t = (23.6µm/m C)(660◦ C − 25◦ C)

5.83 The constant C in Chvorinov’s rule is given as 3 s/mm2 and is used to produce a cylindrical casting with a diameter of 75 mm and a height of 125 mm. Estimate the time for the casting to fully solidify. The mold can be broken safely when the solidified shell is at least 20 mm. Assuming the cylinder cools evenly, how much time must transpire after pouring the molten metal before the mold can be broken? Note that for the cylinder π d2 + πdh A = 2 4 i hπ = 2 (75)2 + π(75)(125) 4 = 38, 290 mm2 π π V = d2 h = (75)2 (125) = 5.522 × 105 mm3 4 4 From Chvorinov’s rule given by Eq. (5.11) on p. 205, 2 2 V 5.522 × 105 2 t=C = (3 s/mm ) A 38, 290 or t = 624 s, or just over 10 min to solidify. The second part of the problem is far more difficult, and different answers can be obtained depending on the method of analysis. The solution is not as straightforward as it may seem initially. For example, one could say that

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the 20 mm wall is 53.3% of the thickness, so that 0.533(624)=333 s is needed. However, this would not be sufficient because an annular section at an outside radius has more material than one closer to the center. It is thus reasonable and conservative to consider the time required for the remaining cylinder to solidify. Using h = 85 mm and d = 35 mm, the solidification time is found to be 21.8 s. Therefore, one still has to wait 602 s before the mold can be broken. 5.84 If an acceleration of 100 g is necessary to produce a part in true centrifugal casting and the part has an inner diameter of 10 in., a mean outer diameter of 14 in., and a length of 25 ft., what rotational speed is needed? 2

The angular acceleration is given by α = ω r. Recognizing that the largest force is experienced at the outside radius, this value for r is used in the calculation: α = ω 2 r = 100 g = 3220 ft/s

the weight of gold needed to completely fill the rings, runners, and sprues. The specific gravity of gold is 19.3. The particular answer will depend on the geometry selected for a typical ring. Let’s approximate a typical ring as a tube with dimensions of 1 in. outer diameter, 5/8 in. inner diameter, and 3/8 in. width. The volume of each ring is then 0.18 in3 , and a total volume for 20 rings of 3.6 in3 . There are twenty runners to the sprue, so this volume component is π π d2 L = 20 (0.125 in.)2 (0.5 in.) V = 20 4 4 or V = 0.123 in3 . The central sprue has a length of 1.5 in., so that its volume is V =

π 2 π d L = (0.5 in.)2 (1.5 in.) = 0.29 in3 4 4

The total volume is then 4.0 in3 , not including the metal in the pouring basin, if any. The specific gravity of gold is 19.3, thus its density is 19.3(62.4 lb/ft3 ) = 0.697 lb/in3 . Therefore, the jeweler needs 2.79 lb. of gold.

2

Therefore, solving for ω, r p 2 3220 ft/s /(0.583 ft) ω = α/r = or ω = 74 rad/s = 710 rpm. 5.85 A jeweler wishes to produce twenty gold rings in one investment-casting operation. The wax parts are attached to a wax central sprue of a 0.5 in. diameter. The rings are located in four rows, each 0.5 in. from the other on the sprue. The rings require a 0.125-in. diameter and 0.5-in. long runner to the sprue. Estimate

5.86 Assume that you are asked to give a quiz to students on the contents of this chapter. Prepare three quantitative problems and three qualitative questions, and supply the answers. By the student. This is a challenging, openended question that requires considerable focus and understanding on the part of the students, and has been found to be a very valuable homework problem.

Design 5.87 Design test methods to determine the fluidity of metals in casting (see Section 5.4.2 starting on p. 203). Make appropriate sketches and explain the important features of each design.

neering and Technology, 5th ed, Prentice-Hall, 2001, is shown below.

By the student. The designs should allow some method of examining the ability of a metal to fill the mold. One example, taken from Kalpakjian and Schmid, Manufacturing Engi21

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molten center portion can be poured from the cup, leaving a solidified shell. This effect can be made more pronounced by using chilling the cups first.

Pouring cup Sprue Fluidity index

5.90 Design a test method to measure the permeability of sand for sand casting.

5.88 The accompanying figures indicate various defects and discontinuities in cast products. Review each one and offer design solutions to avoid them. Riser

Fracture

Casting (b)

Sink mark

5.92 Porosity developed in the boss of a casting is illustrated in the accompanying figure. Show that by simply repositioning the parting line of this casting, this problem can be eliminated.

Cold tearing (c)

5.91 Describe the procedures that would be involved in making a bronze statue. Which casting process or processes would be suitable? Why? The answer depends on the size of the statue. A small statue (say 100 mm tall) can be die cast if the quantities desired are large enough, or it can be sand cast for fewer quantities. The very large statues such as those found in public parks, which typically are on the order of 1 to 3 m tall, are produced by first manufacturing or sculpting a blank from wax and then using the investment-casting process. Another option for a large casting is to carefully prepare a ceramic mold.

Gate

(a)

Permeability suggests that there is a potential for material to penetrate somewhat into the porous mold material. The penetration can be measured through experimental setups, such as using a standard-sized slug or shape of sand, applying a known pressure to one side, and then measuring the flow rate through the sand.

(d)

Boss

By the student. Some examples are for (a) fracture is at stress raiser, a better design would utilize a more gradual filet radius; (b) fracture at the gate indicates this runner section is too narrow and thus it solidified first, hence the gate should be larger.

Riser

Part

Cope

5.89 Utilizing the equipment and materials available in a typical kitchen, design an experiment to reproduce results similar to those shown in Fig. 5.12.

Drag

Core

Note in the figure that the boss is at some distance from the blind riser. Consequently, the boss can develop porosity (not shown in the figure, but to be added by the instructor) because of a lack of supply of molten metal from the

A simple experiment can be performed with melted chocolate and a coffee cup. If a parting agent is sprayed into the cup, and molten chocolate is poured, after a short while the still 22

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riser. The sketch below shows a repositioned parting line that would eliminate porosity in the boss. Note in the illustration below that the boss can now be supplied with molten metal as it begins to solidify and shrink.

in (b). The casting is round, with a vertical axis of symmetry. As a functional part, what advantages do you think the new design has over the old one?

1 in. (25 mm) 1.5 in. (38 mm) (a)

1 in. (25 mm)

Ribs or brackets

5.93 For the wheel illustrated in the accompanying figure, show how (a) riser placement, (b) core placement, (c) padding, and (d) chills may be used to help feed molten metal and eliminate porosity in the isolated hob boss.

1 in. (25 mm)

(b)

By the student. There are several advantages, including that the part thickness is more uniform, so that large shrinkage porosity is less likely, and the ribs will control warping due to thermal stresses as well as increasing joint stiffness.

Rim Hub boss

5.95 An incorrect and a correct design for casting are shown, respectively, in the accompanying figure. Review the changes made and comment on their advantages.

Four different methods are shown below.

(a) Riser

(a) incorrect

(b) Core Outside core

(c) Pads

Outside core (b) correct

(d) Chills

5.94 In the figure below, the original casting design shown in (a) was changed to the design shown

By the student. The main advantage of the new design is that it can be easily cast without the need for an external core. The original part would require two such cores, because the geometry is such that it cannot be obtained in a sand mold without cores.

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5.96 Three sets of designs for die casting are shown in the accompanying figure. Note the changes made to original die design (number 1 in each case) and comment on the reasons.

• Heated molds will maintain temperatures higher than room temperature, but will still allow successful casting if the mold temperature is below the melting temperature of the metal. • The mold can be placed in a container; heat from the molten metal will then warm the local environment above room temperature.

(1)

• The mold can be insulated to a greater extent, so that its steady-state temperature is higher (permanent-mold processes).

(2)

• The mold can be heated to a higher temperature. • An exothermic jacket can be placed around the molten metal.

(a) Parting line

• Radiation heat sources can be used to slow the rate of heat loss by conduction.

(2)

(1)

5.98 Design an experiment to measure the constants C and n in the Chvorinov’s Rule [Eq. (5.11)]. The following are some tests that could be considered:

Parting line (3)

• The most straightforward tests involve producing a number of molds with a family of parts (such as spheres, cubes or cylinders with a fixed length-to-diameter ratio), pouring them, and then breaking the mold periodically to observe if the metal has solidified. This inevitably results in spilled molten metal and may therefore a difficult test procedure to use.

Parting line (b) (2)

(1)

• Students should consider designing molds that are enclosed but have a solidification front that terminates at an open riser; they can then monitor the solidification times can then be monitored, and then determine fit Eq. (5.11) on p. 205 to their data.

(c)

By the student. There are many observations, usually with the intent of minimizing changes in section thickness, eliminating inclined surfaces to simplify mold construction, and to orient flanges so that they can be easily cast.

• An alternative to solidifying the metal is to melt it within a mold specially designed for such an experiment.

5.97 It is sometimes desirable to cool metals more slowly than they would be if the molds were maintained at room temperature. List and explain the methods you would use to slow down the cooling process. There can be several approaches to this problem, including:

5.99 The part in the accompanying figure is to be cast of 10% Sn bronze at the rate of 100 parts per month. To find an appropriate casting process, consider all the processes in this chapter, then reject those that are (a) technically inadmissible, (b) technically feasible but too expensive for the purpose, and (c) identify the

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company capabilities and practices. The following summary is reasonable suggestion:

most economical process. Write a rationale using common-sense assumptions about product cost.

Process Sand casting

10 in. 1.0 in.

4.0 in. 10.0 in.

(a)

Plaster mold Ceramic mold Lost Wax

(a) (b)

Vacuum casting Pressure casting Die casting Centrifugal casting CZ Process Notes: (a) technically pensive.

(b) (b) (b) (b) (b) inadmissible; (b) Too ex-

Ra=125 in.

The answers could be somewhat subjective, because the particular economics are affected by

Cost rationale This is probably best.

Shell-mold casting Lost Foam

0.45±0.05 in.

Ra=60 in.

Note

Need tooling to make blanks. Too low of production rate to justify.

Need to make blanks. Too low of production rate to justify, unless rapid tooling is used.

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Chapter 6

Bulk Deformation Processes Questions Forging 6.1 How can you tell whether a certain part is forged or cast? Describe the features that you would investigate to arrive at a conclusion. Numerous tests can be used to identify cast vs. forged parts. Depending on the forging temperature, forged parts are generally tougher than cast parts, as can be verified when samples from various regions of the part are subjected to a tensile test. Hardness comparisons may also be made. Microstructures will also indicate forged vs. cast parts. Grain size will usually be smaller in forgings than in castings, and the grains will undergo deformation in specific directions (preferred orientation). Cast parts, on the other hand, will generally be more isotropic than forged parts. Surface characteristics and roughness are also likely to be different, depending on the specific casting processes used and the condition of the mold or die surfaces.

6.3 What are the advantages and limitations of a cogging operation? Of die inserts in forging? Because the contact area in cogging is much smaller (incremental deformation) than in a regular forging operation, large sections of bars can be reduced at much low loads, thus requiring lower-capacity machinery, which is an important economic advantage. Furthermore, various cross sections can be produced along the length of the bar by varying the strokes during cogging. A corresponding disadvantage is the time and large number of strokes required to cog long workpieces, as well as the difficulty in controlling deformation with sufficient dimensional accuracy and surface finish. 6.4 Explain why there are so many different kinds of forging machines available.

6.2 Why is the control of volume of the blank important in closed-die forging? If too large of a blank is placed into the dies in a closed-die forging operation, presses will (a) jam, (b) not complete their stroke, and (c) subject press structures to high loads. Numerous catastrophic failures in C-frame presses have been attributed to such excessive loads. If, on the other hand, the blank is too small, the desired shape will not be completely imparted onto the workpiece.

Each type of forging machine has its own advantages and limitations, each being ideally suited for different applications. Major factors involved in equipment selection may be summarized as follows: (a) Force and energy requirements, (b) Force-stroke characteristics, (c) Length of ram travel, (d) Production rate requirements, (e) Strain-rate sensitivity of the workpiece materials,

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(f) Cooling of the workpiece in the die in hot forging, and its consequences regarding die filling and forging forces,

state of stress during plastic deformation, cavities may develop (similar to voids that develop in the necked region of a tensile-test specimen, see Fig. 3.24 on p. 100). Thus, the density will decrease after forging due to void formation.

(g) Economic considerations. 6.5 Devise an experimental method whereby you can measure the force required for forging only the flash in impression-die forging. (See Fig. 6.15a.)

6.8 Since glass is a good lubricant for hot extrusion, would you use glass for impression-die forging as well? Explain. Glass, in various forms, is used for hot forging operations. However, in impression-die forging, even thin films (because glass is incompressible) will prevent the part from producing the die geometry, and thus develop poor quality, and may prevent successful forging of intricate shapes. If the glass lubricant solidifies in deep recesses of the dies, they will be difficult and costly to remove.

An experimental method to determine the forces required to forge only the flash (for an axisymmetric part) would involve making the die in two concentric pieces, each with its own load cell to measure the force. The die in the center would only cover the projected area of the part itself, and the outer die (ring shaped) would cover the projected area of the annular flash. During forging, the load cells are monitored individually and, thus, the loads for the part and the flash, respectively, can be measured independently. Students are encouraged to devise other possible and practical methods.

6.9 Describe and explain the factors that influence spread in cogging operations on square billets.

6.6 A manufacturer is successfully hot forging a certain part, using material supplied by Company A. A new supply of material is obtained from Company B, with the same nominal composition of the major alloying elements as that of the material from Company A. However, it is found that the new forgings are cracking even though the same procedure is followed as before. What is the probable reason?

A review of the events taking place at the dieworkpiece interface in cogging indicates that the factors that influence spreading are: (a) Friction: the lower the friction, the more the spreading because of reduced lateral resistance to material flow. (b) Width-to-thickness ratio of the workpiece: the higher this ratio, the lower the spreading. (c) Contact length (in the longitudinal direction)-to-workpiece ratio); the higher this ratio, the higher the spreading. Recall that the material flows in the direction of least resistance.

The probable reason is the presence of impurities, inclusions, and minor elements (such as sulfur) in the material supplied by Company B. Note that the question states that both materials have the “same nominal composition of the major alloying elements”. No mention is made regarding minor elements or impurity levels. 6.7 Explain why there might be a change in the density of a forged product as compared to that of the cast blank. If the original material has porosity, such as from a poor casting with porosity due to gases or shrinkage cavities, its density will increase after forging because the pores will close under the applied compressive stresses. On the other hand, the original blank may be free of any porosity but due to adverse material flow and

6.10 Why are end grains generally undesirable in forged products? Give examples of such products. As discussed in Section 6.2.5 starting on p. 283, end grains are generally undesirable because corrosion occurs preferentially along grain boundaries. Thus end grains present many grain boundaries at the surface for corrosion to take place. In addition, they may result in objectionable surface appearance, as well as reducing the fatigue life of the component because of surface roughness that results from corrosion.

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6.11 Explain why one cannot produce a finished forging in one press stroke, starting with a blank.

(d) the lubricant must subsequently be removed from the part surface, an additional and difficult operation; (e) disposal of the lubricant can present environmental shortcomings.

Forgings are typically produced through a series of operations, such as edging, blocking, etc., as depicted in Fig. 6.25 on p. 285. This is done for a number of reasons:

6.13 Explain the reasons why the flash assists in die filling, especially in hot forging. The flash is excess metal which is squeezed out from the die cavity into the outer space between the two dies. The flash cools faster than the material in the cavity due to the high a/h ratio and the more intimate contact with the relatively cool dies. Consequently, the flash has higher strength than the hotter workpiece in the die cavity and, with higher frictional resistance in the flash gap, provides greater resistance to material flow outward through the flash gap. Thus, the flash encourages filling of complex die cavities.

(a) The force and energy requirements on the press are greatly reduced by performing the operations sequentially; (b) The part may have to be subjected to intermediate annealing, thus allowing less ductile materials to be forged to complicated shapes. (c) Reviewing the Archard wear law given by Eq. (4.6) on p. 145, it can be seen that low die wear rates can be achieved if the sliding distance and/or the force is low in a stroke. Reviewing Fig. 6.25 on p. 285, it can be seen that each operation will involve a large sliding distance between the workpiece and dies, thus causing more wear.

6.14 By inspecting some forged products (such as a pipe wrench or coins), you can see that the lettering on them is raised rather than sunk. Offer an explanation as to why they are made that way.

6.12 List the advantages and disadvantages of using a lubricant in forging operations.

By the student. It is much easier and economical to machine cavities in a die (thus producing lettering on a forging that are raised from its surface) than producing protrusions (thus producing lettering that are like impressions on the forged surface). Note that to produce a protrusion on the die, material surrounding the letters be removed, a difficult operation for most lettering. Recall also similar consideration in cast products.

The advantages include: (a) a reduction in the force and energy required; (b) less localization of strain, resulting in improved forgeability; (c) the lubricant acts as a thermal barrier, so that the part can remain hotter longer and thus have more ductility;

Rolling

(d) the lubricant can protect the workpiece from the environment, especially in hot forging, and also act as a parting agent.

6.15 It was stated that three factors that influence spreading in rolling are (a) the width-tothickness ratio of the strip, (b) friction, and (c) the ratio of the radius of the roll to the thickness of the strip. Explain how each of these factors affects spreading.

The disadvantages include: (a) The lubricant adds cost to the operation; (b) a thick film can result in orange-peel effect on the workpiece;

These parameters basically all contribute to the frictional resistance in the width direction of the strip by changing the aspect ratio of the contact area between the roll and the strip (see also Answer 6.9 above).

(c) lubricants may be entrapped in die cavities, thus part dimensions my not be acceptable; 29

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6.16 Explain how you would go about applying front and back tensions to sheet metals during rolling.

(a) using smaller-diameter rolls, (b) taking lower reduction per pass, (c) reducing friction,

Front tensions are applied and controlled by the take-up reel of a rolling mill; the higher the torque to this reel or the higher the rotational speed, the greater the front tension. Back tension is applied by the pay-off reel by increasing the braking torque on the pay-off reel or reducing its rotational speed.

(d) increasing strip temperature, and (e) applying front and/or back tensions, σf and σb . 6.21 Explain the advantages and limitations of using small-diameter rolls in flat rolling.

6.17 It was noted that rolls tend to flatten under roll forces. Which property(ies) of the roll material can be increased to reduce flattening? Why? Flattening is elastic deformation of the originally circular roll cross section, and results in a larger contact length in the roll gap. Therefore, the elastic modulus of the roll should be increased.

The advantages of using smaller diameter rolls in flat rolling are the following: (a) compressive residual stresses are developed on the workpiece surface, (b) lower roll forces are required, (c) lower power requirements, (d) less spreading, and

6.18 Describe the methods by which roll flattening can be reduced. Roll flattening can be reduced by:

(e) the smaller diameter rolls are less costly and easier to replace and maintain. The disadvantages include:

(a) decreasing the reduction per pass,

(a) larger roll deflections, possibly requiring backup rolls, and

(b) reducing friction, and/or (c) increasing the roll stiffness (for example, by making it from materials with high modulus of elasticity, such as carbides). 6.19 Explain the technical and economic reasons for taking larger rather than smaller reductions per pass in flat rolling. Economically, it is always beneficial to reduce the number of operations involved in manufacturing of products. Reducing the number of passes in rolling achieves this result by lowering the number of required operations. This allows less production time to achieve the final thickness of the rolled product. Of course, any adverse effects of high reductions per pass must also be considered. 6.20 List and explain the methods that can be used to reduce the roll force. In reviewing the mechanics of a flat rolling operation, described in Section 6.3.1 starting on p. 290, it will be apparent that the roll force, F , can be reduced by:

(b) lower possible drafts; see Eq. (6.46) on p. 298. 6.22 A ring-rolling operation is being used successfully for the production of bearing races. However, when the bearing race diameter is changed, the operation results in very poor surface finish. List the possible causes, and describe the type of investigation you would conduct to identify the parameters involved and correct the problem. Surface finish is closely related to lubricant film thickness, thus initial investigations should be performed to make sure that the film thickness is maintained the same for both bearing races. Some of the initial investigations would involve making sure, for example, that the lubricant supply is not reduced with a larger race size. Also, the higher the rolling speed, the greater the film thickness, so it should be checked that the rolling speed is the same for both cases. Forward slip should be measured and the rolling speeds adjusted accordingly.

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6.23 Describe the importance of controlling roll speed, roll gap, temperature, and other relevant process variables in a tandem-rolling operation.

(e) There would be major difficulties involved in applying high temperature during stretching of less ductile materials.

Control of tandem rolling is especially important because the conditions at a particular stand can affect the those at another stand. For example, with roll gap and rolling speeds, the effect of poor control is the application of too much or too little front and/or back tension. As is clear from the description on p. 301, this may result in larger roll forces and torques, or can lead to chatter.

6.26 In Fig. 6.33, explain why the neutral point moves towards the roll-gap entry as friction increases.

6.24 Is it possible to have a negative forward slip? Explain. It is possible to have negative forward slip, but only in the presence of a large front tension. Consider that it is possible to apply a large enough front tension so that the rolls slip. A slightly lower front tension will have significant slippage, so the workpiece velocity will be much lower than the roll velocity. From Eq. (6.24) onp. 291, the forward slip will be negative. Note that it is not possible to have negative forward slip if there are no front or back tensions.

The best way to visualize this situation is to consider two extreme conditions. Let’s first assume that friction at the roll-strip interface is zero. This means that the roll is slipping with respect to the strip and as a result, the neutral (no-slip) point has to move towards the exit. On the other hand, if we assume that friction is very high, the roll tends to pull the strip with it; in this case, the neutral point will tend to move towards the entry of the roll gap. 6.27 What typically is done to make sure the product in flat rolling is not crowned? There are a number of strategies that can be followed to make sure that the material in flat rolling is not crowned, that is, to make sure that its thickness is constant across the width. These include:

6.25 In addition to rolling, the thickness of plates and sheets can also be reduced by simply stretching. Would this process be feasible for high-volume production? Explain.

(a) Use work rolls that are crowned. (b) Use larger backing rolls that reduce elastic deformation of the work rolls. (c) Apply a corrective moment to the shafts of the work rolls. (d) Use a roll material with high stiffness.

Although stretching may first appear to be a feasible process, there are several significant limitations associated with it, as compared to rolling:

6.28 List the possible consequences of rolling at (a) too high of a speed and (b) too low of a speed.

(a) The stretching process is a batch operation and it cannot be continuous as in rolling. (b) The reduction in thickness is limited by necking of the sheet, depending on its strain-hardening exponent, n. (c) As the sheet is stretched, the surface finish becomes dull due to the orange-peel effect, and thickness and width control becomes difficult. (d) Stretching the sheet requires some means of clamping at its ends which, in turn, will leave marks on the sheet, or even cause tearing.

There are advantages and disadvantages to each. Rolling at high speed is advantageous in that production rate is increased, but it has disadvantages as well, including: • The lubricant film thickness entrained will be larger, which can reduce friction and lead to a condition where the rolls slip against the workpiece. This can lead to a damaged surface finish on the workpiece. • The thicker lubricant film associated with higher speeds can result in significant orange-peel effect, or surface roughening. • Because of the higher speed, chatter may occur, compromising the surface quality or process viability.

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• There is a limit to speed associated with the power source that drive the rolls. Rolling at low speed is advantageous because the surface roughness of the strip can match that of the rolls (which can be polished). However, rolling at too low a speed has consequences such as: • Production rate will be low, and thus the cost will be higher. • Because a sufficiently thick lubricant film cannot be developed and maintained, there may be a danger of transferring material from the workpiece to the roll (pickup), thus compromising surface finish.

Extrusion ratio is defined as the ratio of billet (initial) area to final area. If redundant work is neglected, the absolute value of true strain is = ln(Ao /Af ). Thus, the extrusion ratio affects the extrusion force directly in an ideal situation. Die geometry has an effect because it influences material flow and, thus, contributes to the redundant work of deformation. Extrusion speed has an effect because, particularly at elevated temperatures, the flow stress will increase with increasing strain rate, depending on the strain-rate sensitivity of the workpiece material. On the other hand, higher temperatures lower the yield stress and thus, reduce forces. 6.32 How would you go about preventing centerburst defects in extrusion? Explain why your methods would be effective.

• The strip may cool excessively before contacting the rolls. This is because a long billet that is rolled slowly will lose some of its heat to the environment and also by conduction through the roller conveyor. 6.29 Rolling may be described as a continuous forging operation. Is this description appropriate? Explain. This is a good analogy. Consider the situation of forging a block to a thinner cross section through increments (as in incremental forming). As the number of stages increases, the operation eventually approaches that of the strip profile in rolling. 6.30 Referring to appropriate equations, explain why titanium carbide is used as the work roll in Sendzimir mills, but not generally in other rolling mill configurations. The main reason that titanium carbide is used in a Sendzimer mill is that it has a high elastic modulus, and thus will not flatten as much; see Eq. (6.48) on p. 299 and the text immediately after this equation. Titanium carbide is not used for other roll configuration because of the size of the rolls required and the high cost of TiC rolls. Extrusion 6.31 It was stated that the extrusion ratio, die geometry, extrusion speed, and billet temperature all affect the extrusion pressure. Explain why.

Centerburst defects are attributed to a state of hydrostatic tensile stress at the centerline of the deformation zone in the die. The two major variables affecting hydrostatic tension are the die angle and extrusion ratio. These defects can be reduced or eliminated by lowering the die angle, because this increases the contact length for the same reduction and thereby increases the deformation zone. Similarly, a higher extrusion ratio also increases the size and depth of the deformation zone, and thus will reduce or eliminate the formation of these cracks. These considerations are also relevant to strip, rod, and wire drawing. 6.33 How would you go about making a stepped extrusion that has increasingly larger crosssections along its length? Is it possible? Would your process be economical and suitable for high production runs? Explain. If the product has a stepped profile, such as a round stepped shaft with increasing diameter, the smaller diameter is extruded first. The die is then changed to one with a larger opening and the part is extruded further. A still larger third, and further larger cross sections, can be produced by changing the die to a larger diameter opening. The process would obviously not be economical at all for high production runs. For shorter pieces, it is possible to make a die with a stepped profile, as shown in Fig. 6.57 on p. 317, where the length of the stroke is small.

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6.34 Note from Eq. (6.54) that, for low values of the extrusion ratio, such as R = 2, the ideal extrusion pressure p can be lower than the yield stress, Y , of the material. Explain whether or not this phenomenon is logical. Equation (6.54) on p. 310 is based on the energy principle and is correct. Note that the extrusion pressure, p, acts on the (undeformed) billet area. Consequently, it is not necessary that its magnitude be at least equal to the yield stress of the billet material.

not affect dimensions, since die wear mainly occurs on the inlet side of the die. The disadvantage to the land is that the workpiece surface can be damaged by scratching against the land; generally, the smaller the land, the better the workpiece surface. 6.38 Under what circumstances is backwards extrusion preferable to direct extrusion? When is hydrostatic extrusion preferable to direct extrusion?

6.35 In hydrostatic extrusion, complex seals are used between the ram and the container, but not between the extrusion and the die. Explain why. The seals are not needed because the leading end of the workpiece, in effect, acts as a seal against the die. The clearance between the workpiece and the die is very small, so that the hydraulic fluid in the container cannot leak significantly. This may present some startup problems, however, before the workpiece becomes well-conformed to the die profile. 6.36 List and describe the types of defects that may occur in (a) extrusion and (b) drawing.

Comparing Figs. 16.47a and 16.47b on p. 309 it is obvious that the main difference is that in backward extrusion the billet is stationary, and in direct extrusion it is moving relative to the container walls. The main advantage becomes clear if a glass pillow is used to provide hot-working lubricant between the workpiece and the die. On the other hand, if there is significant friction between the workpiece and the chamber, energy losses associated with friction are avoided in backwards extrusion (because there is no movement between the bodies involved). 6.39 What is the purpose of a container liner in direct extrusion (see Fig. 6.47a)? Why is there no container liner used in hydrostatic extrusion?

Recognizing that a defect is a situation that can cause a workpiece to be considered unsuitable The container liner is used as a sacrificial wear for its intended operation, several defects can part, similar to the pads used in an automotive occur. Extrusion defects are discussed in Secdisk brake. When worn, it is far less expention 6.4.4 starting on p. 318. Examples include sive to replace a liner than to replace the entire poor surface finish or surface cracking (such container. In hydrostatic extrusion, the billet as bamboo defect), tailpipe or fishtailing, and doesn’t contact the container, and thus wear is chevron cracking. In drawing, defects include not a concern. poor surface finish and chevron cracking. Both extrusion and drawing also can have a loss in dimensional accuracy, particularly as attributed Drawing to die wear. 6.40 We have seen that in rod and wire drawing, the 6.37 What is a land in a die? What is its function? maximum die pressure is at the die entry. Why? What are the advantages and disadvantages to The reason is that at the die entry, the state having no land? of stress is plane stress with equal biaxial comThe land is shown in Fig. 6.60 on p. 320 for pression (in the radial direction). Thus, accorddrawing, but is too small to be seen for the ing to yield criteria the state of stress is in the figures illustrating extrusion. The land is the third quadrant of Fig. 2.36 on p. 67 and hence portion of a die that is parallel to the workthe pressure has a value of Y . At the die exit, piece travel that bears against the workpiece. however, we have longitudinal tension and biThe land is needed to ensure that workpiece diaxial (radial) compression due to contact with mensions are controlled and that die wear does the die. According to the yield criteria, because 33

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of the tensile stress present, the die pressure is lower than that at the entry to the die (see also Answer 6.43 below). 6.41 Describe the conditions under which wet drawing and dry drawing, respectively, are desirable. Wet drawing would be suitable for large coils of wire that can be dipped fully in the lubricant, whereas dry drawing would be suitable for straight short rods. 6.42 Name the important process variables in drawing, and explain how they affect the drawing process. These are described in Section 6.5 starting on p. 320. The important variables include: • Yield stress, Y ; it directly affects the draw stress and die life. • Die angle, α. The die angle in the deformation zone affects the redundant work; in the entry area, the die angle is important for encouraging lubricant entrainment. • Friction coefficient, µ. The friction coefficient affects the frictional component of work and, hence, the draw stress. See also Eq. (6.68) on p. 322. • Reduction in area. As described, there is a limit to the reduction in area that can be achieved in drawing. • Lubrication condition. Effective lubrication reduces friction, but also may lead to a rough surface due to the orange peel effect.

and, thus, make it a tandem process. Note that as the distance between the individual die segments decreases, we approach the one-die configuration. Also note that in a tandem operation, the front tension of one segment becomes the back tension of an adjacent segment. 6.44 Refer to Fig. 6.60 and assume that reduction in the cross section is taking place by pushing a rod through the die instead of pulling it. Assuming that the material is perfectly plastic, sketch the die-pressure distribution, for the following situations: (a) frictionless, (b) with friction, and (c) frictionless but with front tension. Explain your answers. Note that the mathematical models developed for drawing and extrusion predict the draw stress or extrusion pressure, but do not show the die pressure. A quantitative relationship could be derived for the die pressure, recognizing that p−σx = Y 0 based on yield criteria, and then examining Eqs. (6.63) through (6.67) on p. 321. However, a qualitative sketch of the die pressure can be generated based on the physical understanding of the friction hill and associated pressure plots in forging and rolling in Sections 6.2 and 6.3. A qualitative sketch of the die pressures is given below. Note that the actual position of the curve for the frictionless case with front tension depends on the level of front tension provided. Frictionless Dimensionless pressure, p/Y

6.43 Assume that a rod drawing operation can be carried out either in one pass or in two passes in tandem. If the die angles are the same and the total reduction is the same, will the drawing forces be different? Explain. The drawing forces will be the same, unless the surface of the rod is undergoing some changes while it is between the two dies, due to external effects such as the environment or additional lubrication. The reason why the forces are not different is that the drawing process can be regarded as consisting of a series of incremental reductions taking place in one die. Ideally, we can slice the die into a number of segments

With friction Frictionless with front tension

Position, x

6.45 In deriving Eq. (6.74), no mention was made regarding the ductility of the original material being drawn. Explain why. The derivation of Eq. (6.77) on p. 326 is based on the fact that, at failure, the tensile stress in the wire or rod has reached the uniaxial yield stress of the material. Thus, it is implicitly assumed that the material is able to undergo the reduction in cross-sectional area and that it is ultimately failing under high tensile stresses.

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Note that a less ductile material will fail prematurely because of lack of ductility but not lack of strength.

6.50 Explain what effects back tension has on the die pressure in wire or rod drawing, and discuss why these effects occur.

6.46 Why does the die pressure in drawing decreases toward the die exit?

The effect of back pressure is similar to that of back tension in rolling (see Figs. 6.35 on p. 295 and 6.62 on p. 322), namely, the pressure drops. This satisfies yield criteria, in that, as tension increases, the apparent compressive yield stress of the material decreases.

We refer to Eq. (6.71) on p. 322 which represents yield criteria in the deformation zone. Note that as we approach the die exit, the drawing stress, σ, increases; consequently, the die pressure, p, must decrease, as also shown in Fig. 6.62 on p. 322. 6.47 What is the magnitude of the die pressure at the die exit for a drawing operation that is being carried out at the maximum reduction per pass? The die pressure at the exit in this case will be zero. This is because of the condition set by Eq. (6.73) on p. 324 which deals only with uniaxial stress. Note that there is a finite die pressure in a normal drawing operation, as depicted in Fig. 6.62 on p. 322, and that the drawing stress at the exit is lower than the uniaxial yield stress of the material, as it should for a successful drawing operation to take place.

6.51 Explain why the inhomogeneity factor, φ, in rod and wire drawing depends on the ratio, h/L, as plotted in Fig. 6.12. By observing Figs. 6.12 on p. 276 and 6.13b on p. 277, we note that the higher the h/L ratio, the more nonuniform the deformation of the material. For example, keeping h constant (hence the same initial and final diameters), we note that as L decreases, the die angle has to become larger. This, in turn, indicates higher redundant work (see Fig. 6.51 on p. 311). 6.52 Describe the reasons for the development of the swaging process. The major reasons include:

6.48 Explain why the maximum reduction per pass in drawing should increase as the strainhardening exponent, n, increases. The reason is that the material is continuously strain hardening as it reaches the die exit. Consequently, at the exit it is stronger and, thus, can resist higher stresses before it yields. Consequently, a strain-hardening material can undergo higher reductions per pass, as can also be seen in Example 6.8.

(a) variety of parts that can be produced with relatively simple tooling, (b) capacity to produce internal profiles on long workpieces, (c) compact equipment, (d) good surface finish and dimensional accuracy, and (e) improved workpiece properties due to cold working of the material. 6.53 Occasionally, wire drawing of steel will take place within a sheath of a soft metal, such as copper or lead. Why would this procedure be effective?

6.49 If, in deriving Eq. (6.74), we include friction, will the maximum reduction per pass be the same (that is, 63%), higher, or lower? Explain. If we include friction, the drawing stress will be higher. As a result, the maximum reduction per pass will be lower than 63%. In other words, the cross-sectional area of the exiting material has to be larger than the ideal case in order to support the increased drawing stress due to friction, without yielding.

The main reason that steel wire drawing takes place in a sheath of a softer metal is to reduce the frictional stress. Recall from Eq. (4.5) on p. 140 that, for the same friction factor, m, the frictional stress is lower if the workpiece hardness is lower. By placing the sheath in contact with the die, the soft metal acts as a solid lubricant and reduces the frictional stresses. This, in turn, reduces forces and hence increases drawability.

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6.54 Recognizing that it is very difficult to manufacture a die with a submillimeter diameter, how would you produce a 10 µm-diameter wire?

6.57 Choose any three topics from Chapter 2 and with a specific example for each, show their relevance to the topics covered in this chapter.

The most common method of producing very small wires is through bundle drawing, wherein a large number of wires (up to hundreds) are simultaneously drawn through one die. Special care must be taken to provide good lubrication; otherwise, the wires will weld together during drawing. The student should be encouraged to suggest additional techniques.

By the student. For example, a student could discuss yield criteria, and then show how they are used to develop pressure and force equations for specific operations. 6.58 Same as Question 6.57 but for Chapter 3.

6.55 What changes would you expect in the strength, hardness, ductility, and anisotropy of annealed metals after they have been drawn through dies? Why? We would expect that the yield stress of the material is higher, assuming that the operation is performed at room temperature. Since it is directly related to strength, hardness is also higher. The ductility is expected to decrease, as the material has been strain hardened. Because of preferred orientation during deformation, some anisotropy is also to be expected in cold-drawn rods.

By the student. For example, a student could select thermal effects on mechanical properties, as discussed in Section 3.7 starting on p. 98, and apply it to a discussion of cold versus hot forging. 6.59 List and explain the reasons that there are so many different types of die materials used for the processes described in this chapter. Among several reasons are the level of stresses and type of loading involved (such as static or dynamic), relative sliding, temperature, thermal cycling, dimensional requirements, size of workpiece, frictional considerations, wear, and economic considerations. 6.60 Why should we be interested in residual stresses developed in parts made by the forming processes described in this chapter.

General 6.56 With respect to the topics covered in this chapter, list and explain specifically two examples each where friction (a) is desirable and (b) is not desirable.

Residual stresses and their significance are discussed in detail in Section 2.10 starting on p. 59. The student should elaborate further with specific references to the processes discussed in this chapter. 6.61 Make a summary of the types of defects found in the processes described in this chapter. For each type, specify methods of reducing or eliminating the defects.

The student is encouraged to provide several specific examples. For example, friction is desirable in rolling and controlling material flow in forging. It is undesirable in rod and wire drawing (except to obtain a burnished surface) and extrusion.

By the student; see also Sections 3.8, 4.2, and 4.3.

Problems Forging

6.62 In the free-body diagram in Fig. 6.4b, the in-

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cremental stress dσx on the element was shown pointing to the left. Yet it would appear that, because of the direction of frictional stresses, µp, the incremental stress should point to the right in order to balance the horizontal forces. Show that the same answer for the forging pressure is obtained regardless of the direction of this incremental stress. We will derive the pressure using the same approach as described in Section 6.2.2 starting on p. 269. The equivalent version of Fig. 6.4 on p. 269 is shown below. y

x dx

x

σy

= Ce−2µx/h = Y 0 e2µa/h e−2µx/h = Y 0 e2µ(a−x)/h

which is the same as Eq. (6.13) on p. 270. 6.63 Plot the force vs. reduction in height curve in open-die forging of a solid cylindrical, annealed copper specimen 2 in. high and 1 in. in diameter, up to a reduction of 70%, for the cases of (a) no friction between the flat dies and the specimen, (b) µ = 0.25, and (c) µ = 0.5. Ignore barreling and use average-pressure formulas. For annealed copper we have, from Table 2.3 on p. 37, K = 315 MPa = 46,000 psi and n = 0.54. The flow stress is

y h

Therefore, substituting into the expression for σy ,

x + dx

Yf = (46, 000 psi)0.54

σy

a

where the absolute value of the strain is ho = ln h

y (a)

(b)

From volume constancy, we have

Using the stresses as shown in part (b), we have, from equilibrium and assuming unit width,

π π 2 ro ho = r 2 h 4 4

(σx + dσx ) h − 2µσy dx − σx h = 0

or

s

or

2µσy dσx − dx = 0 h For the distortion-energy criterion, it should be recognized that σx is now tensile, whereas in the text it is compressive. Therefore, Eq. (6.11) becomes 2 σy + σy = √ Y = Y 0 3

r=

ro2

ho h

Note that ro = 0.5 in and ho = 2 in. The forging force is given by Eqs. (6.18) and (6.19) on p. 272 as: 2µr πr2 F = Yf 1 + 3h Some of the points on the curves are the following:

Thus dσx = −dσy When substituted into the equilibrium equation, one obtains

% Red. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

σy = Ce−2µx/h Using the boundary conditions that σx = 0 (and therefore σy = Y 0 ) at x = 0, gives the value of C as C = Y 0 e2µa/h

Forging Force, kip µ = 0 µ = 0.25 µ = 0.5 11.9 12.4 13.1 20.1 21.3 22.4 29.6 31.7 33.8 41.9 45.6 49.4 59.3 66.3 73.6 86.1 100. 114. 133.1 167. 201.

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where the absolute value of the strain is ho = ln h

The curve is plotted as follows:

Forging force, kip

200 =0 =0.25 =0.5

150

From this, the following forces are calculated (recall that F = pave A):

100

% Red. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

50 0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

% Reduction

6.64 Use Fig. 6.9b to provide the answers to Problem 6.63.

% Red. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

2r/h 0.585 0.699 0.854 1.08 1.41 1.98 3.04

The results are plotted below. For comparison purposes, the results from Problem 6.63 are also included as dashed lines. As can be seen, the results are fairly close, even with the rough interpolation done in this solution. 200 Forging force, kip

The force required for forging is the product of the average pressure and the instantaneous cross-sectional area. The average pressure is obtained from Fig. 6.9b on p. 272. Note that for µ = 0, pave /Yf = 1, and thus the answer is the same as that to Problem 6.63 given above. The following table can be developed where pave /Yf is obtained from Fig 6.9b, and h and r are calculated as in Problem 6.63. Note that Fig. 6.9b does not give detailed information for 2r/h < 10, which is where the data for this problem lies. However, the µ = 0.25 values (interpolated between the µ = 0.2 and µ = 0.3 curves) are noticeably above 1 by 2r/h = 5 or so, so we give the value 1.25, and all intermediate values are linearly interpolated from this reading. Similarly, for µ = 0.5, a value between µ = 0.3 and sticking suggests pave /Y is around 1.6 or so by 2r/h = 3. This is the basis for the numbers below.

F , kip µ = 0.25 µ = 0.5 11.9 11.9 20.9 22.1 32.0 35.5 47.1 54.4 69.1 83.0 104. 129. 166. 213.

r, in. 0.527 0.559 0.598 0.646 0.707 0.791 0.913

=0.25 =0.5

150 100 50 0

0

10

20

30 40 50 % Reduction

60

70

6.65 Calculate the work done for each case in Problem 6.63. The work done can best be calculated by obtaining the area under the curve F vs. ∆h. From the solution to Problem 6.63, the force is given by 2µr F = Yf 1 + πr2 3h

pave /Yf µ = 0.25 µ = 0.5 1.0 1. 1.041 1.1 1.083 1.2 1.125 1.3 1.17 1.4 1.21 1.5 1.25 1.6

where

s r=

ro2

ho h

and

Recall from Problem 6.63 that

0.54 ho Yf = (46, 000 psi) ln h

0.54

Yf = (46, 000 psi)

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Numerous mathematical software packages can perform this calculation. The results are as follows for the data in Problem 6.63, at 70% reduction in height (or ∆h = 1.4): µ 0 0.25 0.5

l = 200 mm, and φ = 2π(200) = 1257 radians. Therefore, the shear strain is (12.5)(1257) = 78.6 200

γ=

Work (in.-lb) 62,445 71,065 79,685

6.68 Derive an expression for the average pressure in plane-strain compression under the condition of sticking friction.

6.66 Determine the temperature rise in the specimen for each case in Problem 6.63, assuming that the process is adiabatic and the temperature is uniform throughout the specimen. To determine the temperature rise at 70% reduction in height, we obtain the work done from Problem 6.65 above. Assuming there is negligible stored energy, this work is converted into heat. Thus, we can calculate the temperature rise using Eq. (2.65) on p. 73:

Sticking friction refers to the condition where a Tresca friction model is used with m = 1 [see Eq. (4.5) on p. 140]. Therefore, the following figure represents the applied stresses to an element of forging, which can be compared to Fig. 6.4b on p. 269. The approach in Section 6.2.2 starting on p. 269 is followed closely in this derivation. y

x dx

utotal ∆T = ρc

2

x

h

a

y

3

V = πr h = π(0.5) (2) = 1.57 in

The specific heat of copper is given in Table 3.3 on p. 106 as 385 J/kgK or 0.092 BTU/lb◦ F. Since 1 BTU= 780 ft-lb, the specific heat of copper is 861 in-lb/lb◦ F. The density of copper is, from the same table, 8970 kg/m3 or 0.324 lb/in3 . Thus, using the work values obtained in Problem 6.65, the temperature rise is as follows:

x + dx mk

where u is the specific energy, or the energy per volume. The volume of the specimen is 2

mk

From equilibrium in the x-direction, (σx + dσx ) h + 2mkdx − σx h = 0 Solving for dσx , dσx = −

2mk dx h

Integrating, µ 0 0.25 0.5

∆T , ◦ F 142 162 182

σx = −

2mk x+C h

where C is a constant. The boundary condition is that at x = a, σx = 0, so that

6.67 To determine its forgeability, a hot-twist test is performed on a round bar 25 mm in diameter and 200 mm long. It is found that the bar underwent 200 turns before it fractured. Calculate the shear strain at the outer surface of the bar at fracture.

0=− Therefore,

C= and

The shear strain can be calculated from Eq. (2.22) on p. 49 where r = 25/2 = 12.5 mm,

2mk (a) + C h

σx =

2mk a h

2mk (a − x) h

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The die pressure is obtained by applying Eq. (2.36) on p. 64:

Eq. (6.17) on p. 272. Following the same procedure as in Example 6.2, the shear stress at the interface due to friction can be expressed as

σy − σx = Y 0 Note that in plane strain, Y 0 = √23 Y , and √ k = Y / 3 (see Section 2.11.3 on p. 66), so that k = Y 0 /2. Therefore σy −

mY 0 (a − x) = Y 0 h

or

i m σy = Y 1 + (a − x) h Note that this relationship is consistent with Fig. 6.10 on p. 273 for 0 ≤ x ≤ a. Since the relationship is linear, then we can note that 0

σ¯y =

However, we know that the shear stress cannot exceed the yield shear stress, k, of the material which, for the cylindrical state of stress, is Y2 . Thus, in the limit, we have the condition

h

σ¯y = Y 0 1 +

µY e2µ(r−x)/h =

Y 2

1 2µ

or 2µ(r − x) = ln h

Hence,

i ma Y 0 h 1+ + (1) 2 h

or

τ = µp

x=r−

h 2µ

ln

1 2µ

ma Note that this answer is the same as in the example problem for plane strain.

2h

For sticking, m = 1 and a σ¯y = Y 0 1 + 2h

6.71 Assume that the workpiece shown in the accompanying figure is being pushed to the right by a lateral force F while being compressed between flat dies. (a) Make a sketch of the die-pressure distribution for the condition for which F is not large enough to slide the workpiece to the right. (b) Make a similar sketch, except that F is now large enough so that the workpiece slides to the right while being compressed.

6.69 What is the magnitude of µ when, for planestrain compression, the forging load with sliding friction is equal to the load with sticking friction? Use average-pressure formulas. The average pressure with sliding friction is obtained from Eq. (6.15) on p. 271, and for sticking friction it is obtained from the answer to Problem 6.68 using m = 1. Equating these two average pressures, we obtain µa a Y0 1+ =Y0 1+ h 2h

F

Therefore, µ = 0.5. 6.70 Note that in cylindrical upsetting, the frictional stress cannot be greater than the shear yield stress, k, of the material. Thus, there may be a distance x in Fig. 6.8 where a transition occurs from sliding to sticking friction. Derive an expression for x in terms of r, h, and µ only. The pressure curve for the solid cylindrical case is similar to Fig. 6.5 on p. 270 and is given by

Applying a compressive force to the left boundary of the workpiece in Fig. 6.5 on p. 270 raises the pressure at that boundary. The higher the force F , the higher the pressure. Eventually the workpiece will slide completely to the right, indicating that the neutral point has now moved all the way to the left boundary. These are depicted in the figure below.

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and height as r r= Y'

p

V πh

Hence,

F

pave

6.72 For the sticking example given in Fig. 6.10, derive an expression for the lateral force F required to slide the workpiece to the right while the workpiece is being compressed between flat dies. Because we have sticking on both die-workpiece interfaces and a plane-strain case, the frictional stress will simply be Y 0 /2. Hence, the lateral force required must overcome this resistance on both (top and bottom) surfaces. Thus, F = 2Y 0 (2a)(w) = 4Y 0 aw where w is the width of the workpiece, i.e., the dimension perpendicular to the page in the figure. 6.73 Two solid cylindrical specimens, A and B, both made of a perfectly-plastic material, are being forged with friction and isothermally at room temperature to a reduction in height of 25%. Originally, specimen A has a height of 2 in. and a cross-sectional area of 1 in2 , and specimen B has a height of is 1 in. and a cross-sectional area of 2 in2 . Will the work done be the same for the two specimens? Explain. We can readily see that specimen B will require higher work because it has a larger dieworkpiece surface area, hence a higher frictional resistance as compared to specimen A. We can prove this analytically by the following approach. The work done is the integral of the force and distance: Z W = F dh

2µ V 1 =Y 1+ 3 π h3/2

Because it consists of constants, let c = (2µ/3)(V /π), which results in the following expression: c V F = Y 1 + 3/2 h h and hence work is Z ho /2 1 c W = YV + dh h h5/2 ho 3c 1 (0.540) = Y V ln 0.75 − 2 h3/2 o c = Y V −0.288 − 3/2 (0.809) ho Thus, for this problem, we have 1 WA = Y V −0.288 − c (0.809) 23/2 = Y V (−0.288 − 0.286c)

WB

1 = Y V −0.288 − c (0.809) 13/2 = Y V (−0.288 − 0.809c)

Comparing the two shows that WB > WA . 6.74 In Fig. 6.6, does the pressure distribution along the four edges of the workpiece depend on the particular yield criterion used? Explain. The answer is yes. This is a plane-stress problem, but an element at the center of the edges is subjected not only to a pressure p (due to the dies) but also frictional constraint since the body is expanding in all directions. Thus, an element at the center of the edges is subjected to biaxial compressive stresses. Because the lateral stress, σx , due to frictional forces is smaller than the normal stress (pressure), we note the following:

where F = (pave )(A), and pave for a cylindrical body is given by Eq. (6.18) on p. 272. Because the volume V of the workpiece is constant, we have a relationship between its radius 41

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(a) According to the maximum-shear-stress criterion, the pressure distribution along the edges should be constant because the minimum stress is zero. Hence,

The area, A, under the pressure curve (from the centerline to the right boundary a) in Fig. 6.5 on p. 270 is given by Z A = p dx

p=Y (b) According to the distortion-energy criterion for plane stress, the pressure distribution along the edges should be as given in Fig. 6.6 on p. 271 and can be shown to obey the following relationship: p2 + σ 2 − pσ = Y 2 Note that at the corners p = Y , and that p is highest at the center along the edges because that is where the frictional stress is a maximum. 6.75 Under what conditions would you have a normal pressure distribution in forging a solid cylindrical workpiece as shown in the accompanying figure? Explain. p

Y'

x

and the average pressure is Z 1 p dx pave = a where p = Y 0 e2µ(a−x)/h Integrating this equation between the limits x = 0 and x = a, we obtain Y 0 2µa/h pave = e −1 2µa/h Letting 2µa/h = m, and using a Taylor series expansion of the exponent term, em = 1 + m +

m2 m3 + + ... 2! 3!

Ignoring third-order terms and higher as being too small compared to other terms, we obtain Y0 m2 pave = −1 1+m+ m 2 m 0 = Y 1+ 2 µa 0 = Y 1+ h 6.77 Take two solid cylindrical specimens of equal diameter but different heights, and compress them (frictionless) to the same percent reduction in height. Show that the final diameters will be the same.

The pressure distribution is similar to the friction hill shown in Fig. 6.5 on p. 270, with the exception that there are two symmetric regions where the pressure is constant. These regions sustain pressure but do not contribute to the frictional stress. A trapped layer of incompressible lubricant in grooves machined on the surface of the workpiece, for example, would represent such a condition. The grooves would be filled with the lubricant, which sustains pressure but would not contribute to shear at the interface because of its low viscosity.

Let’s identify the shorter cylindrical specimen with the subscript s and the taller as t, and their original diameter as D. Subscripts f and o indicate final and original, respectively. Because both specimens undergo the same percent reduction in height, we can write

6.76 Derive the average die-pressure formula given by Eq. (6.15). (Hint: Obtain the volume under the friction hill over the surface by integration, and divide it by the cross-sectional area of the workpiece.)

htf hsf = hto hso and from volume constancy, 2 htf Dto = hto Dtf

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and hsf = hso

Dso Dsf

The total force is the product of this force and the specimen width times two, or

2

Ftotal = 2(32.2)(0.02) = 1.288 MN

Because Dto = Dso , we note from these relationships that Dtf = Dsf . 6.78 A rectangular workpiece has the following original dimensions: 2a = 100 mm, h = 30 mm and width = 20 mm (see Fig. 6.5). The metal has a strength coefficient of 300 MPa and a strainhardening exponent of 0.3. It is being forged in plane strain with µ = 0.2. Calculate the force required at a reduction of 20%. Do not use average-pressure formulas.

The discrepancy is due to the fact that in deriving the average pressure, a low value of µa/h have been assumed for mathematical simplicity.

In this plane-strain problem note that the width dimension remains at 20 mm. Thus, when the reduction in height is 20%, the final height of the workpiece is

6.79 Assume that in upsetting a solid cylindrical specimen between two flat dies with friction, the dies are rotated at opposite directions to each other. How, if at all, will the forging force change from that for nonrotating dies? (Hint: Note that each die will now require a torque but in opposite directions.)

h = (1 − 0.2)(30) = 24 mm = 0.024 m Since volume constancy has to be maintained and we have a plane-strain situation, we can find the new (final) dimension a from (100)(30)(20) = (2a)(24)(20) Thus, a = 62.5 mm = 0.0625 m. The absolute value of the true strain is 30 = 0.223 = ln 24 and hence the uniaxial flow stress at the final height is Yf = Kn = (400)(0.223)0.3 = 255 MPa and the flow stress in plane strain is Yf0 = (1.15)(255) = 293 MPa. Thus, from Eq. (6.13) on p. 270 the pressure as a function of distance x is p

Note that if we use the average pressure formula given by Eq. (6.16) on p. 271, the answer will be µa (2a)(w) Ftotal = Y 0 1 + h (0.2)(0.0625) = (293) 1 + 0.024 ×(2)(0.0625)(0.02) = 1.11 MN

= Y 0 e2µ(a−x)/h = (293 MPa)e2(0.2)(0.0625−x)/0.024 = (293 MPa)e1.042−16.7x

To obtain the force required for one-half of the workpiece per unit width, we integrate the above expression between the limits x = 0 and x = 0.0625, which gives the force per unit width and one-half of the length as F = 32.2 MN/m.

From the top view of the round specimen in Fig. 6.8b on p. 272, we first note that the frictional stresses at the die-specimen interfaces will essentially be tangential. (We say essentially because the rotational speed is assumed to be much higher than the vertical speed of the dies.) Consequently, the direction of µσz will be tangential and, because there will now be no frictional stress in the radial direction, balancing forces in the radial direction will not include friction. Thus, the situation will be basically similar to upsetting without friction, and the forging force will be a minimum. However, additional work has to be done in supplying torque to the two dies that are rotating in opposite directions. Note also that we are assuming µ to be small, so that it will not cause plastic twisting of the specimen due to die rotation. 6.80 A solid cylindrical specimen, made of a perfectly plastic material, is being upset between flat dies with no friction. The process is being carried out by a falling weight, as in a drop hammer. The downward velocity of the hammer is at a maximum when it first contacts the workpiece and becomes zero when the

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hammer stops at a certain height of the specimen. Establish quantitative relationships between workpiece height and velocity, and make a qualitative sketch of the velocity profile of the hammer. (Hint: The loss in the kinetic energy of the hammer is the plastic work of deformation; thus, there is a direct relationship between workpiece height and velocity.)

h0

hf

For this problem we will use the energy method, in which case the kinetic energy of the falling weight is being dissipated by the work of plastic deformation of the specimen. We know that the work, W , done on the specimen of volume V is

v 0

v0

W = uV

or in terms of specific heights, W = Y ln

ho h

This behavior is to be expected because the specimen cross-sectional area will be increasing rapidly with time, hence the upward resisting force on the falling weight will also increase rapidly and, thus, decelerate the weight rapidly.

(V )

where h is the instantaneous height of the specimen. The kinetic energy, KE, of the falling weight can be expressed in terms of the initial and instantaneous heights of the specimen: m vo2 − v 2 KE = 2

6.81 Describe how would you go about estimating the force acting on each die in a swaging operation.

where m is the mass of the falling body and vo is the velocity when the falling weight first contacts the specimen. Equating the two energies, noting that Y , ho , V , m, and vo are constant, and simplifying, we find the relationship between v and h as

v∝

√

ln h + C

where C is a constant. Inspection of this equation indicates that, qualitatively, the velocity profile of the falling weight will be as shown in the following figure:

First, an estimate has to be made of the contact area between the die and the workpiece; this can be done by studying the contact geometry. Then, a flow stress, Yf , has to be determined, which will depend on the workpiece material, strain hardening exponent, n, and the amount of strain the material is undergoing. Also, as a first approximation, the hardness of the workpiece material can be used (with appropriate units) since the deformation zone during swaging is quite contrained, as in a hardness test. Note also that the swaging process can be assumed to be similar to hubbing, and consequently, Eq. (6.23) on p. 281 may be used to estimate the die force. 6.82 A mechanical press is powered by a 30-hp motor and operates at 40 strokes per minute. It uses a flywheel, so that the rotational speed of

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the crankshaft does not vary appreciably during the stroke. If the stroke length is 6 in., what is the maximum contact force that can be exerted over the entire stroke length? To what height can a 5052-O aluminum cylinder with a diameter of 0.5 in. and a height of 2 in. be forged before the press stalls?

and recognizing that the bronze is annealed, so that its strength should be on the low end of the ranges given, the yield stress of C74500 bronze can be taken as Y = 170 MPa = 24.6 ksi. From Eq. (6.18) on p. 272, the pressure at the end of the press stroke is 2µr pave = Y 1 + 3h 2(0.20)(0.125) = (24.6) 1 + 3(0.125) = 27.88 ksi

Note that the power is 30 hp = 198,000 in-lb/s. Assume that the press stroke has a constant velocity. Although this is a poor approximation, it does not affect the problem since a constant force is assumed later; actually, both the force and velocity will vary. At 40 strokes per minute and with a 6 in. stroke, we would require a velocity of

The force is the product of pressure and area, given in Eq. (6.19) as F = pave πr2 2 0.125 = (27.88)π 2

V = (40 rpm)(12 in./rev)(60 min/s) = 8 in./s The power exerted is the product of the force and the velocity; thus,

or F = 0.342 kip = 342 lb. 198, 000 in.-lb/s = F V = F (8 in./s) or F = 24.75 kip. For 5052-O, the yield strength is 90 MPa=13 ksi (from Table 3.7 on p. 116). Therefore, using Eqs. (6.18) and (6.19) on p. 272, F

24, 750 lb 2µr 2 = Yf πr 1 + 3h 2(0.2)r 2 = (13 ksi)π(r ) 1 + 3h

6.84 Using the slab method of analysis, derive Eq. (6.17). We use an element and the stresses acting on it as shown in Fig. 6.8. Balancing forces in the radial direction,

=

0

Also, from volume constancy we have r2 h = ro2 ho . Substituting this into the above equation and solving, yields r = 0.675 in., or a diameter of around 1.35 in. The height in this case is then h = 0.274 in. 6.83 Estimate the force required to upset a 0.125-indiameter C74500 brass rivet in order to form a 0.25-in-diameter head. Assume that the coefficient of friction between the brass and the tool-steel die is 0.2 and that the rivet head is 0.125 in. in thickness. Since we are asked for the force required to perform the forging operation, we use Eq. (6.18) on p. 272 to obtain the average pressure as evaluated at the end of the stroke where r = 0.125 in and h = 0.125 in. From Table 3.11 on p. 119

dθ − 2µσz xdθdx 2 −(σr + dσr )(x + dx)dθh

= σr xhdθ + 2σθ hdx

Simplifying this equation, noting that the product dr dθ is very small and hence can be neglected, and dividing by xh dx, we obtain dσr σr − σθ 2µσz + =− dx x h Note that the circumferential and radial incremental strains are equal to each other by virtue of the fact that dθ =

2π dx dx dx = and dr = 2πx d x

From Eq. (2.43), we can state that dr dθ dz = = σr σθ σz Consequently, we have σr = σθ

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and thus

6.86 With appropriate sketches, explain the changes that occur in the roll-pressure distribution if one of the rolls is idling, i.e., power is shut off to that roll.

dσr 2µσz =− dx h Also, using the distortion-energy criterion, 2

2

Note in this case that the idling roll cannot supply power to the strip; hence, there cannot be a net torque acting on it (assuming no bearing friction). Consequently, the roll-pressure distribution will be such that the frictional forces acting along the entry and exit zones, respectively, are equal. In the absence of strain hardening, the pressure distribution in the roll gap will thus be symmetrical and the neutral axis shifts a little towards the entry. However, the other roll is still supplying power and its neutral axis is more towards the exit. There is, therefore, a zone in the roll gap on which the frictional stresses on the top and bottom surfaces are opposite in sign; this condition is known as cross shear.

2

(σr − σθ ) + (σr − σz ) + (σz − σθ ) = 2Y 2 we have σ r σz = Y and since the yield stress, Y , is a constant, we note that dσr = dσz Thus, 2µσz dσz =− dx h Note that this equation is similar to Eq. (6.12) for plane-strain forging. Following the same procedure as in the text, we can then obtain the pressure p at any radius x as p = Y e2µ(r−x)/h

Rolling 6.85 In Example 6.4, calculate the velocity of the strip leaving the rolls. Because mass continuity has to be maintained, we can write Vf (0.80) = Vr hneutral where hneutral is the thickness of the strip at the neutral point and Vf = ωR = (2π)(100)(12) = 7540 in./min The thickness at the neutral point can be calculated from Eqs. (6.32) and (6.33) on p. 294. In this problem, we can approximate a certain thickness, based on observations regarding Figs. 6.33 on p. 293 and 6.34 on p. 294. Since the original and final thicknesses are 1.0 and 0.8 in., respectively, let’s assume that hneutral = 0.85. Thus Vf =

(7540)(0.85) = 8010 in./min 0.80

6.87 It can be shown that it is possible to determine µ in flat rolling without measuring torque or forces. By inspecting the equations for rolling, describe an experimental procedure to do so. Note that you are allowed to measure any quantity other than torque or forces. In this problem, we first measure the following quantities: vo , vf , vr , ho and hf . From the available information and knowing R, we can calculate the magnitude of the angle of acceptance, α. From the velocity distribution, as in Fig. (6.32), we can now determine φn from which we obtain Hn , using Eq. (6.32) on p. 294. To determine the coefficient of friction, we can rewrite Eq. (6.32) as ho ln hf µ= Ho − 2Hn in which Ho is obtained from Eq. (6.29) on p. 292 where φ is now the angle α. 6.88 Derive a relationship between back tension, σb , and front tension, σf , in rolling such that when both tensions are increased, the neutral point remains in the same position. We note that at the neutral point, the roll pressure, p, obtained from Eqs. (6.34) and (6.35) on

or Vf = 668 ft/min. 46

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p. 294 must be equal. Therefore, we can write 0 hh µHn hn µ(Ho −Hn ) 0 e = Yf − σf e Yf − σb ho hf

6.90 It was stated that in flat rolling a strip, the roll force is reduced about twice as effectively by back tension as it is by front tension. Explain the reason for this difference, using appropriate sketches. (Hint: Note the shift in the position of the neutral point when tensions are applied.)

thus σb = Yf0 −

ho 2µHn −µHo 0 e Yf − σf hf

It should be noted that this equation can be rearranged into different forms. 6.89 Take an element at the center of the deformation zone in flat rolling. Assuming that all the stresses acting on this element are principal stresses, indicate the stresses qualitatively, and state whether they are tensile or compressive. Explain your reasoning. Is it possible for all three principal stresses to be equal to each other in magnitude? Explain. All stresses on the element will be compressive for the following reasons: (a) The vertical stress (pressure) is the compressive stress applied by the rolls. (b) The longitudinal stress is compressive because of the frictional forces in the roll gap. This can be shown by the free-body diagram given below, and the stress is always compressive throughout the gap length (in the absence of front or back tensions). (c) The stress perpendicular to the page is also compressive because we have a planestrain state of stress. The material is not free to expand laterally because it is constrained both by frictional forces (along the length of the rolls) as well as the rigid regions of the strip ahead and behind the roll gap.

Referring to Figs. 6.33 on p. 293 or 6.34 on p. 294, we note that the neutral point is towards the exit, hence the area under the entry-side curve is larger than that for the exit-side curve. (This is in order to supply energy through a net frictional force during ordinary rolling.) Consequently, a reduction in the height of the curve by back tension (σb ) has a greater effect than that for the exit side by front tension. 6.91 It can be seen that in rolling a strip, the rolls will begin to slip if the back tension, σb , is too high. Derive an analytical expression for the magnitude of the back tension in order to make the powered rolls begin to slip. Use the same terminology as applied in the text. Slipping of the rolls means that the neutral point has moved to the exit of the roll gap. Thus, the whole contact area becomes the entry zone and Eq. (6.34) on p. 294 is applicable. We know that when φ = 0, H = 0, and thus the pressure at the exit is pφ=0 = Yf0 − σb

hf ho

eµHo

We also know that at the exit the pressure is equal to Y 0 . Therefore, we obtain Yf0 = Yf0 − σb

p

hf ho

eµHo

Solving for σb , p h + dh

σb =

h

Yf0

ho −µHo 1− e hf

x

x + dx

where Ho is obtained from Eq. (6.29) with φ = α. p

6.92 Derive Eq. (6.46). p

Refer to the figure below. 47

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In this process, the work done in rolling is supplied by the front tension. Assuming a certain reduction in thickness per pass, we first determine the absolute value of the true strain, ho 1 = ln hf

R

Roll h0

x/2

z /2

hf

Since we know the behavior of the material as σ = a + b, we can determine the energy of plastic deformation per unit volume, u, using Eq. (2.59) on p. 71. We also know the crosssectional dimensions of the strip and the velocities vo and vf . The power dissipated is the product of u and the volume rate of flow through the roll gap, which is given by the quantity wo ho vo . This product is equal to the power supplied by the front tension that acts on the exiting cross-sectional area of the rolled strip. Hence, assuming a plane-strain condition (that is, w = constant), we can write the expression

Note that x = ho − hf , and is also called the draft. For small α, z = R sin α. Also, note that for small angles, x z sin α = 2 2 Therefore, x = z sin α = R tan2 α At small angles, the sine and tangent functions are approximately equal; hence,

uwho vo = σf whf vf

x = ho − hf = R tan2 α Recall that the inclined-plane principle for friction states that α = tan−1 µ, or µ = tan α. Substituting, we have ho − hf = Rµ2 which is the desired relationship. 6.93 In Steckel rolling, the rolls are idling, and thus there is no net torque, assuming frictionless bearings. Where, then, is the energy coming from to supply the necessary work of deformation in rolling? Explain with appropriate sketches, and state the conditions that have to be satisfied. The energy for work of deformation is supplied by the tension required to pull the strip through the roll gap. Since the rolls are idling, the rollpressure distribution will be such that the frictional forces in the entry and exit zones, respectively, are equal. The neutral point will shift toward the entry zone, as if applying a front tension in Fig. 6.35. 6.94 Derive an expression for the tension required in Steckel rolling of a flat sheet, without friction, for a workpiece with a true-stress-true-strain curve given by σ = a + b.

from which the magnitude of the front tension can be determined. 6.95 (a) Make a neat sketch of the roll-pressure distribution in flat rolling with powered rolls. (b) Assume now that the power to both rolls is shut off and that rolling is taking place by front tension only, i.e., Steckel rolling. Superimpose on your diagram the new roll-pressure distribution, explaining your reasoning clearly. (c) After completing part (b), further assume that the roll bearings are becoming rusty and deprived of lubrication although rolling is still taking place by front tension only. Superimpose a third roll-pressure distribution diagram for this condition, explaining your reasoning. The relevant pressure diagram for Steckel rolling can be obtained simply from Fig. 6.35 on p. 295. Note that, with frictionless bearings, the front tension supplies the work of deformation; thus, σf must be high enough such that the entry and exit zones have equal areas under the pressure curve and the neutral point shifts to the left. In the case of roll bearings with friction, the front tension must increase in order to supply the additional work required to rotate the idling rolls with bearing friction. Thus, the neutral point will shift further to the left. We

48

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Therefore,

can also assume that the bearing friction is so high that they freeze. In that case, the rolls will not rotate, which means that the neutral point must shift all the way to the entry and thus frictional forces are all in one direction.

F

µL = LwY¯0 1 + 2have =

6.96 Derive Eq. (6.28), based on the equation preceding it. Comment on how different the h values are as the angle φ increases. Note that the procedure is identical to the answer to Problem 6.92 above. For small drafts, and hence small angles φ (which is typically the case in rolling practice), the expression µ = tan α can be replaced by µ = α, or for the more general case, µ = φ. Consequently, the expression

=

We check for roll flattening by using Eq. (6.48) on p. 299, where C = 1.6 × 10−7 in2 /lb, assuming steel rolls, and F0 =

becomes h − hf = Rφ2

367, 000 F = = 36, 700 lb/in. w 10

Thus, R

ho − hf = Rµ2

(0.25)(0.632) (0.632)(10)(40, 000) 1 + 2(0.175) 367, 000 lb

0

CF 0 = R 1+ ho − hf (1.6 × 10−7 )(36, 700) = (8) 1 + 0.20 − 0.15 = 8.94 in.

so that h = hf + Rφ2 which is Eq. (6.28) on p. 292. 6.97 In Fig. 6.34, assume that L = 2L2 . Is the roll force, F , for L now twice or more than twice the roll force for L2 ? Explain. An inspection of Fig. 6.34 on p. 294 clearly indicates that the roll force, F , will be more than twice as high. This is due to the fact that the roll-pressure distribution has the shape of a friction hill. Only when the pressure is constant through the roll gap (as in “frictionless” rolling), will the force be twice as high. 6.98 A flat-rolling operation is being carried out where h0 = 0.2 in., hf = 0.15 in., w0 = 10 in., R = 8 in., µ = 0.25, and the average flow stress of the material is 40,000 psi. Estimate the roll force and the torque. Include the effects of roll flattening. The roll force can be estimated from Eq. (6.40) on p. 296, where the quantity L is obtained from Eq. (6.38). Therefore, p √ L = R∆h = (8)(0.20 − 0.15) = 0.632 in. and have =

Using this value in the force expression, we have L = 0.668 in. and F = 395, 000 lb. This force predicts a flattened radius of R0 = 9.0 in. (Note that the expression is converging.) This radius predicts L = 0.671 and F = 397, 000 lb, which suggests a radius of R0 = 9.02 in. Therefore, the roll force is around 397,000 lb, with an effective roll radius of 9.0 in. 6.99 A rolling operation takes place under the conditions shown in the accompanying figure. What is the position xn of the neutral point? Note that there are a front and back tension that have not been specified. Additional data are as follows: Material is 5052-O aluminum; hardened steel rolls; surface roughness of the rolls = 0.02 µm; rolling temperature = 210◦ C.

R = 75 mm x 5 mm V = 1.5 m/s

V = 2 m/s 3 mm

0.20 + 0.15 = 0.175 in. 2 49

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The roll force can be estimated from Eq. (6.40) on p. 296, where the quantity L is obtained from Eq. (6.38). Therefore, p √ L = R∆h = (200)(4) = 28.3 mm

Note that more data is given than is needed to solve this problem. Assuming the material is incompressible, the velocity at the inlet is calculated as: (2.0)(3 mm)w = Vi (5 mm)w

and

10 + 6 = 8 mm 2 From Table 2.3 on p. 37, K = 530 MPa and n = 0.26. The strain is

Therefore, Vi = 1.20 m/s. At the neutral point, the velocity is the roll velocity (or 1.5 m/s). Assuming incompressibility, we can compare the outlet and the neutral point: →

(1.5)(h) = (2.0)(3)

have =

h = 4.0 mm

= ln

Consider the sketch of the roll bite geometry given below.

R 5/2=2.5 mm

The average yield stress can be obtained from Eq. (2.60) on p. 71 as (530)(0.5108)1.26 Kn+1 = = 180 MPa Y¯ = n+1 1.26

Rcos

and

x

Y¯0 = (1.15)Y¯ = 207 MPa

3/2=1.5 mm

Therefore, F

θ can be calculated from: 75 − (75) cos θ =

10 = 0.5108 6

4−3 2

µL 0 ¯ = LwY 1 + 2have (0.1)(28.3) = (0.0283)(0.2)(207) 1 + 2(8) = 1.38 MN

or θ = 6.62◦ . Therefore, The power per roll is given by Eq. (6.43) as xn = R sin θ = (75) sin 6.62◦ = 8.64 mm P =

π(1.38 × 106 )(0.0283)(200) πF LN = 60, 000 60, 000

6.100 Estimate the roll force and power for annealed low-carbon steel strip 200 mm wide and 10 mm or P = 409 kW. thick, rolled to a thickness of 6 mm. The roll radius is 200 mm, and the roll rotates at 200 6.101 Calculate the individual drafts in each of the rpm. Let µ = 0.1. stands in the tandem-rolling operation shown.

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Stand 1 30 Take-up reel

0.26

2

3

17.7

0.34

10.7

0.56

4 6.6

5 2.6 m/s

4.1 m/s

0.90

Pay-off reel

1.45

2.25 mm

Stand 5

Stand 4

0.90 mm

1.45 mm

In Section 6.3.1 starting on p. 290, the draft was defined as ∆h for a rolling operation. Therefore, the answers are:

Stand 1 2 3 4 5

• Stand 5: 2.25 - 1.45 = 0.80 mm, or 36%. • Stand 4: 1.45 - 0.90 = 0.55 mm, or 38%.

2.25 mm

Roll velocity FS=0 FS=10% (m/s) (m/s) 30 27.3 17.7 16.1 10.7 9.73 6.6 6.0 2.6 2.36

• Stand 3: 0.90 - 0.56 = 0.34 mm, or 38%. Extrusion • Stand 2: 0.56 - 0.34 = 0.22 mm, or 39%.

6.103 Calculate the force required in direct extrusion of 1100-O aluminum from a diameter of 6 in. to • Stand 1: 0.34 - 0.26 = 0.08 mm, or 24%. 2 in. Assume that the redundant work is 30% of the ideal work of deformation, and the friction work is 25% of the total work of deformation. 6.102 Calculate the required roll velocities for each roll in Problem 6.101 in order to maintain a The extrusion ratio is R = 62 /22 = 9, and forward slip of (a) zero and (b) 10%. thus the true strain is = ln(9) = 2.20. For 1100-O aluminum, we have from Table 2.3 on The forward slip is defined by Eq. (6.24) on p. 37, K = 180 MPa = 26,000 psi and n = 0.20. p. 291 as: Therefore, from Eq. (2.60) on p. 71, the average flow stress is V f − Vr Forward slip (FS) = (26, 000)(2.20)0.20 Kn Vr = = 25, 360 psi Y¯ = n+1 1.20 For the forward slip to be zero, the roll velocity needs to be the final velocity in the rolling operation. From the data given in the figure, the following quantities can be determined:

The ideal extrusion pressure is, from Eq. (6.54) on p. 310, p = Y ln R = (25, 360) ln 9 = 55, 700 psi 51

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For a density of 0.324 lb/in3 for copper, its weight is (19.6)(0.324) = 6.36 lb. The specific heat for copper is 385 J/kg◦ C = 0.092 BTU/lb◦ F. Since 1 BTU = 778 ft-lb = 9336 in.-lb, the work done is equivalent to 3.2 × 106 /9336 = 343 BTU, or 343/6.36 = 54 BTU/lb. Thus, the temperature rise will be 54/0.092 = 590◦ F, assuming that the process is adiabatic. Note that the final temperature will be 1500 + 590 = 2090◦ F, which is much above the melting temperature of copper. In practice, extrusion is carried out relatively slowly, so that significant heat can be lost to the environment; also, a 1500◦ F preheat is very unusual for copper.

The ideal extrusion force is then F = pA =

πpd2 π(55, 700)(6)2 = 4 4

or F = 1.57 × 106 lb. The total force is the sum of the forces for ideal, friction, and redundant deformation. In this case, we can write Ftotal = Fideal + 0.30Fideal + 0.25Ftotal Therefore, Ftotal = 1.73Fideal = 2.72 × 106 lb = 1360 tons 6.104 Prove Eq. (6.58).

6.106 Using the same approach as that shown in Section 6.5 for wire drawing, show that the extrusion pressure is given by the expression " µ cot α # Ao tan α 1− , p=Y 1+ µ Af

Consider the sketch below for an extrusion operation.

x ro-r

ro

x

where Ao and Af are the original and final workpiece diameters, respectively.

r

Note that the coordinate x has been measured from the die entry, consistent with Example 6.5. Also, note that the sketch shows one-half of the extrusion operation, as the bottom boundary is a centerline. The initial billet radius is ro . From the triangle indicated, tan α =

ro − r x

which is the desired relationship. 6.105 Calculate the theoretical temperature rise in the extruded material in Example 6.6, assuming that there is no heat loss. (See Section 3.9 for information on the physical properties of the material.)

Refer to Fig. 6.61 on p. 321 for a stress element, from which we apply equilibrium in the x-direction as π 2 0 = (σx + dσx ) (D + dD) 4 πDdx πDdx π −σx D2 + p + µp 4 cos α cos α Simplifying and ignoring second-order terms, µ 0 = Ddσx + 2σx dD + 2p 1 + dD tan α From Eq. (2.36) on p. 64, and recognizing that positive pressure indicates negative stress, σmax − σmin = σx + p = Y Letting µ/ tan α = B, and using this relationship yields dD dσx = D 2Bσx − 2Y (1 + B) Integrating this equation between the limits Df and Do and by noting that at D = Do , σx = −σd (because the stress is negative, although the pressure is positive) and at D = Df , σx = 0, " 2B # 1+B Df σd = Y 1− B Do

The temperature rise can be calculated from the work done in the process. In Example 6.6 we note that the extrusion force is F = 3.2×106 lb. Thus, the work done in one inch of travel is W = 3.2 × 106 in-lb, and the extruded volume is πd2 l π(5)2 (1) = = 19.6 in3 V = 4 4 52

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or

or, noting that p = σd , " B # 1+B Af p = Y 1− B Ao " µ cot α # Af tan α 1− = Y 1+ µ Ao

p

=

3.41Y ln

=

1.7Y ln R

An estimate of the pressure p can be obtained as follows, referring to the figure below for nomenclature.

pf

45° A0

= 1.7Y ln

Do Df

2

In this analysis, we have neglected the force required to overcome friction at the billetcontainer interface. Assume that the frictional stress is equal to the shear yield stress of the material, k, we can obtain the additional ram pressure required due to friction, pf , as

6.107 Derive Eq. (6.56).

p

Do Df

πDo2 4

= πDo kL

or

Af

pf = k

2L 4L =Y Do Do

6.108 A planned extrusion operation involves steel at 800◦ C, with an initial diameter of 100 mm and The total power input, P , with a ram velocity a final diameter of 20 mm. Two presses, one of vo is with a capacity of 20 MN and the other of 10 πDo2 MN, are available for this operation. Obviously, Pinput = pvo 4 the larger press requires greater care and more expensive tooling. Is the smaller press sufficient The power due to plastic work of deformation for this operation? If not, what recommendais the product of the volume rate of flow and tions would you make to allow the use of the the energy per unit volume. Thus, smaller press? " # 2 πDo2 Do Pplastic = vo (Y ) ln 4 Df For steel at 800◦ C, k = 425 MPa (From Fig. 6.53 on p. 313). The initial and final areas As in the problem statement, let’s take the dead are 0.00785 m2 and 3.14×10−4 m2 , respectively. zone to imply a 45◦ die angle as shown, and that From Eq. (6.62) on p. 313, the extrusion force the frictional stress is equal to the shear yield required is stress, k = Y /2, of the material. The power dis sipated due to friction along the die angle can Ao F = Ao k ln then be calculated as Af 2 πDo Y Do 0.00785 Pfriction = vo √ ln = (0.0078)(425) ln 2 Df 2 3.14 × 10−4 = 10.6 MN Equating the power input to the sum of the plastic deformation and friction powers, we obtain Thus, the smaller and easier to use press is not " 2 # suitable for this operation, but it almost has 2 2 πDo πDo Do pvo = vo (Y ) ln sufficient capacity. If the extrusion tempera4 4 Df ture can be increased or if friction can be re duced sufficiently, it may then be possible to πDo2 Y Do +vo √ ln use this machine. 2 Df 2 53

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Drawing stress (MPa)

6.109 Estimate the force required in extruding 70-30 brass at 700◦ C, if the billet diameter is 125 mm and the extrusion ratio is 20. From Fig. 6.53 on p. 313, k for copper at 700 ◦ C is approximately 180 MPa. Noting that R is 20 and do = 125 mm = 0.125 m; using Eq. (6.62) on p. 313, we find that

50 40

Redu ction = 40 %

30

30%

20

20% 10%

10 0

0

F = (π/4)(0.125)2 (180)(ln 20) = 6.62 MN

4

8 12 Die angle (°)

16

6.112 Using the same approach as that described in Section 6.5 for wire drawing, show that the drawing stress, σd , in plane-strain drawing of 6.110 Calculate the power required in Example 6.7 if a flat sheet or plate is given by the expression the workpiece material is annealed 70-30 brass. " µ cot α # tan α h − f σd = Y 0 1 + 1− , For annealed 70-30 brass we have, from Table µ ho 2.3 on p. 37, K = 895 MPa and n = 0.49. Thus, the average flow stress is where ho and hf are the original and final thickDrawing

ness, respectively, of the workpiece.

(895)(0.466)0.49 = 413 MPa Y¯ = 1.49

For a plane-strain element, we can apply equilibrium in the x direction as

Since all other quantities are the same as in the example, the power will be 413 = 6.4 kW P = 12.25 785

0

6.111 Using Eq. (6.63), make a plot similar to Fig. 6.63 for the following conditions: K = 100 MPa, n = 0.3, and µ = 0.04. Using Eq. (2.60) on p. 71, we can rewrite Eq. (6.66) on p. 321 as n+1 " µ cot α # K tan α Af σd = 1+ 1− n+1 µ Ao

(σx + dσx ) (h + dh) w − σx hw dx wdx + µp +p cos α cos α

=

Simplifying and ignoring second order terms, µ hdσx + σx dh + p 1 + dx = 0 tan α From Eq. (2.36), and recognizing that positive pressure indicates negative stress, σmax − σmin = σx + p = Y Letting µ/ tan α = B,

where is the final strain. From Eqs. (2.7) on p. 34 and (2.10) on p. 35 it can be shown that Af /Ao = e− and that = − ln(1 − R), where R is the reduction. Therefore, the expression becomes: n+1 i K tan α h µ cot α σd = 1+ 1 − (e ) n+1 µ n+1 K tan α = 1+ 1 − e−µ cot α n+1 µ

dσx dh = h 2Bσx − 2Y (1 + B) Integrating this equation between the limits hf and ho and by noting that at h = ho , σx = −σd (because the stress is negative, although the pressure is positive) and at h = hf , σx = 0, " B # 1+B hf σd = Y 1− B ho or σd = Y

This allows construction of the curve given below.

tan α 1+ µ

"

1−

hf ho

µ cot α #

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6.113 Derive an analytical expression for the die pressure in wire drawing, without friction or redundant work, as a function of the instantaneous diameter in the deformation zone.

Equating both expressions, as was done in Eq. (6.71) on p. 322, we obtain 5, 000+25, 0001 = σd = 1.15(5, 000+12, 5001 )1 Note that the coefficient of 1.15 takes the frictional work into account. This is a quadratic equation with one negative root and one positive root, which is 1 = 1.56. Thus, 2 0.25 = 1.56 1 = ln Df

From Eq. (6.71) on p. 322 we know that the following condition must be satisfied in the deformation zone: σx + p = Y where the tensile stress σx is defined as 2 Do σx = Y ln Dx

This is solved as Df = 0.11 in. 6.115 In Fig. 6.65, assume that the longitudinal residual stress at the center of the rod is -80,000 psi. Using the distortion-energy criterion, calculate the minimum yield stress that this particular steel must have in order to sustain these levels of residual stresses.

Consequently, " p = Y 1 − ln

Do Dx

2 #

Thus, at the die entry, for example, where σx = 0, we have p = Y . As we approach the die exit, σx increases and hence p decreases. (See Fig. 6.62.) 6.114 A linearly strain-hardening material with a true-stress-true-strain curve σ = 5, 000 + 25, 000 psi is being drawn into a wire. If the original diameter of the wire is 0.25 in., what is the minimum possible diameter at the exit of the die? Assume that there is no redundant work and that the frictional work is 15% of the ideal work of deformation. (Hint: The yield stress of the exiting wire is the point on the true-stress-true-strain curve that corresponds to the total strain that the material has undergone.) The drawing stress can be expressed in terms of the average flow stress, Y¯ , as follows: σd = 1.25Y¯ 1 For this linearly strain-hardening material, the average flow stress is Y¯

= =

5, 000 + (5, 000 + 25, 0001 ) 2 5, 000 + 12, 5001

This problem requires that (a) elements be taken at different radial positions, (b) the respective residual stresses are determined from the figure, and (c) substituted into the effective stress for the distortion-energy criterion, given by Eq. (2.56) on p. 70. Four locations are checked below. (a) At the center, we have σL = −80, 000 psi, σR = −60, 000 psi, and σT = −45, 000 psi, thus the effective stress is 1 σ ¯ = √ (σL − σR )2 + (σR − σT )2 2 1/2 +(σL − σT )2 = 30, 500 psi (b) At R = 0.375 in., we have σL = −5, 000 psi, σR = −40, 000 psi and σT = −15, 000 psi, and thus the effective stress is 31,000 psi. (c) At R = 0.5 in, we have σL = 5, 000 psi, σR = −20, 000 psi, and σT = −35, 000 psi, and the effective stress is 35,000 psi. (d) At the surface of the bar, σL = 50, 000 psi, σR = 0 and σT = 50, 000 psi, and the effective stress is 50,000 psi. Since the effective stress is equal to the uniaxial stress in a tension test, it can be concluded that this part must have a minimum yield stress of Y = 50, 000 psi in order to sustain these residual stresses.

As the problem states, the yield stress of the exiting wire is Y1 = 5, 000 + 25, 0001 55

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6.116 Derive an expression for the die-separating force in frictionless wire drawing of a perfectly plastic material. Use the same terminology as in the text.

This problem requires the same approach as in Problem 6.86 above. Thus, referring to Example 6.8, 1.251 = n + 1

and hence For a straight conical die with an angle α and original and final cross-sectional areas Ao and Max reduction per pass = 1 − e−(n+1)/1.25 Af , respectively, it can be shown that the contact area, A, (in the shape of a truncated cone) This means that, as expected, the maximum reis given by duction is lower than that obtained for the ideal Ao − Af case in Example 6.8. A= π sin α 6.119 Prove that the true-strain rate, , ˙ in drawing or From the die-pressure curve such as that shown extrusion in plane strain with a wedge-shaped in Fig. 6.62 on p. 322, which can be obtained die is given by the expression analytically, we determine an average pressure pave . Assuming a small die angle, as is generally 2 tan αVo to ˙ = − 2, the case in wire drawing, the radial component (to − 2x tan α) of this pressure (i.e., perpendicular to the long where α is the die angle, to is the original thickaxis), is the same as pave . Further assuming ness, and x is the distance from die entry (Hint: that the die is split in half into two half circles, Note that d = dA/A.) the die-separating force will act on one-half of the contact area, and thus the force will be This problem is very similar to Example 6.5. To avoid confusion between time and thickness (Ao − Af ) pave F = variables, lets use h to denote thickness. From 2π sin α geometry in the die gap, 6.117 A material with a true-stress-true-strain curve (ho − h)/2 σ = 10, 0000.3 is used in wire drawing. Astan α = x suming that the friction and redundant work or compose a total of 50% of the ideal work of deh = ho − 2x tan α. formation, calculate the maximum reduction in cross-sectional area per pass that is possible.

The incremental true strain can be defined as dA A

The maximum reduction per pass for a strainhardening material was derived in Example 6.8. Using a similar approach, the following relationship can be written: Kn1 n K1 = (1.5) 1 n+1

where A = wh, and w is the (constant) width. Therefore, dA = wdh, and hence

or

where dh = − tan α dx. We also know that

d =

d =

n+1 1.5 Since n = 0.3 for this problem, we have 1 = 0.867. Note that the magnitude of K is not relevant in this problem. 1 =

6.118 Derive an expression for the maximum reduction per pass for a material of σ = Kn assuming that the friction and redundant work contribute a total of 25% to the ideal work of deformation.

˙ =

wdh dh = wh h

d 2 tan α dx =− dt h dt

However, dx/dt = V , which is the velocity of the material at any location x in the die. Hence, ˙ =

d 2V tan α =− dt h

From constancy of flow rate, we can write V = ho vo /h,

56

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and hence, ˙ = −

In this problem, do = 0.1 in, so that the initial cross-sectional area is

2Vo ho tan α 2Vo ho tan α = h2 (ho − 2x tan α)2

Ao =

which is the desired relation. The negative sign is due to the fact that true strain is defined in terms of the cross-sectional area, which decreases as x increases.

Similarly, since df = 0.07 in., Af = 0.00385 in2 . From Eq. (6.61) on p. 313, the force required for drawing is

6.120 In drawing a strain-hardening material with n = 0.25 what should be the percentage of friction plus redundant work, in terms of ideal work, so that the maximum reduction per pass is 63%? Referring to Example 6.8, we can write the following expression to represent this situation where x is a multiplying factor that includes friction and redundant work in terms of the ideal work of deformation: Kn 1 Kn = x n+1

F

= Yavg Af ln

Ao Af

=

(30, 000)(0.00385) ln

=

82.3 lb

0.00785 0.00385

For µ = 0.1 and α = 15◦ = 0.262 radians, Eq. (6.66) on p. 321 yields µ Ao 2 F = Yavg Af 1 + ln + α α Af 3 = (30, 000)(0.00385) 0.1 0.00785 2 × 1+ ln + (0.262) 0.262 0.00385 3

from which we obtain x=

π 2 π 2 d = (0.1 in.) = 0.00785 in2 4 o 4

or F = 134 lb. Note that Eq. (6.61) does not include friction or redundant work effects. Both of these factors will increase the forging force, and this is reflected by these results.

n+1 1.25 = 1 1

A reduction of 63% indicates a true strain of 1 = 1. Hence, x = 1.25, and thus the sum of friction and redundant work is 25% of the ideal 6.122 Assume that you are asked to give a quiz to students on the contents of this chapter. Prepare work. three quantitative problems and three qualita6.121 A round wire made of a perfectly plastic mative questions, and supply the answers. terial with a yield stress of 30,000 psi is being drawn from a diameter of 0.1 to 0.07 in. in a By the student. This is a challenging, opendraw die of 15◦ . Let the coefficient of friction ended question that requires considerable focus be 0.1. Using both Eqs. (6.61) and (6.66), estiand understanding on the part of the students, mate the drawing force required. Comment on and has been found to be a very valuable homeany differences in your answers. work problem.

Design 6.123 Forging is one method of producing turbine blades for jet engines. Study the design of such blades and, referring to the relevant technical literature, prepare a step-by-step procedure for making these blades. Comment on the difficul-

ties that may be encountered in this operation. By the student. A typical sequence would include cutting off a blank from bar stock, block forging, rough forging, finish forging, flash

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removal, inspection, finishing, and cleaning. There may be quenching operations involved, depending on the material and desired properties.

By the student. Examples include cookies, pasta, blanks for bearing races, and support brackets of all types. The case study for Chapter 6 shows a support bracket for an automobile axle that was made in this manner. Using the Internet, the students should be able to give numerous other examples.

6.124 In comparing some forged parts with cast parts, it will be noted that the same part may be made by either process. Comment on the pros and cons of each process, considering factors such 6.128 Make an extensive list of products that either are made of or have one or more components as part size, shape complexity, and design flexof (a) wire, (b) very thin wire, and (c) rods of ibility in the event that a particular design has various cross-sections. to be modified. By the student. This is an open-ended problem and students should be encouraged to develop their lists based on their experiences and research. Some answers are:

By the student. Typical answers may address cost issues (forging will be expensive for short production runs), performance (castings may lack ductility), fatigue performance, and microstructure and grain flow. 6.125 Referring to Fig. 6.25, sketch the intermediate steps you would recommend in the forging of a wrench.

• Wire is commonly found as electrical conductors, wire rope and cable, coat hangers, and nails. • Very thin wire as integrated circuit packages, communication cable (such as coaxial cable) shielding, and steel wool.

This is an open-ended problem, and there would be several acceptable answers. Students should • Rods as axles, bolts and other fasteners, be encouraged to describe the benefits of their reinforcing bars for concrete. die layouts, including their limitations, if any. If bar stock is the input material, an edging op- 6.129 Although extruded products are typically eration is useful to distribute material to the straight, it is possible to design dies whereby ends where the sockets will require extra mathe extrusion is curved, with a constant radius terial. The blocking, finishing, and trimming of curvature. (a) What applications could you operations, as sketched in Fig. 6.25 on p. 285, think of for such products? (b) Describe your are conceptually the same as those required to thoughts as to the shape such a die should have make a wrench. in order to produce curved extrusions. 6.126 Review the technical literature, and make a detailed list of the manufacturing steps involved in the manufacture of hypodermic needles. There are several manufacturers of hypodermic needles, and while each one uses a somewhat different process for production, the basic steps remain the same, including shaping of the needle, plastic-components molding, piece assembly, packaging, and labeling. This is a good topic for a paper by the student.

The applications are limited for curved extrusions. Students should be encouraged to develop their own solutions to this problem; some answers are: (a) For escalators, there are handrails that have a large and constant radius of curvature. (b) Many architectural shapes are curved.

6.127 Figure 6.48a shows examples of products that can be obtained by slicing long extruded sections into discrete parts. Name several other products that can be made in a similar manner.

(c) Bicycle frames and aircraft panels are often constructed by bending an extruded workpiece; if the extruded section is produced pre-bent, then the bending operations would no longer be necessary. The die shape is difficult to design. If the die cross section is not symmetric, then a curvature

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will naturally develop. However, this would be difficult to control, and it is probably better to incorporate forming rolls that develop a controlled radius of curvature, similar to the guide rolls in ring rolling (see Fig. 6.43 on p. 305).

(a) By reducing the total number of parts, the tooling and assembly cost is significantly reduced.

6.130 Survey the technical literature, and describe the design features of the various roll arrangements shown in Fig. 6.41.

(b) Because it is a near net-shape process, machining and finishing costs are significantly reduced. (c) Material costs may be very different; the extruded alloy, for example, may be more expensive than the forged alloy.

By the student. This is an open-ended problem, and a wide variety of answers are possible based 6.133 In the extrusion and drawing of brass tubes for ornamental architectural applications, it is on the student’s interpretation of “design feaimportant to produce very smooth surface fintures”. Students can develop descriptions based ishes. List the relevant process parameters and on cost, process capability, stiffness of the roll make manufacturing recommendations to proarrangement or the materials rolled. duce such tubes. 6.131 The beneficial effects of using ultrasonic vibration to reduce friction in some of the processes By the student. This is an open-ended problem, were described in this chapter. Survey the techand the students should consider, at a mininical literature and offer design concepts to apmum, the following factors: ply such vibrations. • A thick lubricant film will generally lead to orange peel. By the student. This is a good topic for literature search for a student paper. • A thin lubricant film can lead to wear and material transfer to the tooling and a gradual degradation in the surface produced.

6.132 In the Case Study at the end of this chapter, it was stated that there was a significant cost improvement using forgings when compared to the extrusion-based design. List and explain the reasons why you think these cost savings were possible.

• A polished die surface can produce a smooth workpiece surface; a rough surface cannot.

There are several acceptable answers to this question. Students should, for example, consider:

• The lubricant can stain the workpiece unless properly formulated.

• The workpiece material used may play a role in the shininess that can be achieved.

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Chapter 7

Sheet-Metal Forming Processes Questions 7.1 Select any three topics from Chapter 2, and, with specific examples for each, show their relevance to the topics described in this chapter.

Section 3.3.4) have a major influence on formability (Section 7.7 on p. 397).

This is an open-ended problem, and students can develop a wide range of acceptable answers. Some examples are:

• The material properties of the different materials, described in Section 3.11, indicating materials that can be cold rolling into sheets.

• Yield stress and elastic modulus, described in Section 2.2 starting on p. 30, have, for example, applicability to prediction of springback.

7.3 Describe (a) the similarities and (b) the differences between the bulk-deformation processes described in Chapter 6 and the sheet-metal forming processes described in this chapter.

• Ultimate tensile strength is important for determining the force required in blanking; see Eq. (7.4) on p. 353.

By the student. The most obvious difference between sheet-metal parts and those made by bulk-deformation processes, described in Chapter 6, is the difference in cross section or thickness of the workpiece. Sheet-metal parts typically have less net volume and are usually much easier to deform or flex. Sheet-metal parts are rarely structural unless they are loaded in tension (because otherwise their small thickness causes them to buckle at relatively low loads) or they are fabricated to produce high section modulus. They can be very large by assembling individual pieces, as in the fuselage of an aircraft. Structural parts that are made by forging and extrusion are commonly loaded in various configurations.

• Strain-hardening exponent has been referred to throughout this chapter, especially as it relates to the formability of sheet metals. • Strain is used extensively, most directly in the development of a forming limit diagram, such as that shown in Fig. 7.63a on p. 399. 7.2 Do the same as for Question 7.1, but for Chapter 3. This is an open-ended problem, and students can develop a wide range of acceptable answers. Consider, for examples:

7.4 Discuss the material and process variables that influence the shape of the curve for punch force vs. stroke for shearing, such as that shown in Fig. 7.7 on p. 354, including its height and width.

• Grain size and its effects on strength (Section 3.4 starting on p. 91), as well as the effect of cold working on grain size, (see 61

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The factors that contribute to the punch force and how they affect this force are:

knowing the physical properties of the material, calculate the theoretical temperature rise.

(a) the shear strength of the material and its strain-hardening exponent; they increase the force,

7.8 As a practicing engineer in manufacturing, why would you be interested in the shape of the curve shown in Fig. 7.7? Explain.

(b) the area being sheared and the sheet thickness; they increase the force and the stroke,

The shape of the curve in Fig. 7.7 on p. 354 will give us the following information: (a) height of the curve: the maximum punch force,

(c) the area that is being burnished by rubbing against the punch and die walls; it increases the force, and

(b) area under the curve: the energy required for this operation,

(d) parameters such as punch and die radii, clearance, punch speed, and lubrication. 7.5 Describe your observations concerning Figs. 7.5 and 7.6. The student should comment on the magnitude of the deformation zone in the sheared region, as influenced by clearance and speed of operation, and its influence on edge quality and hardness distribution throughout the edge. Note the higher temperatures observed in higher-speed shearing. Other features depicted in Fig. 7.5 on p. 352 should also be commented upon.

(c) horizontal magnitude of the curve: the punch travel required to complete the shearing operation. It is apparent that all this information should be useful to a practicing engineer in regard to the machine tool and the energy level required. 7.9 Do you think the presence of burrs can be beneficial in certain applications? Give specific examples.

7.6 Inspect a common paper punch and comment on the shape of the tip of the punch as compared with those shown in Fig. 7.12. By the student. Note that most punches are unlike those shown in Fig. 7.12 on p. 346; they have a convex curved shape. 7.7 Explain how you would estimate the temperature rise in the shear zone in a shearing operation. Refer to Fig. 7.6 on p. 353 and note that we can estimate the shear strain γ to which the shearing zone is subjected. This is done by considering the definition of simple shear, given by Eq. (2.2) on p. 30, and comparing this deformation with the deformation of grid patterns in the figure. Then refer to the shear stress-shear strain curve of the particular material being sheared, and obtain the area under the curve up to that particular shear strain, just as we have done in various other problems in the text. This will give the shearing energy per unit volume. We then refer to Eq. (2.65) on p. 73 and

The best example generally given for this question is mechanical watch components, such as small gears whose punched holes have a very small cross-sectional area to be supported by the spindle or shaft on which it is mounted. The presence of a burr enlarges this contact area and, thus, the component is better supported. As an example, note how the burr in Fig. 7.5 on p. 352 effectively increases the thickness of the sheet. 7.10 Explain why there are so many different types of tool and die materials used for the processes described in this chapter. By the student. Among several reasons are the level of stresses and type of loading involved (such as static or dynamic), relative sliding between components, temperature rise, thermal cycling, dimensional requirements and size of workpiece, frictional considerations, wear, and economic considerations. 7.11 Describe the differences between compound, progressive, and transfer dies. This topic is explained in Section 7.3.2 starting on p. 356. Basically, a compound die performs

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several operations in one stroke at one die station. A progressive die performs several operations, one per stroke, at one die station (more than one stroke is necessary). A transfer die performs one operation at one die station. 7.12 It has been stated that the quality of the sheared edges can influence the formability of sheet metals. Explain why. In many cases, sheared edges are subjected to subsequent forming operations, such as bending, stretching, and stretch flanging. As stated in Section 7.3 starting on p. 351, rough edges will act as stress raisers and cold-worked edges (see Fig. 7.6b on p. 353) may not have sufficient ductility to undergo severe tensile strains developed during these subsequent operations.

This situation is somewhat similar to rolling of sheet metal where the wider the sheet, the closer it becomes to the plane-strain condition. In bending, a short length in the bend area has very little constraint from the unbent regions, hence the situation is one of basically plane stress. On the other hand, the greater the length, the more the constraint, thus eventually approaching the state of plane strain. 7.16 Describe the material properties that have an effect on the relative position of the curves shown in Fig. 7.19.

7.13 Explain why and how various factors influence springback in bending of sheet metals. Plastic deformation (such as in bending processes) is unavoidably followed by elastic recovery, since the material has a finite elastic modulus (see Fig. 2.3 on p. 33). For a given elastic modulus, a higher yield stress results in a greater springback because the elastic recovery strain is greater. A higher elastic modulus with a given yield stress will result in less elastic strain, thus less springback. Equation (7.10) on p. 364 gives the relation between radius and thickness. Thus, increasing bend radius increases springback, and increasing the sheet thickness reduces the springback.

Observing curves (a) and (c) in Fig. 7.19 on p. 364, note that the former is annealed and the latter is heat treated. Since these are all aluminum alloys and, thus, have the same elastic modulus, the difference in their springback is directly attributable to the difference in their yield stress. Likewise, comparing curves (b), (d), and (e), note that they are all stainless steels and, thus, have basically the same elastic modulus. However, as the amount of cold work increases (from annealed to half-hard condition), the yield stress increases significantly because austenitic stainless steels have a high n value (see Table 2.3 on p. 37). Note that these comparisons are based on the same R/T ratio. 7.17 In Table 7.2, we note that hard materials have higher R/t ratios than soft ones. Explain why.

7.14 Does the hardness of a sheet metal have an effect on its springback in bending? Explain. Recall from Section 2.6.8 on p. 54 that hardness is related to strength, such as yield stress as shown in Fig. 2.24 on p. 55. Referring to Eq. (7.10) on p. 364 , also note that the yield stress, Y , has a significant effect on springback. Consequently, hardness is related to springback. Note that hardness does not affect the elastic modulus, E, given in the equation.

This is a matter of the ductility of the material, particularly the reduction in area, as depicted by Eqs. (7.6) on p. 361 and (7.7) on p. 362. Thus, hard material conditions mean lower tensile reduction and, therefore, higher R/T ratios. In other words, for a constant sheet thickness, T , the bend radius, R, has to be larger for higher bendability. 7.18 Why do tubes have a tendency to buckle when bent? Experiment with a straight soda straw, and describe your observations.

7.15 As noted in Fig. 7.16, the state of stress shifts from plane stress to plane strain as the ratio of length-of-bend to sheet thickness increases. Explain why.

Recall that, in bending of any section, one-half of the cross section is under tensile stresses and the other half under compressive stresses. Also, compressing a column tends to buckle it, depending on its slenderness. Bending of a tube subjects it to the same state of stress, and since

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most tubes have a rather small thickness compared to their diameter, there is a tendency for the compression side of the tube to buckle. Thus, the higher the diameter-to-thickness ratio, the greater the tendency to buckle during bending.

By the student. This question can be answered in a general way by describing the effects of temperature, state of stress, surface finish, deformation rate, etc., on the ductility of metals.

7.19 Based on Fig. 7.22, sketch and explain the shape of a U-die used to produce channelshaped bends. The design would be a mirror image of the sketches given in Fig. 7.22b on p. 356 along a vertical axis. For example, the image below was obtained from S. Kalpakjian, Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 1st ed., 1984, p. 415.

7.23 In deep drawing of a cylindrical cup, is it always necessary that there to be tensile circumferential stresses on the element in the cup wall, a shown in Fig. 7.50b? Explain. The reason why there may be tensile hoop stresses in the already formed cup in Fig. 7.50b on p. 388 is due to the fact that the cup can be tight on the punch during drawing. That is why they often have to be stripped from the punch with a stripper ring, as shown in Fig. 7.49a on p. 387. There are situations, however, whereby, depending on material and process parameters, the cup is sufficiently loose on the punch so that there are no tensile hoop stresses developed. 7.24 When comparing hydroforming with the deepdrawing process, it has been stated that deeper draws are possible in the former method. With appropriate sketches, explain why.

7.20 Explain why negative springback does not occur in air bending of sheet metals. The reason is that in air bending (shown in Fig. 7.24a on p. 368), the situation depicted in Fig. 7.20 on p. 365 cannot develop. Bending in the opposite direction, as depicted between stages (b) and (c), cannot occur because of the absence of a lower “die” in air bending. 7.21 Give examples of products in which the presence of beads is beneficial or even necessary.

The reason why deeper draws can be obtained by the hydroform process is that the cup being formed is pushed against the punch by the hydrostatic pressure in the dome of the machine (see Fig. 7.34 on p. 375). This means that the cup is traveling with the punch in such a way that the longitudinal tensile stresses in the cup wall are reduced, by virtue of the frictional resistance at the interface. With lower tensile stresses, deeper draws can be made, i.e., the blank diameter to punch diameter ratio can be greater. A similar situation exists in drawing of tubes through dies with moving or stationary mandrels, as discussed in O. Hoffman and G. Sachs, Introduction to the Theory of Plasticity for Engineers, McGraw-Hill, 1953, Chapter 17.

The student is encouraged to observe various household products and automotive components to answer this question. For example, along the rim of many sheet-metal cooking pots, a bead is formed to confine the burr and prevent cuts from handling the pot. Also, the bead increases the section odulus, making th pot stiffer in the diametral direction.

7.25 We note in Fig. 7.50a that element A in the flange is subjected to compressive circumferential (hoop) stresses. Using a simple free-body diagram, explain why.

7.22 Assume that you are carrying out a sheetforming operation and you find that the material is not sufficiently ductile. Make suggestions to improve its ductility.

This is shown simply by a free-body diagram, as illustrated below. Note that friction between the blank and die and the blankholder also contribute to the magnitude of the tensile stress.

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(Fig. 7.50b on p. 388). Thus, deep drawability will decrease, hence the limited drawing ratio will also decrease. Conversely, not lubricating the punch will allow the cup to travel with the punch, thus reducing the longitudinal tensile stress.

+

7.26 From the topics covered in this chapter, list and explain specifically several examples where friction is (a) desirable and (b) not desirable. By the student. This is an open-ended problem. For example, friction is desirable in rolling, but it is generally undesirable for most forming operations. 7.27 Explain why increasing the normal anisotropy, R, improves the deep drawability of sheet metals. The answer is given at the beginning of Section 7.6.1. The student is encouraged to elaborate further on this topic. 7.28 What is the reason for the negative sign in the numerator of Eq. (7.21)? The negative sign in Eq. (7.21) on p. 392 is simply for the purpose of indicating the degree of planar anisotropy of the sheet. Note that if the R values in the numerator are all equal, then ∆R = 0, thus indicating no planar anisotropy, as expected. 7.29 If you could control the state of strain in a sheet-forming operation, would you rather work on the left or the right side of the forming-limit diagram? Explain. By inspecting Fig. 7.63a on p. 399, it is apparent that the left side has a larger safe zone than the right side, under each curve. Consequently, it is more desirable to work in a state of strain on the left side. 7.30 Comment on the effect of lubrication of the punch surfaces on the limiting drawing ratio in deep drawing. Referring to Fig. 7.49 on p. 387, note that lubricating the punch is going to increase the longitudinal tensile stress in the cup being formed

7.31 Comment on the role of the size of the circles placed on the surfaces of sheet metals in determining their formability. Are square grid patterns, as shown in Fig. 7.65, useful? Explain. We note in Fig. 7.65 on p. 400 that, obviously, the smaller the inscribed circles, the more accurately we can determine the magnitude and location of strains on the surface of the sheet being formed. These are important considerations. Note in the figure, for example, how large the circles are as compared with the size of the crack that has developed. As for square grid patters, their distortion will not give a clear and obvious indication of the major and minor strains. Although they can be determined from geometric relationships, it is tedious work to do so. 7.32 Make a list of the independent variables that influence the punch force in deep drawing of a cylindrical cup, and explain why and how these variables influence the force. The independent variables are listed at the beginning of Section 7.6.2. The student should be able to explain why each variable influences the punch force, based upon a careful reading of the materials presented. The following are sample answers, but should not be considered the only acceptable ones. (a) The blank diameter affects the force because the larger the diameter, the greater the circumference, and therefore the greater the volume of material to be deformed. (b) The clearance, c, between the punch and die directly affects the force; the smaller the clearance the greater the thickness reduction and hence the work involved. (c) The workpiece properties of yield strength and strain-hardening exponent affect the force because as these increase, greater forces will be required to cause deformation beyond yielding.

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(d) Blank thickness also increases the volume deformed, and therefore increases the force.

if there is planar anisotropy, then the blank will have less resistance to deformation in some directions compared to others, and will thin more in directions of greater resistance, thus developing ears.

(e) The blankholder force and friction affect the punch force because they restrict the flow of the material into the die, hence additional energy has to be supplied to overcome these forces.

7.37 It was stated in Section 7.7.1 that the thicker the sheet metal, the higher is its curve in the forming-limit diagram. Explain why.

7.33 Explain why the simple tension line in the forming-limit diagram in Fig. 7.63a states that it is for R = 1, where R is the normal anisotropy of the sheet. Note in Fig. 7.63a on p. 399 that the slope for simple tension is 2, which is a reflection of the Poisson’s ratio in the plastic range. In other words, the ratio of minor strain to major strain is -0.5. Recall that this value is for a material that is homogeneous and isotropic. Isotropy means that the R value must be unity.

In forming-limit diagrams, increasing thickness tends to raise the curves. This is because the material is capable of greater elongations since there is more material to contribute to length. 7.38 Inspect the earing shown in Fig. 7.57, and estimate the direction in which the blank was cut.

7.34 What are the reasons for developing forminglimit diagrams? Do you have any specific criticisms of such diagrams? Explain.

The rolled sheet is stronger in the direction of rolling. Consequently, that direction resists flow into the die cavity during deep drawing and the ear is at its highest position. In Fig. 7.57 on p. 394, the directions are at about ±45◦ on the photograph. 7.39 Describe the factors that influence the size and length of beads in sheet-metal forming operations.

The reasons for developing the FLD diagrams are self-evident by reviewing Section 7.7.1. Criticisms pertain to the fact that: (a) the specimens are still somewhat idealized, (b) frictional conditions are not necessarily representative of actual operations, and (c) the effects of bending and unbending during actual forming operations, the presence of beads, die surface conditions, etc., are not fully taken into account. 7.35 Explain the reasoning behind Eq. (7.20) for normal anisotropy, and Eq. (7.21) for planar anisotropy, respectively. Equation (7.20) on p. 391 represents an average R value by virtue of the fact that all directions (at 45c irc intervals) are taken into account. 7.36 Describe why earing occurs. How would you avoid it? Would ears serve any useful purposes? Explain.

The size and length of the beads depends on the particular blank shape, die shape, part depth, and sheet thickness. Complex shapes require careful placing of the beads because of the importance of sheet flow control into the desired areas in the die. 7.40 It is known that the strength of metals depends on their grain size. Would you then expect strength to influence the R value of sheet metals? Explain. It seen from the Hall-Petch Eq. (3.8) on p. 92 that the smaller the grain size, the higher the yield strength of the metal. Since grain size also influences the R values, we should expect that there is a relationship between strength and R values. 7.41 Equation (7.23) gives a general rule for dimensional relationships for successful drawing without a blankholder. Explain what would happen if this limit is exceeded.

Earing, described in Section 7.6.1 on p. 394, is due to the planar anisotropy of the sheet metal. Consider a round blank and a round die cavity; 66

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If this limit is exceeded, the blank will begin to wrinkle and we will produce a cup that has wrinkled walls.

7.45 Explain the reasons that such a wide variety of sheet-forming processes has been developed and used over the years.

7.42 Explain why the three broken lines (simple tension, plane strain, and equal biaxial stretching) in Fig. 7.63a have those particular slopes.

By the student, based on the type of products that are made by the processes described in this chapter. This is a demanding question; ultimately, the reasons that sheet-forming processes have been developed are due to demand and economic considerations.

Recall that the major and minor strains shown in Fig. 7.63 on p. 399 are both in the plane of the sheet. Thus, the simple tension curve has a negative slope of 2:1, reflecting the Poisson’s ratio effect in plastic deformation. In other words, the minor strain is one-half the major strain in simple tension, but is opposite in sign. The plane-strain line is vertical because the minor strain is zero in plane-strain stretching. The equal (balanced) biaxial curve has to have a 45◦ slope because the tensile strains are equal to each other. The curve at the farthest left is for pure shear because, in this state of strain, the tensile and compressive strains are equal in magnitude (see also Fig. 2.20 on p. 49).

7.46 Make a summary of the types of defects found in sheet-metal forming processes, and include brief comments on the reason(s) for each defect.

7.43 Identify specific parts on a typical automobile, and explain which of the processes described in Chapters 6 and 7 can be used to make those part. Explain your reasoning.

By the student. Examples of defects include (a) fracture, which results from a number of reasons including material defects, poor lubrication, etc; (b) poor surface finish, either from scratching attributed to rough tooling or to material transfer to the tooling or orange peel; and (c) wrinkles, attributed to in-plane compressive stresses during forming. 7.47 Which of the processes described in this chapter use only one die? What are the advantages of using only one die?

By the student. Some examples would be: (a) Body panels are obtained through sheetmetal forming and shearing. (b) Frame members (only visible when looked at from underneath) are made by roll forming. (c) Ash trays are made from stamping, combined with shearing. (d) Oil pans are classic examples of deepdrawn parts. 7.44 It was stated that bendability and spinnability have a common aspect as far as properties of the workpiece material are concerned. Describe this common aspect.

The simple answer is to restrict the discussion to rubber forming (Fig. 7.33 on p. 375) and hydroforming (Fig. 7.34 on p. 375), although explosive forming or even spinning could also be discussed. The main advantage is that only one tool needs to be made or purchased, as opposed to two matching dies for conventional pressworking and forming operations. 7.48 It has been suggested that deep drawability can be increased by (a) heating the flange and/or (b) chilling the punch by some suitable means. Comment on how these methods could improve drawability. Refering to Fig. 7.50, we note that:

By comparing Fig. 7.15b on p. 360 on bendability and Fig. 7.39 on p. 379 on spinnability, we note that maximum bendability and spinnability are obtained in materials with approximately 50% tensile reduction of area. Any further increase in ductility does not improve these forming characteristics.

(a) heating the flange will lower the strength of the flange and it will take less energy to deform element A in the figure, thus it will require less punch force. This will reduce the tendency for cup failure and thus improve deep drawability. 67

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(b) chilling the punch will increase the strength of the cup wall, hence the tendency for cup failure by the longitudinal tensile stress on element B will be less, and deep drawability will be improved. 7.49 Offer designs whereby the suggestions given in Question 7.48 can be implemented. Would production rate affect your designs? Explain. This is an open-ended problem that requires significant creativity on the part of the student. For example, designs that heat the flange may involve electric heating elements in the blankholder and/or the die, or a laser as heat source. Chillers could be incorporated in the die and the blankholder, whereby cooled water is circulated through passages in the tooling. 7.50 In the manufacture of automotive-body panels from carbon-steel sheet, stretcher strains (Lueder’s bands) are observed, which detrimentally affect surface finish. How can stretcher strains be eliminated? The basic solution is to perform a temper rolling pass shortly before the forming operation, as described in Section 6.3.4 starting on p. 301. Another solution is to modify the design so that Lueders bands can be moved to regions where they are not objectionable. 7.51 In order to improve its ductility, a coil of sheet metal is placed in a furnace and annealed. However, it is observed that the sheet has a lower limiting drawing ratio than it had before being annealed. Explain the reasons for this behavior. When a sheet is annealed, it becomes less anisotropic; the discussion of LDR in Section 7.6.1 would actually predict this behavior. The main reason is that, when annealed, the material has a high strain-hardening exponent. As the flange becomes subjected to increasing plastic deformation (as the cup becomes deeper), the drawing force increases. If the material is not annealed, then the flange does not strain harden as much, and a deeper container can be drawn.

By the student. Friction can have a strong effect on formability. High friction will cause localized strains, so that formability is decreased. Low friction allows the sheet to slide more easily over the die surfaces and thus distribute the strains more evenly. 7.53 Why are lubricants generally used in sheetmetal forming? Explain, giving examples. Lubricants are used for a number of reasons. Mainly, they reduce friction, and this improves formability as discussed in the answer to Problem 7.52. As an example of this, lightweight oils are commonly applied in stretch forming for automotive body panels. Another reason is to protect the tooling from the workpiece material; an example is the lubricant in can ironing where aluminum pickup can foul tooling and lead to poor workpiece surfaces. The student is encouraged to pursue other reasons. (See also Section 4.4 starting on p. 138.) 7.54 Through changes in clamping, a sheet-metal forming operation can allow the material to undergo a negative minor strain in the FLD. Explain how this effect can be advantageous. As can be seen from Fig. 7.63a on p. 399, if a negative minor strain can be induced, then a larger major strain can be achieved. If the clamping change is less restrictive in the minor strain direction, then the sheet can contract more in this direction and thus allow larger major strains to be achieved without failure. 7.55 How would you produce the parts shown in Fig. 7.35b other than by tube hydroforming? By the student. The part could be produced by welding sections of tubing together, or by a suitable casting operation. Note that in either case production costs are likely to be high and production rates low. 7.56 Give three examples each of sheet metal parts that (a) can and (b) cannot be produced by incremental forming operations.

7.52 What effects does friction have on a forminglimit diagram? Explain.

By the student. This is an open-ended problem that requires some consideration and creativity on the part of the student. Consider, for example:

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(a) Parts that can be formed are light fixtures, automotive body panels, kitchen utensils, and hoppers. (b) Incremental forming is a low force operation with limited size capability (limited to the workspace of the CNC machine performing the operation). Examples of parts that cannot be incrementally formed are spun parts where the thickness of the sheet is reduced, or very large parts such as the aircraft wing panels in Fig. 7.30 on p. 372. Also, continuous parts such as roll-formed sections and parts with reentrant corners such as those with hems or seams are not suitable for incremental forming. 7.57 Due to preferred orientation (see Section 3.5), materials such as iron can have higher magnetism after cold rolling. Recognizing this feature, plot your estimate of LDR vs. degree of magnetism.

(a) Similarities include the use of rollers to control the material flow, the production of parts with constant cross section, and similar production rates. (b) Differences include the mode of deformation (bulk strain vs. bending and stretching of sheet metal), and the magnitude of the associated forces and torques. 7.60 Explain how stringers can adversely affect bendability. Do they have a similar effects on formability? Stingers, as shown in Fig. 7.17, have an adverse affect on bendability when they are oriented transverse to the bend direction. The basic reason is that stringers are hard and brittle inclusions in the sheet metal and thus serve as stress concentrations. If they are transverse to this direction, then there is no stress concentration. 7.61 In Fig. 7.56, the caption explains that zinc has a high c/a ratio, whereas titanium has a low ratio. Why does this have relevance to limiting drawing ratio?

By the student. There should be a realization that there is a maximum magnetism with fully aligned grains, and zero magnetism with fully random orientations. The shape of the curve between these extremes is not intuitively obvious, but a linear relationship can be expected. 7.58 Explain why a metal with a fine-grain microstructure is better suited for fine blanking than a coarse-grained metal. A fine-blanking operation can be demanding; the clearances are very low, the tooling is elaborate (including stingers and a lower pressure cushion), and as a result the sheared surface quality is high. The sheared region (see Fig. 7.6 on p. 353) is well defined and constrained to a small volume. It is beneficial to have many grain boundaries (in the volume that is fracturing) in order to have a more uniform and controlled crack.

This question can be best answered by referring to Fig. 3.4 and reviewing the discussion of slip in Section 3.3. For titanium, the c/a ratio in its hcp structure is low, hence there are only a few slip systems. Thus, as grains become oriented, there will be a marked anisotropy because of the highly anisotropic grain structure. On the other hand, with magnesium, with a high c/a ratio, there are more slip systems (outside of the close-packed direction) active and thus anisotropy will be less pronounced. 7.62 Review Eqs. (7.12) through (7.14) and explain which of these expressions can be applied to incremental forming.

7.59 What are the similarities and differences between roll forming described in this chapter and shape rolling in Chapter 6? By the student. Consider, for example:

By the student. These equations are applicable because the deformation in incremental forming is highly localized. Note that the strain relationships apply to a shape as if a mandrel was present.

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Problems 7.63 Referring to Eq. (7.5), it is stated that actual values of eo are significantly higher than values of ei , due to the shifting of the neutral axis during bending. With an appropriate sketch, explain this phenomenon.

To determine the true strains, we first refer to Eq. (7.7) to obtain the tensile reduction of area as a function of R/T as

The shifting of the neutral axis in bending is described in mechanics of solids texts. Briefly, the outer fibers in tension shrink laterally due to the Poisson’ effect (see Fig. 7.17c), and the inner fibers expand. Thus, the cross section is no longer rectangular but has the shape of a trapezoid, as shown below. The neutral axis has to shift in order to satisfy the equilibrium equations regarding forces and internal moments in bending.

60 R = −1 T r or r=

=

Change in neutral axis location

7.64 Note in Eq. (7.11) that the bending force is a function of t2 . Why? (Hint: Consider bendingmoment equations in mechanics of solids.) This question is best answered by referring to formulas for bending of beams in the study of mechanics of solids. Consider the well-known equation Mc σ= I where c is directly proportional to the thickness, and I is directly proportional to the third power of thickness. For a cantilever beam, the force can be taken as F = M/L, where L is the moment arm. For plastic deformation, σ is the material flow stress. Therefore: σ=

60 (R/T + 1)

The strain at fracture can be calculated from Eq. (2.10) as Ao 100 f = ln = ln Af 100 − r

After

Before

7.65 Calculate the minimum tensile true fracture strain that a sheet metal should have in order to be bent to the following R/t ratios: (a) 0.5, (b) 2, and (c) 4. (See Table 7.2.)

Mc F Lt ∝ 3 I t

ln

100

100 −

60 (R/T + 1)

This equation gives for R/T = 0.5, and f is found to be 0.51. For R/T = 2, we have f = 0.22, and for R/T = 4, f = 0.13. 7.66 Estimate the maximum bending force required for a 18 -in. thick and 12-in. wide Ti-5Al-2.5Sn titanium alloy in a V -die with a width of 6 in. The bending force is calculated from Eq. (7.11). Note that Section 7.4.3 states that k takes a range from 1.2 to 1.33 for a V-die, so an average value of k = 1.265 will be used. From Table 3.14, we find that UTS=860 MPa = 125,000 psi. Also, the problem statement gives us L = 12 in., T = 18 in = 0.125 in, and W = 6 in. Therefore, Eq. (7.11) gives Fmax

(U T S)LT 2 W (125, 000)(12)(0.125)2 = (1.265) 6 = 4940 lb

= k

and thus, F ∝

σt2 L

7.67 In Example 7.4, calculate the work done by the force-distance method, i.e., work is the integral 70

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product of the vertical force, F , and the distance it moves.

7.68 What would be the answer to Example 7.4 if the tip of the force, F , were fixed to the strip by some means, thus maintaining the lateral position of the force? (Hint: Note that the left portion of the strip will now be strained more than the right portion.)

Let the angle opposite to α be designated as β as shown. F

In this problem, the work done must be calculated for each of the two members. Thus, for the left side, we have

5 in.

10 in. α

β

a

b

a=

where the true strain is 10.64 a = ln = 0.062 10

Since the tension in the bar is constant, the force F can be expressed as F = T (sin α + sin β)

It can easily be shown that the angle β corresponding to α = 20◦ is 36◦ . Hence, for the left portion, (5in.) b= = 6.18 in. cos 36◦ and the true strain is 6.18 b = ln = 0.21 5

where T is the tension and is given by T = σA = 100, 0000.3 A The area is the actual cross section of the bar at any position of the force F , obtained from volume constancy. We also know that the true strain in the bar, as it is being stretched, is given by a+b = ln 15

Thus, the total work done is

d (in.) 0.87 1.76 2.68 3.64

0.008 0.03 0.066 0.115

T (kip) 11.5 16.9 20.7 23.3

W

0.3 d

(10)(0.5)(100, 000) Z

F (kip) 2.98 8.58 15.1 21.7

0.21

+(5)(0.5)(100, 000)

0.3 d

0

=

35, 700 in.-lb

7.69 Calculate the magnitude of the force F in Example 7.4 for α = 30◦ . See the solution to Problem 7.67 for the relevant equations. For α = 30,

20,000

d = (10 in.) tan α = 5.77 in. also, T = 25.7 kip and F = 32.2 kip.

F, lb

15,000

7.70 How would the force in Example 7.4 vary if the workpiece were made of a perfectly-plastic material?

10,000 5,000 0

=

0

The curve is plotted as follows and the integral is evaluated (from a graphing software package) as 34,600 in-lb.

0

0.062

Z

Using these relationships, we can plot F vs. d. Some of the points on the curve are: α (◦ ) 5 10 15 20

10 in. = 10.64 in. cos 20◦

1

d, in

2

We refer to the solution to Problem 7.67 and combine the equations for T and F ,

3

F = σA (sin α + sin β) 71

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Whereas Problem 7.67 pertained to a strainhardening material, in this problem the true stress σ is a constant at Y regardless of the magnitude of strain. Inspecting the table in the answer, we note that as the downward travel, d, increases, F must increase as well because the rate of increase in the term (sin α + sin β) is higher than the rate of decrease of the crosssectional area. However, F will not rise as rapidly as it does for a strain-hardening material because σ is constant.

20 R

Note that an equation such as Eq. (2.60) on p. 71 can give an effective yield stress for a strain-hardening material. If such a value is used, F would have a large value for zero deflection. The effect is that the curve is shifted upwards and flattened. The integral under the curve would be the same.

7.71 Calculate the press force required in punching 0.5-mm-thick 5052-O aluminum foil in the shape of a square hole 30 mm on each side.

For this aluminum sheet, we have Y = 150 MPa and E = 70 GPa (see Table 2.1 on p. 32). Using Eq. (7.10) on p. 364 for springback, and noting that the die has a diameter of 20 mm and the sheet thickness is T = 1 mm, the initial bend radius is 20 mm Ri = − 1 mm = 9 mm 2 Note that Ri Y (0.009)(150) = = 0.0193 ET (70, 000)(0.001) Therefore, Eq. (7.10) on p. 364 yields 3 Ri Ri Y Ri Y = 4 −3 +1 Rf ET ET

The approach is the same as in Example 7.1. The press force is given by Eq. (7.4) on p. 353:

= =

Fmax = 0.7(UTS)(t)(L)

4(0.0193)3 − 3(0.0193) + 1 0.942

and, For this problem, UTS=190 MPa (see Table 3.7 on p. 116). The distance L is 4(30 mm) = 120 mm, and the thickness is given as t=0.5 mm. Therefore,

Ri 9 mm = = 9.55 mm 0.942 0.942 Hence, the final outside diameter will be Rf =

OD Fmax = 0.7(190)(0.5)(120) = 7980 N

7.72 A straight bead is being formed on a 1-mmthick aluminum sheet in a 20-mm-diameter die cavity, as shown in the accompanying figure. (See also Fig. 7.25a.) Let Y = 150 MPa. Considering springback, calculate the outside diameter of the bead after it is formed and unloaded from the die.

= 2Rf + 2T = 2(9.55 mm) + 2(1 mm) = 21.1 mm

7.73 Inspect Eq. (7.10) and substituting in some numerical values, show whether the first term in the equation can be neglected without significant error in calculating springback. As an example, consider the situation in Problem 7.72 where it was shown that Ri Y (0.009)(150) = = 0.0193 ET (70, 000)(0.001)

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Consider now the right side of Eq. (7.10) on p. 364 : 3 Ri Y Ri Y −3 +1 4 ET ET

7.76 For the same material and thickness as in Problem 7.66, estimate the force required for deep drawing with a blank of diameter 10 in. and a punch of diameter 9 in. Note that Dp = 9 in., Do = 10 in., t0 = 0.125 in., and UTS = 125,000 psi. Therefore, Eq. (7.22) on p. 395 yields Do − 0.7 Fmax = πDp to (UTS) Dp 10 − 0.7 = π(9)(0.125)(125, 000) 9 = 181, 000 lb

Substituting the value from Problem 7.72, 4(0.0193)3 − 3(0.0193) + 1 which is 2.88 × 10−5 − 0.058 + 1 Clearly, the first term is small enough to ignore, which is the typical case.

or Fmax = 90 tons. 7.74 In Example 7.5, calculate the amount of TNT required to develop a pressure of 10,000 psi on the surface of the workpiece. Use a standoff of one foot. Using Eq. (7.17) on p. 381 we can write !a √ 3 W p=K R

For an average normal anisotropy of 3, Fig. 7.56 on p. 392 gives a limited drawing ratio of 2.68. Assuming incompressibility, one can equate the volume of the sheet metal in a cup to the volume in the blank. Therefore, π π Do2 T = πDp hT + D2 T 4 4 p

Solving for W , W

p 3/a R3 K 3/1.15 10000 = (1)3 = 0.134 lb 21600 =

7.75 Estimate the limiting drawing ratio (LDR) for the materials listed in Table 7.3. Referring to Fig. 7.58 on p. 395, we construct the following table:

Material Zinc alloys Hot-rolled steel Cold-rolled rimmed steel Cold-rolled Al-killed steel Aluminum alloys Copper and brass Ti alloys (α)

Average normal anisotropy 0.4-0.6 0.8-1.0 1.0-1.4

Limited drawing ratio 1.8 2.3-2.4 2.3-2.5

1.4-1.8

2.5-2.6

0.6-.8 0.6-0.9 3.0-5.0

2.2-2.3 2.3-2.4 2.9-3.0

7.77 A cup is being drawn from a sheet metal that has a normal anisotropy of 3. Estimate the maximum ratio of cup height to cup diameter that can successfully be drawn in a single draw. Assume that the thickness of the sheet throughout the cup remains the same as the original blank thickness.

This equation can be simplified as π Do2 − Dp2 = πDp h 4 where h is the can wall height. Note that the right side of the equation includes a volume for the wall as well as the bottom of the can. Thus, since Do /Dp = 2.68, i πh 2 (2.68Dp ) − Dp2 = πDp h 4 or h 2.682 − 1 = = 1.55 Dp 4 7.78 Obtain an expression for the curve shown in Fig. 7.56 in terms of the LDR and the average ¯ (Hint: See Fig. 2.5b). normal anisotropy, R Referring to Fig. 7.56 on p. 392, note that this is a log-log plot with a slope that is measured

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to be 8◦ . Therefore the exponent of the power curve is tan 8◦ = 0.14. Furthermore, it can ¯ = 1.0, we have LDR=2.3. be seen that, for R Therefore, the expression for the LDR as a func¯ is given by tion of the average strain ratio R ¯ 0.14 LDR = 2.3R 7.79 A steel sheet has R values of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 for the 0◦ , 45◦ and 90◦ directions to rolling, respectively. If a round blank is 150 mm in diameter, estimate the smallest cup diameter to which it can be drawn in one draw.

the dimension (4)(1+0.25)=5 mm. Because we have plastic deformation and hence the Poisson’s ratio is ν = 0.5, the minor engineering strain is -0.25/2=-0.125; see also the simpletension line with a negative slope in Fig. 7.63a on p. 399. Thus, the minor axis will have the dimension x − 4 mm = −0.125 4 mm or x = 3.5 mm. Since the metal is isotropic, its final thickness will be t − 1 mm = 0 − 0.125 1 mm

Substituting these values into Eq. (7.20) on p. 391 , we have

or t = 0.875 mm. The area of the ellipse will be 5 mm 3.5 mm A=π = 13.7 mm2 2 2

¯ = 1.0 + 2(1.5) + 2.0 = 1.5 R 4 The limiting-drawing ratio can be obtained from Fig. 7.56 on p. 392, or it can be obtained from the expression given in the solution to Problem 7.78 as

The volume of the original circle is V =

¯ 0.14 = 2.43 LDR = 2.3R Thus, the smallest diameter to which this material can be drawn is 150/2.43 = 61.7 mm. 7.80 In Problem 7.79, explain whether ears will form and, if so, why.

= =

7.82 Conduct a literature search and obtain the equation for a tractrix curve, as used in Fig. 7.61. The coordinate system is shown in the accompanying figure.

Equation (7.21) on p. 392 yields ∆R

π 2 (4 mm) (1 mm) = 12.6 mm3 4

R0 − 2R45 + R90 2 1.0 − 2(1.5) + 2.0 =0 2

y

Since ∆R = 0, no ears will form. 7.81 A 1-mm-thick isotropic sheet metal is inscribed with a circle 4 mm in diameter. The sheet is then stretched uniaxially by 25%. Calculate (a) the final dimensions of the circle and (b) the thickness of the sheet at this location. Referring to Fig. 7.63b on p. 399 and noting that this is a case of uniaxial stretching, the circle will acquire the shape of an ellipse with a positive major strain and negative minor strain (due to the Poisson effect). The major axis of the ellipse will have undergone an engineering strain of (1.25-1)/1=0.25, and will thus have

x The equation for the tractrix curve is ! p p a + a2 − y 2 x = a ln − a2 − y 2 y p a − a2 − y 2 = a cosh−1 y where x is the position along the direction of punch travel, and y is the radial distance of the surface from the centerline.

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7.83 In Example 7.4, assume that the stretching is done by two equal forces F , each at 6 in. from the ends of the workpiece. (a) Calculate the magnitude of this force for α = 10◦ . (b) If we want the stretching to be done up to αmax = 50◦ without necking, what should be the minimum value of n of the material? (1) Refer to Fig. 7.31 on p. 373 and note the following: (a) For two forces F at 6 in. from each end, the dimensions of the edge portions at α = 10◦ will be 6/ cos 10◦ = 6.09 in. The total deformed length will thus be

Thus, 304 annealed stainless steel, phosphor bronze, or 70-30 annealed brass would be suitable metals for this application, as n > 0.368 for these materials. 7.84 Derive Eq. (7.5). Referring to Fig. 7.15 on p. 360 and letting the bend-allowance length (i.e., length of the neutral axis) be lo , we note that T α lo = R + 2 and the length of the outer fiber is

Lf = 6.09 + 3.00 + 6.09 = 15.18 in. lf = (R + T )α

With a the true strain of 15.18 = 0.0119 = ln 15

where the angle α is in radians. The engineering strain for the outer fiber is eo =

and true stress of σ = Kn = (100, 000)(0.0119)0.3 = 26, 460 psi

Substituting the values of lf and lo , we obtain

From volume constancy we can determine the stretched cross-sectional area, Af =

lf lf − lo = −1 lo lo

eo =

Ao Lo (0.05 in2 )(15 in.) = 0.0494 in2 = Lf 15.18

1 2R +1 T

7.85 Estimate the maximum power in shear spinning a 0.5-in. thick annealed 304 stainless-steel plate that has a diameter of 12 in. on a conical mandrel of α = 30◦ . The mandrel rotates at 100 rpm and the feed is f = 0.1 in./rev.

Consequently, the tensile force, which is uniform throughout the stretched part, is Ft = (26, 460 psi)(0.0495 in2 ) = 1310 lb The force F will be the vertical component of the tensile force in the stretched member (noting that the middle horizontal 3-in. portion does not have a vertical component). Therefore 1310 lb F = = 7430 lb tan 10◦ (2) For α = 50◦ , we have the total length of the stretched part as 6 in. Lf = 2 + 3.00 in. = 21.67 in. cos 50◦ Hence the true strain will be 21.67 = 0.368 = ln 15

Referring to Fig. 7.36b on p. 377 we note that, in this problem, to = 0.5 in., α = 30◦ , N = 100 rpm, f = 0.1 in./rev., and, from Table 2.3 on p. 37, for this material K = (1275)(145) = 185,000 psi and n = 0.45. The power required in the operation is a function of the tangential force Ft , given by Eq. (7.13) as Ft = uto f sin α In order to determine u, we need to know the strain involved. This is calculated from Eq. (7.14) for the distortion-energy criterion as cot α cot 30◦ = √ = √ = 1.0 3 3

The necking strain should be equal to the strain-hardening exponent, or n = 0.368. Typical values of n are given in Table 2.3 on p. 37.

and thus, from Eq. (2.60), u=

Kn+1 (185, 000)(1)1.45 = n+1 1.45

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3

or u = 127, 000 in-lb/in . Therefore,

Since the initial blank has a thickness equal to the final can bottom (i.e., 0.0120 in.) and a diameter d, the volume is

Ft = (127, 000)(0.5)(0.1)(sin 30◦ ) = 3190 lb and the maximum torque required is at the 15 in. diameter, hence 12 in. T = (3190 lb) = 19, 140 in-lb 2

0.1767 in3 = or d = 4.33 in.

or T = 1590 ft-lb. Thus the maximum power required is Pmax

= Tω = (19, 140 in.-lb)(100 rev/min) ×(2π rad/rev) = 12.03 × 106 in-lb/min

7.87 What is the force required to punch a square hole, 150 mm on each side, from a 1-mm-thick 5052-O aluminum sheet, using flat dies? What would be your answer if beveled dies were used instead? This problem is very similar to Problem 7.71. The punch force is given by Eq. (7.4) on p. 353. Table 3.7 on p. 116 gives the UTS of 5052O aluminum as UTS=190 MPa. The sheet thickness is t = 1.0 mm = 0.001 m, and L = (4)(150mm) = 600 mm = 0.60 m. Therefore, from Eq. (7.4) on p. 353,

or 30.3 hp. As stated in the text, because of redundant work and friction, the actual power may be as much as 50% higher, or up to 45 hp.

Fmax 7.86 Obtain an aluminum beverage can and cut it in half lengthwise with a pair of tin snips. Using a micrometer, measure the thickness of the bottom of the can and of the wall. Estimate (a) the thickness reductions in ironing of the wall and (b) the original blank diameter. Note that results will vary depending on the specific can design. In one example, results for a can diameter of 2.6 in. and a height of 5 in., the sidewall is 0.003 in. and the bottom is 0.0120 in. thick. The wall thickness reduction in ironing is then %red

= = =

πd2 πd2 to = (0.012 in) 4 4

= = =

0.7(UTS)(t)(L) 0.7(190 MPa)(0.001 m)(0.60 m) 79, 800 N = 79.8 kN

If the dies are beveled, the punch force could be much lower than calculated here. For a single bevel with contact along one face, the force would be calculated as 19,950 N, but for doublebeveled shears, the force could be essentially zero. 7.88 Estimate the percent scrap in producing round blanks if the clearance between blanks is one tenth of the radius of the blank. Consider single and multiple-row blanking, as shown in the accompanying figure.

t o − tf × 100% to 0.0120 − 0.003 × 100% 0.012 75%

The initial blank diameter can be obtained by volume constancy. The volume of the can material after deep drawing and ironing is Vf

πd2c to + πdtw h 4 π(2.5)2 = (0.012) + π(2.5)(0.003)(5) 4 = 0.1767 in3 =

(a) A repeating unit cell for the part the upper illustration is shown below. 76

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1.25

0.1R

5052-H34 C24000 Brass 304 SS 5052-O

1.2 Rf/Ri

2R

2.1R

1.15 1.10 1.05

The area of the unit cell is A = (2.2R)(2.1R) = 4.62R2 . The area of the circle is 3.14R2 . Therefore, the scrap is

scrap =

4.62R2 − 3.14R2 × 100 = 32% 4.62R2

(b) Using the same approach, it can be shown that for the lower illustration the scrap is 26%.

1.0

0

5

10

15

20

Ri/t

7.90 The accompanying figure shows a parabolic profile that will define the mandrel shape in a spinning operation. Determine the equation of the parabolic surface. If a spun part is to be produced from a 10-mm thick blank, determine the minimum blank diameter required. Assume that the diameter of the profile is 6 in. at a distance of 3 in. from the open end.

7.89 Plot the final bend radius as a function of initial bend radius in bending for (a) 5052-O aluminum; (b) 5052-H34 Aluminum; (c) C24000 brass and (d) AISI 304 stainless steel sheet.

12 in.

4 in.

The final bend radius can be determined from Eq. (7.10) on p. 364 . Solving this equation for Rf gives: Since the shape is parabolic, it is given by y = ax2 + bx + c

Ri

Rf =

4

Ri Y Et

3

−3

Ri Y Et

where the following boundary conditions can be used to evaluate constant coefficients a, b, and c:

+1

Using Tables 2.1 on p. 32, 3.4, 3.7, and 3.10, the following data is compiled:

(a) at x = 0,

dy dx

= 0.

(b) at x = 3 in., y = 1 in. (c) at x = 6 in., y = 4 in. Material 5052-O Al 5052-H34 C24000 Brass AISI 304 SS

Y (MPa) 90 210 265 265

E (GPa) 73 73 127 195

The first boundary condition gives: dy = 2ax + b dx Therefore, 0 = 2a(0) + b or b = 0. Similarly, the second and third boundary conditions result in two simultaneous algebraic equations:

where mean values of Y and E have been assigned. From this data, the following plot is obtained. Note that the axes have been defined so that the value of t is not required.

36a + c = 4 77

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and 9a + c = 1 Thus, a = 91 and c = 0, so that the equation for the mandrel surface is y=

As was determined in Problem 7.90, the equation of the surface is

x2 9

If the part is conventionally spun, the surface area of the mandrel has to be calculated. The surface area is given by Z

7.91 For the mandrel needed in Problem 7.90, plot the sheet-metal thickness as a function of radius if the part is to be produced by shear spinning. Is this process feasible? Explain.

y=

The sheet-metal thickness in shear spinning is given by Eq. (7.12) on p. 377 as

6

2πR ds

A=

x2 9

t = to sin α

0

where R = x and s s 2 2 dy 2 ds = 1 + dx = 1 + x dx dx 9

where α is given by (see Fig. 7.36 on p. 377) dy 2 ◦ −1 ◦ −1 α = 90 − tan x = 90 − tan dx 9

Therefore, the area is given by s 2 Z 6 2 A = x dx 2πx 1 + 9 0 r Z 6 4 = 2πx 1 + x2 dx 81 0

This results in the following plot of sheet thickness: 1.0 t/to or

0.6

To solve this integral, substitute a new variable, 4 2 u = 1 + 81 x , so that

0.4

8 x dx du = 81

0

0.2

and so that the new integration limits are from u = 1 to u = 225 81 . Therefore, the integral becomes Z 225/81 81 √ A = 2π u du 8 1 225/81 81π 2 3/2 = u 4 3 1 =

t/to

0.8

0

2

x

4

6

Note that at the edge of the shape, t/to = 0.6, corresponding to a strain of = ln 0.6 = −0.51. This strain is achievable for many materials, so that the process is feasible. 7.92 Assume that you are asked to give a quiz to students on the contents of this chapter. Prepare five quantitative problems and five qualitative questions, and supply the answers.

154 in2

By the student. This is a challenging, openended question that requires considerable focus and understanding on the part of the students, and has been found to be a very valuable homework problem.

For a disk of the same surface area and thickness, π Ablank = d2 = 154 in2 4 or d = 14 in.

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Design 7.93 Consider several shapes (such as oval, triangle, L-shape, etc.) to be blanked from a large flat sheet by laser-beam cutting, and sketch a nesting layout to minimize scrap. Several answers are possible for this open-ended problem. The following examples were obtained from Altan, T., ed., Metal Forming Handbook, Springer, 1998:

7.94 Give several structural applications in which diffusion bonding and superplastic forming are used jointly. By the student. The applications for superplastic forming are mainly in the aerospace industry. Some structural-frame members, which normally are placed behind aluminum sheet and are not visible, are made by superplastic forming. Two examples below are from Hosford and Cadell, Metal Forming, 2nd ed., pp. 85-86.

7.95 On the basis of experiments, it has been suggested that concrete, either plain or reinforced, can be a suitable material for dies in sheet-metal forming operations. Describe your thoughts regarding this suggestion, considering die geometry and any other factors that may be relevant. By the student. Concrete has been used in explosive forming for large dome-shaped parts intended, for example, as nose cones for intercontinental ballistic missiles. However, the use of concrete as a die material is rare. The more serious limitations are in the ability of consistently producing smooth surfaces and acceptable tolerances, and the tendency of concrete to fracture at stress risers. 7.96 Metal cans are of either the two-piece variety (in which the bottom and sides are integral) or the three-piece variety (in which the sides, the bottom, and the top are each separate pieces). For a three-piece can, should the seam be (a) in the rolling direction, (b) normal to the rolling direction, or (c) oblique to the rolling direction of the sheet? Explain your answer, using equations from solid mechanics. The main concern for a beverage container is that the can wall should not fail under stresses due to internal pressurization. (Internal pressurization routinely occurs with carbonated beverages because of jarring, dropping, and rough handling and can also be caused by temperature changes.) The hoop stress and the axial stress are given, respectively, by σh =

pr t

pr 1 σh = 2 2t where p is the internal pressure, r is the can radius, and t is the sheet thickness. These are principal stresses; the third principal stress is in the radial direction and is so small that it can be neglected. Note that the maximum stress is in the hoop direction, so the seam should be perpendicular to the rolling direction.

Aircraft wing panel, produced through internal pressurization. See also Fig. 7.46 on p. 384.

σa =

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7.97 Investigate methods for determining optimum shapes of blanks for deep-drawing operations. Sketch the optimally shaped blanks for drawing rectangular cups, and optimize their layout on a large sheet of metal.

produced by bending only because of this notch. As such, the important factors are bendability, and scoring such as shown in Fig. 7.71 on p. 406, and avoiding wrinkling such as discussed in Fig. 7.69 on p. 405.

This is a topic that continues to receive considerable attention. Finite-element simulations, as well as other techniques such as slip-line field theory, have been used. An example of an optimum blank for a typical oil-pan cup is sketched below.

7.99 Design a box that will contain a 4 in. × 6 in. × 3 in. volume. The box should be produced from two pieces of sheet metal and require no tools or fasteners for assembly. This is an open-ended problem with a wide variety of answers. Students should consider the blank shape, whether the box will be deepdrawn or produced by bending operations (see Fig. 7.68), the method of attaching the parts (integral snap-fasteners, folded flaps or loosefit), and the dimensions of the two halves are all variables. It can be beneficial to have the students make prototypes of their designs from cardboard.

Optimum blank shape

Die cavity profile

7.100 Repeat Problem 7.99, but the box is to be made from a single piece of sheet metal. This is an open-ended problem; see the suggestions in Problem 7.99. Also, it is sometimes helpful to assign both of these problems, or to assign each to one-half of a class.

7.98 The design shown in the accompanying illustration is proposed for a metal tray, the main body of which is made from cold-rolled sheet steel. Noting its features and that the sheet is bent in 7.101 In opening a can using an electric can opener, two different directions, comment on relevant you will note that the lid often develops a scalmanufacturing considerations. Include factors loped periphery. (a) Explain why scalloping such as anisotropy of the cold-rolled sheet, its occurs. (b) What design changes for the can surface texture, the bend directions, the nature opener would you recommend in order to minof the sheared edges, and the method by which imize or eliminate, if possible, this scalloping the handle is snapped in for assembly. effect? (c) Since lids typically are recycled or discarded, do you think it is necessary or worthwhile to make such design changes? Explain. By the student. The scalloped periphery is due to the fracture surface moving ahead of the shears periodically, combined with the loading applied by the two cutting wheels. There are several potential design changes, including changing the plane of shearing, increasing the speed of shearing, increasing the stiffness of the support structure, or using more wheels. Scallops on the cans are not normally objectionable, so there has not been a real need to make openers that avoid this feature.

By the student. Several observations can be made. Note that a relief notch design, as shown in Fig. 7.68 on p. 405 has been used. It is a valuable experiment to have the students cut 7.102 A recent trend in sheet-metal forming is to prothe blank from paper and verify that the tray is vide a specially-textured surface finish that de80

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velops small pockets to aid lubricant entrainment. Perform a literature search on this technology, and prepare a brief technical paper on this topic. Stage 1

This is a valuable assignment, as it encourages the student to conduct a literature review. This is a topic where significant research has been done, and a number of surface textures are available. A good starting point is to obtain the following paper:

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

A

Hector, L.G., and Sheu, S., “Focused energy beam work roll surface texturing science and technology,” J. Mat. Proc. & Mfg. Sci., v. 2, 1993, pp. 63-117.

Stage 5

B

Stage 6

Stage 7

7.104 Obtain a few pieces of cardboard and carefully cut the profiles to produce bends as shown in Fig. 7.68. Demonstrate that the designs labeled as “best” are actually the best designs. Com7.103 Lay out a roll-forming line to produce any three ment on the difference in strain states between cross sections from Fig. 7.27b. the designs. By the student. This is a good project that demonstrates how the designs in Fig. 7.68 on p. 405 significantly affect the magnitude and type of strains that are applied. It clearly shows that the best design involves no stretching, but only bending, of the sheet metal.

By the student. An example is the following layout for the structural member in a steel door frame:

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Chapter 8

Material-Removal Processes: Cutting Questions 8.1 Explain why the cutting force, Fc , increases with increasing depth of cut and decreasing rake angle.

the heat generated by the dull tool tip rubbing against this surface. Dull tools also increase the tendency for BUE formation, which leads to poor surface finish.

(a) Increasing the depth of cut means more material being removed per unit time. Thus, all other parameters remaining constant, the cutting force has to increase linearly because the energy requirement increases linearly.

8.3 Describe the trends that you observe in Tables 8.1 and 8.2.

(b) As the rake angle decreases, the shear angle decreases and hence the shear strain increases. Therefore, the energy per unit volume of material removed increases, thus the cutting force has to increase. Note that the rake angle also has an effect on the frictional energy (see Table 8.1 on p. 430).

By the student. A review of Tables 8.1 and 8.2 on pp. 430-431 indicates certain trends that are to be expected, including: (a) As the rake angle decreases, the shear strain and hence the specific energy increase. (b) Cutting force also increases with decreasing rake angle; (c) Shear plane angle decreases with increasing rake angle.

8.2 What are the effects of performing a cutting operation with a dull tool tip? A very sharp tip?

8.4 To what factors would you attribute the large difference in the specific energies within each group of materials shown in Table 8.3?

There are several effects of a dull tool. Note that a dull tool is one having an increased tip radius (see Fig. 8.28 on p. 449). As the tip radius increases (i.e., as the tool dulls), the cutting force increases due to the fact that the effective rake angle is now decreased. In fact, shallow depths of cut may not be possible. Another effect is the possibility for surface residual stresses, tearing, and cracking of the machined surface, due to severe surface deformation and

The differences in specific energies seen in Table 8.3 on p. 435, whether among different materials or within types of materials, can basically be attributed to differences in the mechanical and physical properties of these materials, which affect the cutting operation. For example, as strength increases, so does the total specific energy. Differences in tool-chip interface friction characteristics would also play a significant role. Physical properties, such as thermal 83

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conductivity and specific heat, both of which increase cutting temperatures as they decrease, could be responsible for such differences. These points are supported when one closely examines this table and observes that the ranges for materials such as steels, refractory alloys, and high-temperature alloys are large, in agreement with our knowledge of the great variety of these classes of materials.

8.8 Can you offer an explanation as to why the maximum temperature in cutting is located at about the middle of the tool-chip interface? (Hint: Note that there are two principal sources of heat: the shear plane and the tool-chip interface.)

8.5 Describe the effects of cutting fluids on chip formation. Explain why and how they influence the cutting operation. By the student. In addition to the effects discussed in Section 8.7 starting on p. 464, cutting fluids influence friction at the tool-chip interface, thus affecting the shear angle and chip thickness. These, in turn, can influence the type of chip produced. Also, note that with effective cutting fluids the built-up edge can be reduced or eliminated. 8.6 Under what conditions would you discourage the use of cutting fluids? Explain. By the student. The use of cutting fluids could be discouraged under the following conditions: (a) If the cutting fluid has any adverse effects on the workpiece and/or machinetool components, or on the overall cutting operation. (b) In interrupted cutting operations, such as milling, the cutting fluid will, by its cooling action, subject the tool to large fluctuations in temperature, possibly causing thermal fatigue of the tool, particularly in ceramics. 8.7 Give reasons that pure aluminum and copper are generally rated as easy to machine. There are several reasons that aluminum and copper are easy to machine. First, they are relatively soft, hence cutting forces and energy are low compared to many other materials. Furthermore, they are good thermal conductors. Also, they are ductile and can withstand the strains in cutting and still develop continuous chips. These materials do not generally form a built-up edge, depending on cutting parameters.

It is reasonable that the maximum temperature in orthogonal cutting is located at about the middle of the tool-chip interface. The chip reaches high temperatures in the primary shear zone; the temperature would decrease from then on as the chip climbs up the rake face of the tool. If no frictional heat was involved, we would thus expect the highest temperature to occur at the shear plane. However, recall that friction at the tool-chip interface also increases the temperature. After the chip is formed it slides up the rake face and temperature begins to build up. Consequently, the temperature due only to frictional heating would be highest at the end of the tool-chip contact. These two opposing effects are additive, and as a result the temperature is highest somewhere in between the tip of the tool and the end of contact zone. 8.9 State whether or not the following statements are true for orthogonal cutting, explaining your reasons: (a) For the same shear angle, there are two rake angles that give the same cutting ratio. (b) For the same depth of cut and rake angle, the type of cutting fluid used has no influence on chip thickness. (c) If the cutting speed, shear angle, and rake angle are known, the chip velocity can be calculated. (d) The chip becomes thinner as the rake angle increases. (e) The function of a chip breaker is to decrease the curvature of the chip. (a) To show that for the same shear angle there are two rake angles and given the same cutting ratio, recall the definition of the cutting ratio as given by Eq. (8.1) on p. 420. Note that the numerator is constant and that the cosine of a positive and negative angle for the denominator has the same value. Thus, there are two rake angles that give the same r, namely a rake angle, α, greater than the shear angle, φ, and a rake angle smaller than the shear angle by the same amount.

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(b) Incorrect, because the cutting fluid will influence friction, hence the shear angle and, consequently, the chip thickness. (c) Correct, because if the cutting speed, V , shear angle, φ, and rake angle, α, are all known, the velocity of the chip up the face of the tool (Vo ) can be calculated. This is done simply by using Eq. (8.5). (d) Correct, as can be seen in Table 8.1 on p. 430. (e) Incorrect; its function is to decrease the radius of curvature, that is, to increase curvature. 8.10 It has been stated that it is generally undesirable to allow temperatures to rise excessively in machining operations. Explain why. By the student. This is an open-ended problem with a large number of acceptable answers. The consequences of allowing temperatures to rise to high levels in cutting include:

By the student. In interrupted cutting operations, it is desirable to have tools with high impact strength and toughness. From Table 8.6 on p. 454 the tool materials that have the best impact strength are high-speed steels, and, to a lesser extent, cast alloys and carbides. Note also that carbon steels and alloy steels also have high toughness. In addition, with interrupted cutting operations, the tool is constantly being subjected to thermal cycling. It is thus desirable to utilize materials with low coefficients of thermal expansion and high thermal conductivity to minimize thermal stresses in the tool (see pp. 107-108). 8.13 Explain the possible disadvantages of a machining operation if a discontinuous chip is produced. By the student. The answer is given in Section 8.2.1. Note that:

(a) Tool wear will be accelerated due to high temperatures. (b) High temperatures will cause dimensional changes in the workpiece, thus reducing dimensional accuracy. (c) Excessively high temperatures in the cutting zone may induce metallurgical changes and cause thermal damage to the machined surface, thus affecting surface integrity. 8.11 Explain the reasons that the same tool life may be obtained at two different cutting speeds. Tool life in this case refers to flank wear. At low cutting speeds, the asperities at the toolworkpiece interface have more time to form a stronger junction, thus wear is likely to increase (see Section 4.4.2 starting on p. 144). Furthermore, at low speeds some microchipping of cutting tools have been observed (due possibly to the same reasons), thus contributing to tool wear. At high cutting speeds, on the other hand, temperature increases, thus increasing tool wear. 8.12 Inspect Table 8.6 and identify tool materials that would not be particularly suitable for interrupted cutting operations, such as milling. Explain your choices.

(a) The forces will continuously vary, possibly leading to chatter and all of its drawbacks. (b) Tool life will be reduced. (c) Surface finish may be poor surface. (d) Tolerances may not be acceptable. 8.14 It has been noted that tool life can be almost infinite at low cutting speeds. Would you then recommend that all machining be done at low speeds? Explain. As can be seen in Fig. 8.21 on p. 441, tool life can be almost infinite at very low cutting speeds, but this reason alone would not always justify using low cutting speeds. Low cutting speeds will remove less material in a given time which could be economically undesirable. Lower cutting speeds often also lead to the formation of built-up edge and discontinuous chips. Also, as cutting speed decreases, friction increases and the shear angle decreases, thus generally causing the cutting force to increase. 8.15 Referring to Fig. 8.31, how would you explain the effect of cobalt content on the properties of carbides? Recall that tungsten-carbide tools consist of tungsten-carbide particles bonded together in

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600 e siv res mp

Ha

400

Tr

200 an

sv

ers

rd n

e

es

s

pt -ru

90.5 1500

st ren gth

ure

stren

ar We

88.5 1250 gt h

85.7 1000 750 500

0

0

Vickers hardness (HV)

HRA 92.4 1750

Co

Wear (mg), compressive and transverse-rupture strength (kg/mm2)

a cobalt matrix using powder-metallurgy techniques. Increasing the amount of cobalt will make the material behave in a more ductile manner, thus adversely affecting the strength, hardness, and wear resistance of the tungstencarbide tools. The property which cobalt improves is toughness and transverse-rupture strength. The accompanying figure was taken from p. 502 of S. Kalpakjian, Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 3d ed., 1997.

10 20 30 Cobalt (% by weight)

8.16 Explain why studying the types of chips produced is important in understanding machining operations. By the student. The study the types of chips produced is important because the type of chip significantly influences the surface finish produced as well as the overall cutting operation. For example, continuous chips are generally associated with good surface finish. Built-up-edge chips usually result in poor surface finish. Serrated chips and discontinuous chips may result in poor surface finish and dimensional accuracy, and possibly lead to chatter.

becomes segmented, the cutting force would rapidly drop to some lower value, and then begin rising again, starting a new region of continuous chip. The whole process is repeated over and over again. 8.18 Wood is a highly anisotropic material; that is, it is orthotropic. Explain the effects of orthogonal cutting of wood at different angles to the grain direction on the types of chips produced. When cutting a highly anisotropic material such as wood (orthotropic), the chip formation would depend on the direction of the cut with respect to the wood grain direction and the rake angle of the tool. The shear strength of wood is low (and tensile strength is high) in the grain direction, and high when perpendicular to the grain direction. Cutting wood along the grain direction would produce long continuous chips by virtue of a splitting action ahead of the tool. Thus, the chip is more like a shaving or veneer (and can become a polygonal in shape at large depths of cut, like cracking a toothpick at constant intervals along its length). Cutting across the grain would produce discontinuous chips; cutting along a direction where the shear plane is in the same direction as the grain of the wood can produce continuous chips, similar to those observed in metal cutting. These phenomena can be demonstrated with a wood plane and piece of pine (see, for example, Kalpakjian, Mechanical Processing of Materials, 1963, p. 315). These observations are also relevant to cutting single-crystal materials, which exhibit high anisotropy. 8.19 Describe the advantages of oblique cutting. Which machining proceses involve oblique cutting? Explain.

8.17 How would you expect the cutting force to vary for the case of serrated-chip formation? Explain. By the student. One would expect the cutting force to vary under cutting conditions producing serrated chips. During the continuous-chip formation period, the cutting force would be relatively constant. As this continuous region

A major advantage of oblique cutting is that the chip moves off to the side of the cutting zone, thus out of the way of the working area (see Fig. 8.9 on p. 426). Thus it is better suited for cutting operations involving a cross feed as in turning. Note also that the effective rake angle is increased and the chip is thinner. 8.20 Explain why it is possible to remove more material between tool resharpenings by lowering the cutting speed.

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This situation can be visualized by referring to Fig. 8.21a on p. 441. Note that at any location on a particular curve, the product of cutting speed (ft/min) and tool life (min) is the distance (ft) the tool travels before it reached the end of its life (a specified wear land). The distance traveled is directly proportional to the volume of material removed. Note also in the figure that at very high speeds, tool life is virtually zero, so is the material removed. Conversely, at very low speeds, tool life is virtually infinite, thus the volume removed is almost infinite.

8.23 Describe the reasons for making cutting tools with multiphase coatings of different materials. Describe the properties that the substrate for multiphase cutting tools should have for effective machining. By the student; see Section 8.6.5. One can combine benefits from different materials. For example, the outermost layer can be the coating which is best from hardness or low frictional characteristics to minimize tool wear. The next layer can have the benefit of being thermally insulating, and a third layer may be of a material which bonds well to the tool. Using these multiple layers allows a synergistic result in that the limitations of one coating can be compensated for with another layer.

It is therefore apparent that more material can be removed by lowering the cutting speed. However, there are two important considerations: (a) The economics of the machining process will be adversely affected if cutting speeds are low, as described in Section 8.15 and shown in Fig. 8.75 on p. 509. (b) As stated in Section 8.3.1, tool-life curves can curve downward at low cutting speeds. Consequently, there would be a specific cutting speed where material removal between tool changes is a maximum. 8.21 Explain the significance of Eq. (8.8). The main significance of Eq. (8.8) on p. 427 is that it determines an effective rake angle for oblique cutting (a process of more practical significance than orthogonal cutting), which can be related back to the simpler orthogonal cutting models for purposes of analysis.

8.24 Explain the advantages and any limitations of inserts. Why were they developed? With inserts, a number of new cutting edges are available on each tool, so that the insert merely needs to be indexed. Also, since inserts are clamped relatively easily, they allow for quick setups and tool changes. There are no significant limitations to inserts other than the fact that they require special toolholders, and that they should be clamped properly. Their recycling and proper disposal is also an important consideration. 8.25 Make a list of alloying elements in high-speedsteel cutting tools. Explain why they are used.

8.22 How would you go about measuring the hot hardness of cutting tools? Explain any difficulties that may be involved.

Typical alloying elements for high-speed steel are chromium, vanadium, tungsten, and cobalt (see Section 8.6.2). These elements serve to produce a material with higher strength, hardness, and wear resistance at elevated temperatures. (See also Section 3.10.3.) 8.26 What are the purposes of chamfers on cutting tools? Explain.

Hot hardness refers to the hardness of the material at the elevated temperatures typical of the particular cutting operation (see Fig. 8.30 on p. 453). Once the temperature is known (which can be measured with thermocouples or can be estimated), the hardness of the material can be evaluated at this temperature. A simple method of doing so is by heating the tool material, then subjecting it to a hardness test while it is still hot.

Chamfers serve to increase the strength of inserts by effectively increasing the included angle of the insert. This trend is shown in Fig. 8.34 on p. 458. The tendency of edge chipping is thus reduced. 8.27 Why does temperature have such an important effect on cutting-tool performance? 87

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Temperature has a large effect on the life of a cutting tool. (a) Materials become weaker and softer as they become hotter (see Fig. 8.30 on p. 453), hence their wear resistance is reduced. (b) Chemical reactivity generally increases with increasing temperature, thus increasing the wear rate. (c) The effectiveness of cutting fluids can be compromised at excessive temperatures. (d) Because of thermal expansion, workpiece tolerances will be adversely affected.

8.31 Why do cutting fluids have different effects at different cutting speeds? Is the control of cutting-fluid temperature important? Explain.

8.28 Ceramic and cermet cutting tools have certain advantages over carbide tools. Why, then, are carbide tools not replaced to a greater extent? Ceramics are preferable to carbides in that they have a lower tendency to adhere to metals being cut, and have very high abrasion resistance and hot hardness. However, ceramics are sensitive to defects and are generally brittle, and thus can fail prematurely. Carbides are much tougher than ceramics, and are therefore much more likely to perform as expected even when conditions such as chatter occur. (See also Section 11.8.)

A cutting fluid has been shown to be drawn into the asperities between the tool and chip through capillary action. At low cutting speeds, the fluid has longer time to penetrate more of the interface and will thus be effective in reducing friction acting as a lubricant. At higher cutting speeds, the fluid will have less time to penetrate the asperities; therefore, it will be less effective at higher speeds. Furthermore, cutting fluids whose effectiveness depends on their chemical reactivity with surfaces, will have less time to react and to develop low-shear-strength films. At higher cutting speeds, temperatures increase significantly and hence cutting fluids should have a cooling capacity as a major attribute. 8.32 Which of the two materials, diamond or cubic boron nitride, is more suitable for machining steels? Why?

8.29 Why are chemical stability and inertness important in cutting tools? Chemical stability and inertness are important for cutting tools to maintain low friction and wear (see also Section 4.4). A major cause of friction is the shear stress required to break the microwelds in the contact area between the two materials. If the tool material is inert, the microwelds are less likely to occur with the workpiece material, and friction and wear will thus be reduced.

Of the two choices, cubic boron nitride is more suitable for cutting steel than diamond tools. This is because cBN, unlike diamond, is chemically inert to iron at high temperatures, thus tool life is better. 8.33 List and explain the considerations involved in determining whether a cutting tool should be reconditioned, recycled, or discarded after use.

8.30 What precautions would you take in machining with brittle tool materials, especially ceramics? Explain. With brittle tool materials, we first want to prevent chipping, such as by using negative rake angles and reduce vibration and chatter. Also, brittleness of ceramic tools applies to thermal gradients, as well as to strains. To prevent tool failures due to thermal gradients, a steady supply of cutting fluid should be applied, as well as selecting tougher tool materials.

By the student. This is largely a matter of economics. Reconditioning requires skilled labor, grinders, and possibly recoating equipment. Other considerations are the cost of new tools and possible recycling of tool materials, since many contain expensive materials of strategic importance such as tungsten and cobalt. 8.34 List the parameters that influence the temperature in machining, and explain why and how they do so. By the student. An inspection of Eq. (8.29) on p. 438 indicates that temperature increases with strength, cutting speed, and depth of cut. This is to be expected because:

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(a) strength indicates energy dissipation, thus higher heat content,

to the other. Give reasons for any changes that may occur.

(b) the higher the cutting speed, the less time for heat to be dissipated, and

The workpiece diameter can vary from one end of the bar to the other because the cutting tool is expected to wear, depending on workpiece materials, processing parameters, and the effectiveness of the cutting fluid. It can be seen that with excessive flank wear, the diameter of the bar will increase towards the end of the cut. Temperature variations will also affect workpiece diameter.

(c) the greater the depth of cut, the smaller the surface area-to-thickness ratio of the chip, thus less heat dissipation. In the denominator of this equation are specific heat and thermal conductivity, both of which influence heat conduction and dissipation. 8.35 List and explain the factors that contribute to poor surface finish in machining operations. By the student. Recall, for example, in turning or milling, as the feed per tooth increases or as the tool radius decreases, the roughness increases. Other factors that contribute to poor surface finish are built-up edge, tool chipping or fracture, and chatter. Each of these factors can adversely affect any of the processes described in the chapter. See also Section 8.4. 8.36 Explain the functions of the different angles on a single-point lathe cutting tool. How does the chip thickness vary as the side cutting-edge angle is increased? Explain.

8.39 Describe the relative characteristics of climb milling and up milling and their importance in machining operations. By the student. The answer can be found in Section 8.10.1. Basically, in up (conventional) milling, the maximum chip thickness is at the exit of tooth engagement and, thus, contamination and scale on the workpiece surface does not have a significant effect on tool life. Climb milling has been found to have a lower tendency to chatter, and the downward component of the cutting force holds the workpiece in place. Note, however, that workpiece surface conditions can affect tool wear. 8.40 In Fig. 8.64a, high-speed-steel cutting teeth are welded to a steel blade. Would you recommend that the whole blade be made of high-speed steel? Explain your reasons.

These are described in Section 8.8.1 and can also be found in various handbooks on machining. As the side cutting-edge angle is increased, the chip becomes thinner because it becomes wider (see Fig. 8.41 on p. 470). 8.37 It will be noted that the helix angle for drills is different for different groups of workpiece materials. Why? The reasons are to control chip flow through the flutes and to avoid excessive temperature rise, which would adversely affect the drilling operation. These considerations are especially important in drilling thermoplastics, which tend to become gummy. The student is encouraged to survey the literature and give a comprehensive answer.

It is desirable to have a hard, abrasion-resistant tool material (such as HSS or carbide) on the cutting surface and a tough, thermally conductive material in the bulk of the blade. This is an economical method of producing high-quality steel saw blades. To make the whole blade from HSS would be expensive and unnecessary. 8.41 Describe the adverse effects of vibrations and chatter in machining. By the student. The adverse effects of chatter are discussed in Section 8.11 and are summarized briefly below:

8.38 A turning operation is being carried out on a long, round bar at a constant depth of cut. Explain what differences, if any, there may be in the machined diameter from one end of the bar

• Poor surface finish, as shown in the right central region of Fig. 8.72 on p. 501. • Loss of dimensional accuracy of the workpiece.

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• Premature tool wear, chipping, and failure, a critical consideration with brittle tool materials, such as ceramics, some carbides, and diamond. • Possible damage to the machine-tool components from excessive vibration and chatter. • Objectionable noise, particularly if it is of high frequency, such as the squeal heard when turning brass on a lathe with a less rigid setup.

8.46 Explain whether or not it is desirable to have a high or low (a) n value and (b) C value in the Taylor tool-life equation.

8.42 Make a list of components of machine tools that could be made of ceramics, and explain why ceramics would be a suitable material for these components.

8.47 Are there any machining operations that cannot be performed on (a) machining centers and (b) turning centers? Explain.

As we can see in Fig. 8.22a on p. 442, high n values are desirable because for the same tool life, we can cut at higher speeds, thus increasing productivity. Conversely, it can also be seen that for the same cutting speed, high n values give longer tool life. Note that as n approaches zero, tool life becomes extremely sensitive to cutting speed, with rapidly decreasing tool life.

By the student. By the student; see Section 8.11. In theory, every cutting operation can be performed on a machining center, if we consider the term in its broadest sense, but in practice, there are many that are not reasonable to perform. For example, turning would not be performed on a machining center, nor would boring; for these, turning centers are available.

By the student. Typical components would be members that reciprocate at high speeds or members that move at high speeds and are brought to rest in a short time (inertia effects). Bearing components are also suitable applications by virtue of the hardness, resistance, and low inertial forces with ceramics (due to their lower density). 8.43 In Fig. 8.12, why do the thrust forces start at a finite value when the feed is zero? Explain. The reason is likely due to the fact that the tool has a finite tip radius (see Fig. 8.28 on p. 449), and that some rubbing along the machined surface takes place regardless of the magnitude of feed. 8.44 Is the temperature rise in cutting related to the hardness of the workpiece material? Explain. Because hardness and strength are related (see Section 2.6.8), the hardness of the workpiece material would influence the temperature rise in cutting by requiring higher energy. 8.45 Describe the effects of tool wear on the workpiece and on the overall machining operation. By the student. Tool wear can adversely affect temperature rise of the workpiece, cause excessive rubbing of the machined surface resulting in burnishing, and induce residual stresses, surface damage, and cracking. Also, the machining operation is influenced by increased forces and temperatures, loss of dimensional control, and possibly causing vibration and chatter as well.

8.48 What is the significance of the cutting ratio in machining? Note that the cutting ratio is easily calculated by measuring the chip thickness, while the undeformed chip thickness is a machine setting. Once calculated, the shear angle can be directly obtained through Eq. (8.1) on p. 420, and thus more knowledge is obtained on cutting mechanics, as described in detail in Section 8.2. 8.49 Emulsion cutting fluids typically consist of 95% water and 5% soluble oil and chemical additives. Why is the ratio so unbalanced? Is the oil needed at all? Explain. The makeup of emulsions reflects the fact that machining fluids have, as their primary purpose, the cooling of the cutting zone (water being an excellent coolant). However, the oil is still necessary; it can attach itself to surfaces and provide boundary lubrication, especially if the cutting process is interrupted, as in milling. See also Section 8.7. 8.50 It was stated that it is possible for the n value in the Taylor tool-life equation to be negative. Explain.

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In machining steel with carbides, for example, it has been noted that at low speeds wear is high, while at intermediate speeds it is much lower. Thus, at low speeds, the Taylor tool-life equation may have a negative value of n. A probable reason is that low cutting speeds allow for greater interaction between the tool and the workpiece, thus causing higher wear. This topic can be a good term paper for students.

The most obvious effect of lowering friction through application of a more effective coolant/lubricant is that the cutting and normal forces will be reduced. Also, the shear angle will be affected [see Eq. (8.20) on p. 433], so that the cutting ratio will be significantly different. This also implies that the chip will undergo a different shear strain, and that chip morphology is likely to be different. The student should elaborate further on this topic.

8.51 Assume that you are asked to estimate the cutting force in slab milling with a straight-tooth cutter. Describe the procedure that you would follow.

8.54 Why is it not always advisable to increase cutting speed in order to increase production rate? Explain.

By the student. The student should first make a large, neat sketch of the cutter tooth-workpiece interaction, based on Fig. 8.53a on p. 483; then consider factors such as rake angle, shear angle, varying chip thickness, finite length of chip, etc., remembering that the depth of cut is very small compared to the cutter diameter. See also Section 8.2.

From the Taylor tool-life equation, V T n = C, it can be seen that tool wear increases rapidly with increasing speed. When a tool wears excessively, it causes poor surface finish and higher temperatures. With continual tool replacement, more time is spent indexing or changing tools than is gained through faster cutting. Thus, higher speeds can lead to lower production rates.

8.52 Explain the possible reasons that a knife cuts better when it is moved back and forth. Consider factors such as the material being cut, interfacial friction, and the shape and dimensions of the knife. By the student. One obvious effect is that the longitudinal movement of the knife reduces the vertical component of the friction force vector, thus the material being cut is not dragged downward. (Consider, for example, cutting a block of relatively cheese with a wide knife and the considerable force required to do so.) Another factor is the roughness of the cutting edge of the knife. No matter how well it is sharpened and how smooth it appears to be, it still has some finite roughness which acts like the cutting teeth of a very fine saw (as can be observed under high magnification). The students is encouraged to inspect the cutting edge of knives, especially sharp ones, under a microscope and run some simple cutting experiments and describe their observations.

8.55 It has been observed that the shear-strain rate in metal cutting is high even though the cutting speed may be relatively low. Why? By the student. The reason is explained in Section 8.2, and is associated with Eqs. (8.6) and (8.7) on p. 421. 8.56 We note from the exponents in Eq. (8.30) that the cutting speed has a greater influence on temperature than does the feed. Why? The difference is not too large; it is likely due to the fact that as cutting speed increases, there is little time for the energy dissipated to be conducted or dissipated from the tool. The feed has a lower effect because its speed is so much lower than the cutting speed. 8.57 What are the consequences of exceeding the allowable wear land (see Table 8.5) for cutting tools? Explain. The major consequences would be:

8.53 What are the effects of lowering the friction at the tool-chip interface (say with an effective cutting fluid) on the mechanics of cutting operations? Explain, giving several examples.

(a) As the wear land increases, the wear flat will rub against the machined surface and thus temperature will increase due to friction.

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(b) Surface damage may result and dimensional control will become difficult.

8.61 How would you go about measuring the effectiveness of cutting fluids? Explain.

(c) Some burnishing may also take place on the machined surface, leading to residual stresses and temperature rise.

By the student. The most effective and obvious method is to test different cutting fluids in actual machining operations. Other methods are to heat the fluids to the temperatures typically encountered in machining, and measure their viscosity and other relevant properties such as lubricity, specific heat, and chemical reactions (see Chapter 4 for details). The students are encouraged to develop their own ideas for such tests.

(d) Cutting forces will increase because of the increased wear land, requiring greater power for the same machining operation. 8.58 Comment on and explain your observations regarding Figs. 8.34, 8.38, and 8.43. By the student. For example, from Fig. 8.34 on p. 458 it is clear that edge strength can be obtained from tool geometry; from Fig. 8.38 on p. 461, it is clear that strength is also obtained through the tool material used. Figure 8.43 on p. 472 shows the allowable speeds and feeds for different materials; the materials generally correspond to the strengths given in Fig. 8.38. The range in feeds and speeds can be explained by the range of strengths for different tool geometries in Fig. 8.34.

8.62 Describe the conditions that are critical in benefiting from the capabilities of diamond and cubic-boron-nitride cutting tools.

8.59 It will noted that the tool-life curve for ceramic cutting tools in Fig. 8.22a is to the right of those for other tools. Why? Ceramic tools are harder and have higher resistance to temperature; consequently, they resist wear better than other tool materials shown in the figure. Ceramics are also chemically inert, even at the elevated temperatures of machining. The high hardness leads to abrasive wear resistance, and the chemical inertness leads to adhesive wear resistance. 8.60 In Fig. 8.18, it can be seen that the percentage of the energy carried away by the chip increases with cutting speed. Why? Heat is removed from the cutting zone mainly by conduction through the workpiece, chip, and tool. Also note the temperature distribution shown in Fig. 8.16 on p. 437 and how high the temperatures are. Consequently, as the cutting speed increases, the chip will act more and more as a heat sink and carry away much of the heat generated in the cutting zone, and less and less of the heat will be conducted away to the tool or the workpiece.

Because diamond and cBN are brittle, impact due to factors such as cutting-force fluctuations and poor quality of the machine tools used are important. Thus, interrupted cutting (such as milling or turning spline shafts) should be avoided as much as possible. Machine tools should have sufficient stiffness to avoid chatter and vibrations (see Section 8.12). Tool geometry and setting is also important to minimize stresses and possible chipping. The workpiece material must be suitable for diamond or cBN; for example, carbon is soluble in iron and steels at elevated temperatures as encountered in cutting, and therefore diamond would not be suitable for these materials. 8.63 The last two properties listed in Table 8.6 can be important to the life of the cutting tool. Explain why. Which of the properties listed are the least important in machining operations? Explain. Thermal conductivity is important because with increasing thermal conductivity, heat is conducted away from the cutting zone more quickly through the tool, leading to lower temperatures and hence lower wear. Coefficient of thermal expansion is especially significant for thermal fatigue and for coated tools, where the coating and the substrate must have similar thermal expansion coefficients to avoid large thermal stresses. Of the material properties listed, density, elastic modulus, and melting temperature are the least important.

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8.64 It will be noted in Fig. 8.30 that the tool materials, especially carbides, have a wide range of hardness at a particular temperature. Why? By the student. There are various reasons for the range of hardness, including the following: • All of the materials can have variations in their microstructure, thus significantly affecting hardness. For example, compare the following two micrographs of tungsten carbide, showing a fine-grained (left) and coarse-grained (right) tungsten carbide. (Source: Trent, E.M., and Wright, P.K., Metal Cutting 4th ed., Butterworth Heinemann, 2000, pp. 178-185).

• There can be a wide range in the concentration of the carbide as compared to the cobalt binder. • For materials such as carbon tool steels, the carbon content can be different, as can the level of case hardening of the tool. • High-speed steels and ceramics are generic terms, with a wide range of individual chemistries and compositions. 8.65 Describe your thoughts on how would you go about recycling used cutting tools. Comment on any difficulties involved, as well as on economic considerations. By the student. Recycling is a complicated subject and involves economic as well as environmental considerations (see also pp. 12-15).

Fortunately, cutting-tool materials are generally non-toxic (with the exception of cobalt in carbide tools), and thus they can be disposed of safely. The main consideration is economics: Is recycling of the tool material cost effective? Considerations include energy costs in recycling the tool and processing costs in refurbishment, compared to the material costs savings. This is an appropriate topic for a student term paper. 8.66 As you can see, there is a wide range of tool materials available and used successfully today, yet much research and development continues to be carried out on these materials. Why? By the student. The reasons for the availability of a large variety of cutting-tool materials is best appreciated by reviewing Table 8.6 on p. 454. Among various factors, the type of workpiece material machined, the type of machining operation, and the surface finish and dimensional accuracy required all affect the choice of a cutting-tool material. For example, for interrupted cutting operations such as milling, we need toughness and impact strength. For operations where much heat is generated due, for example, to high cutting speeds, hot hardness is important. If very fine surface finish is desired, then ceramics and diamond would be highly desirable. Tool materials continue to be investigated further because, as in all other materials, there is much progress to be made for reasons such as to improve consistency of properties, extend their applications, develop new tool geometries, and reduce costs. The students are encouraged to comment further on this topic. 8.67 Drilling, boring, and reaming of large holes is generally more accurate than just drilling and reaming. Why? The boring process has generally better control of dimensional accuracy than drilling because of the overall stiffness of the setup. However, a boring tool requires an initial hole, so the drilling step cannot be eliminated. Reaming is a generally slow process and produces good surface finish on a precisely produced hole. 8.68 A highly oxidized and uneven round bar is being turned on a lathe. Would you recommend a

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relatively small or large depth of cut? Explain your reasons.

more difficult to machine, such as refractory alloys and some cast irons with limited ductility. Similar observations can be made for the drill geometries and the point angle.

Because oxides are generally hard and abrasive (see p. 146), light cuts will cause the tool to wear rapidly, and thus it is highly desirable to cut right through the oxide layer during the first pass. Note that an uneven round bar indicates significant variations in the depth of cut being taken; thus, depending on the degree of eccentricity, it may not always be possible to do so since this can lead to self-excited vibration and chatter.

8.72 The footnote to Table 8.10 states that as the depth of the hole increases, speeds and feeds should be reduced. Why?

8.69 Does the force or torque in drilling change as the hole depth increases? Explain. Both the torque and the thrust force generally increase as the hole depth increases, although the change is more pronounced on the torque. Because of elastic recovery along the cylindrical surface of the hole, there is a normal stress exerted on the surface of the drill while in the hole. Consequently, the deeper the hole, the larger the surface area and thus the larger the force acting on the periphery of the drill, leading to a significant increase in torque.

As hole depth increases, elastic recovery in the workpiece causes normal stresses on the surface of the drill, thus the stresses experienced by the drill are higher than they are in shallow holes. These stresses, in turn, cause the torque on the drill to increase and may even lead to its failure. Reduction in feeds and speeds can compensate for these increases. (See also answer to Question 8.69.) 8.73 List and explain the factors that contribute to poor surface finish in machining operations.

8.70 Explain the advantages and limitations of producing threads by forming and cutting, respectively.

By the student. As an example, one factor is explained by Eq. (8.35) on p. 449, which gives the roughness in a process such as turning. Clearly, as the feed increases or as the tool nose radius decreases, roughness will increase. Other factors that affect surface finish are built-up edge (see, for example, Figs. 8.4 and 8.6), dull tools or tool-edge chipping (see Fig. 8.28), or vibration and chatter (Section 8.11.1). 8.74 Make a list of the machining operations described in this chapter, according to the difficulty of the operation and the desired effectiveness of cutting fluids. (Example: Tapping of holes is a more difficult operation than turning straight shafts.)

By the student. Thread rolling is described in Section 6.3.5. The main advantages of thread rolling over thread cutting are the speeds involved (thread rolling is a very high-productionrate operation). Also, the fact that the threads undergo extensive cold working will lead to stronger work-hardened threads. Cutting continues to be used for making threads because it is a very versatile operation and much more economical for low production runs (since expensive dies are not required). Note that internal threads also can be rolled, but this is not nearly as common as machining and can be a difficult operation to perform.

By the student. Tapping is high in operational severity because the tool produces chips that are difficult to dispose of. Tapping has a very confined geometry, making effective lubrication and cooling difficult. Turning, on the other hand, is relatively easy.

8.71 Describe your observations regarding the contents of Tables 8.8, 8.10, and 8.11.

8.75 Are the feed marks left on the workpiece by a face-milling cutter segments of a true circle? Explain with appropriate sketches. By the student. Note that because there is always movement of the workpiece in the feed direction, the feed marks will not be segments of true circles.

By the student. Note, for example, that the side rake angle is low for the ductile materials such as thermoplastics, but is high for materials 94

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8.76 What determines the selection of the number of teeth on a milling cutter? (See, for example, Figs. 8.53 and 8.55.) The number of teeth will affect the surface finish produced, as well as vibrations and chatter, depending on the machine-tool structural characteristics. The number is generally chosen to achieve the desired surface finish at a given set of machining parameters. Note also that the finer the teeth, the greater the tendency for chip to clog. At many facilities, the choice of a cutter may simply be what tooling is available in the stock room. 8.77 Explain the technical requirements that led to the development of machining and turning centers. Why do their spindle speeds vary over a wide range? By the student. See Section 8,11. Briefly, machining centers, as a manufacturing concept, serve two basic purposes: (a) save time by rapid tool changes, (b) eliminating part handling and mounting in between operations, and (c) rapid changeover for machining different parts in small lots.

8.79 Why is thermal expansion of machine-tool components important? Explain, with examples. When high precision is required, thermal distortion is very important and must be eliminated or minimized. This is a serious concern, as even a few degrees of temperature rise can be significant and can compromise dimensional accuracy. The student should elaborate further. 8.80 Would using the machining processes described in this chapter be difficult on nonmetallic or rubber like materials? Explain your thoughts, commenting on the influence of various physical and mechanical properties of workpiece materials, the cutting forces involved, the parts geometries, and the fixturing required. By the student. Rubber like materials are difficult to machine mainly because of their low elastic modulus and very large elastic strains that they can undergo under external forces. Care must be taken to properly support the workpiece and minimize the cutting forces. Note also that these materials become stiffer with lower temperatures, which suggests an effective cutting strategy and chilling of the workpiece. 8.81 The accompanying illustration shows a part that is to be machined from a rectangular blank. Suggest the type of operations required and their sequence, and specify the machine tools that are needed.

Normally, much time would be spent transferring and handling the workpiece between different machine tools. Machining centers eliminate or greatly reduce the need for part handling and, consequently, reduce manufacturing time and costs.

Stepped cavity

Drilled and tapped holes

8.78 In addition to the number of components, as shown in Fig. 8.74, what other factors influence the rate at which damping increases in a machine tool? Explain. By the student. The most obvious factors are the damping characteristics of the machine-tool structure and its foundation; vibration isolating pads are commonly installed under machine tools. The type and quality of joints, as well as the quality of the sliding surfaces and their lubrication, and the manner in which the individual components are assembled also have a significant effect. (See Section 8.11.1.)

By the student. The main challenge with the part shown is in designing a fixture that allows all of the operations to be performed without interference. Clearly, a milling machine will be required for milling the stepped cavity and the 95

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slots; the holes could be produced in the milling machine as well, although a drill press may be used instead. Note that one hole is drilled on a milled surface, so drilling and tapping have to follow milling. If the surface finish on the exterior is not critical, a chuck or vise can be used to grip the surface at the corners, which is plausible if the part has sufficient height. The grips usually have rough surfaces, so they will leave marks which will be more pronounced in aluminum than in stainless steels.

8.83 Why is the machinability of alloys generally difficult to assess? The machinability of alloys is difficult to assess because of the wide range of chemical, mechanical, and physical properties that can be achieved in alloys, as well as their varying amounts of alloying elements. Some mildly alloyed materials may be machined very easily, whereas a highly alloyed material may be brittle, abrasive, and thus difficult to machine.

8.82 Select a specific cutting-tool material and estimate the machining time for the parts shown in the accompanying three figures: (a) pump shaft, stainless steel; (b) ductile (nodular) iron crankshaft; (c) 304 stainless-steel tube with internal rope thread. Lead 100 mm

5 mm

24 mm

250 mm

By the student. See Section 8.7.2. The advantages of dry machining include: (a) no lubricant cost; (b) no need for lubricant disposal; (c) no environmental concerns associated with lubricant disposal; (d) no need to clean the workpiece, or at least the cleaning is far less difficult. The disadvantages include:

(a)

(a) possibly higher tool wear; (b) oxidation and discoloration of the workpiece surface since no lubricant is present to protect surfaces; (c) possibly higher thermal distortion of the workpiece, and (d) washing away chips may become difficult.

4 mm

30 mm

8.84 What are the advantages and disadvantages of dry machining?

160 mm (b)

8.85 Can high-speed machining be performed without the use of cutting fluids? Explain.

Pitch: 12.7 mm

This can be done, using appropriate tool materials and processing parameters. Recall that in high speed machining, most of the heat is conveyed from the cutting zone through the chip, so the need for a cutting fluid is less.

50 mm

8.86 If the rake angle is 0◦ , then the frictional force is perpendicular to the cutting direction and, therefore, does not contribute to machining power requirements. Why, then, is there an increase in the power dissipated when machining with a rake angle of, say, 20◦ ?

75 mm (c)

By the student. Students should address the methods and machinery required to produce these components, recognizing the economic implications of their selection of materials.

Lets first note that although the frictional force, because of its vertical position, does not directly affect the cutting power at a rake angle of zero, 96

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it does affect it indirectly by influencing the shear angle. Recall that the higher the friction, the lower the shear angle and the higher the energy required. As the rake angle increases, say to 20◦ , the friction force (see Fig. 8.11 on p. 428) will now affect the position of the resultant force, R, and thus have a component contributing to the cutting force. These complex interactions result in the kind of force variations, as a function of rake angle, shown in Tables 8.1 and 8.2 on pp. 430-431.

Because of the lower forces and temperatures involved, as well as economic considerations, woodworking tools are typically made of carbon steels, with some degree of hardening by heat treatment. Note from Fig. 8.30 on p. 453 that carbon steels maintain a reasonably high hardness for temperatures less than 400oF. For drilling metals, however, the temperatures are high enough to significantly soften the carbon steel (unless drilling at low rotational speeds), thus quickly dulling the drill bit.

8.87 Would you recommend broaching a keyway on a gear blank before or after the teeth are machined? Explain.

8.91 What are the consequences of a coating on a cutting tool that has a different coefficient of thermal expansion than does the substrate? Explain.

By the student. The keyway should be machined before the teeth is machined. The reason is that in hobbing or related processes (see Section 8.10.7), the gear blank is indexed. The keyway thus serves as a natural guide for indexing the blank. 8.88 Given your understanding of the basic metalcutting process, describe the important physical and chemical properties of a cutting tool. By the student. Generally, the important properties are hardness (especially hot hardness), toughness, thermal conductivity, and thermal expansion coefficient. Chemically, the tool must be inert to the workpiece material at the cutting temperatures developed. See also Section 8.6 and Table 8.6 on p. 454.

Consider the situation where a cutting tool and the coating are stress-free at room temperature when the tool is inserted; then consider the situation when the tool is used in cutting and the temperatures are very high. A mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients will cause high thermal strains at the temperatures developed during machining. This can result in a separation (delamination) of the coating from the substrate. (See also pp. 107-108.) 8.92 Discuss the relative advantages and limitations of near-dry machining. Consider all relevant technical and economic aspects.

8.89 Negative rake angles are generally preferred for ceramic, diamond, and cubic boron nitride tools. Why? By the student. Although hard and strong in compression, these materials are brittle and relatively weak in tension. Consequently, negative rake angles, which indicate larger included angle of the tool tip (see, for example, Fig. 8.2 on p. 419) are preferred mainly because of the lower tendency to cause tensile stresses and chipping of the tools. 8.90 If a drill bit is intended for woodworking applications, what material is it most likely to be made from? (Hint: Temperatures rarely rise to 400◦ C in woodworking.) Are there any reasons why such a drill bit cannot be used to drill a few holes in a piece of metal? Explain.

The advantages are mostly environmental as there is no cutting fluid involved, which would add to the manufacturing cost, or to dispose of or treat before its disposal. This has other implications in that the workpiece doesn’t have to be cleaned, so no cleaning fluids, such as solvents, have to be used. Also, lubricants are expensive and difficult to control. However, cutting-fluid residues provide a protective oil film on the machined surfaces, especially with freshly machined metals that begin to rapidly oxidize, as described in Section 4.2. (See also answer to Question 8.84.) 8.93 In modern manufacturing with computercontrolled machine tools, which types of metal chips are undesirable and why? By the student. Continuous chips are not desirable because (a) the machines are now mostly untended and operate at high speeds, thus chip

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generation is at a high rate (see also chip collection systems, p. 700) and (b) continuous chips would entangle on spindles and machine components, and thus severely interfere with the machining operation. Conversely and for that reason, discontinuous chips or segmented chips would be desirable, and indeed are typically produced using chip-breaker features on tools, Note, however, that such chips can lead to vibration and chatter, depending on the workpiece material, processing parameters, and the characteristics of the machine tool (see p. 487).

by adhesion at the high temperatures and attributable to the softness of these materials. Note also that these materials typically have high thermal conductivity, so if the metal has melted, it will quickly solidify and make the operation more difficult. 8.98 Review Fig. 8.68 on modular machining centers, and explain workpieces and operations that would be suitable on such machines.

8.94 Explain why hacksaws are not as productive as band saws. A band saw has continuous motion, whereas a hacksaw reciprocates. About half of the time, the hacksaw is not producing any chips, and thus it is not as productive. 8.95 Describe workpieces and conditions under which broaching would be the preferred method of machining. By the student. Broaching is very attractive for producing various external and internal geometric features; it is a high-rate production process and can be highly automated. Although the broach width is generally limited (see p. 491), typically a number of passes are taken to remove a volume of material, such as on the top surface of engine blocks. Producing notches, slots, or keyways are common applications where broaching is very useful.

By the student. The main advantages to the different modular setups shown in Fig. 8.68 on p. 498 are that various workpiece shapes and sizes can be accommodated and the tool support can be made stiffer by minimizing the overhang. (See Section 8.11.3 for the benefits of reconfigurable machines.) 8.99 Describe types of workpieces that would not be suitable for machining on a machining center. Give specific examples. By the student. There are some workpieces that cannot be produced on machining centers, as by their nature they are very flexible. Consider, for example: • Workpieces that are required in much higher quantities than can be performed economically on machining centers. • Parts that are too large for the machiningcenter workspace, such as large forgings or castings. • Parts that require specialized machines, such as rifling of gun barrels.

8.96 With appropriate sketches, explain the differ- 8.100 Give examples of (a) forced vibration and (b) ences between and similarities among the folself-excited vibration in general engineering lowing processes: (a) shaving, (b) broaching, practice. and (c) turn broaching. By the student. See Section 8.12. Simple examBy the student. Note, for example, that the ples of forced vibration are a punching bag, a similarities are generally in the mechanics of pogo stick, vibrating pages and cell phones, and cutting, involving a finite-width chip and usutiming clocks in computers. Examples for selfally orthogonal. The differences include particexcited vibration include musical instruments ulars of tooling design, the machinery used, and and human speech. The collapse of the Tacoma workpiece shapes. Narrows Bridge in Washington State in 1940 is a major example of self-excited vibration. (See 8.97 Why is it difficult to use friction sawing on nonalso engineering texts on vibration.) ferrous metals? Explain. 8.101 Tool temperatures are low at low cutting speeds As stated in Section 8.10.5, nonferrous metals and high at high cutting speeds, but low again have a tendency to adhere to the blade, caused at even higher cutting speeds. Explain why. 98

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At low cutting speeds, energy is dissipated in the shear plane and at the chip-tool interface, and conducted through the workpiece and/or tool and eventually to the environment (see also Fig. 8.18 on p. 439). At higher speeds, conduction cannot take place rapidly enough. At even higher speeds, the heat will be carried away by the chip, hence the workpiece will remain cooler. This is one of the major advantages of high speed machining, described in Section 8.8.

machining.

8.102 Explain the technical innovations that have made high-speed machining advances possible, and the economic motivations for high-speed

This topic is described in Section 8.8. The technical advances that have made high-speed machining possible include the availability of advanced cutting-tool materials, design of machine tools, stiff and lightweight spindles, and advanced methods of chip disposal. The economic motivations for high-speed machining are that dimensional tolerances can be improved, mainly because of the absence or reduction of thermal distortion, and the labor cost per part can be greatly reduced.

Problems 8.103 Assume that in orthogonal cutting the rake anor to /tc = 1.16. Therefore, the chip thickness gle is 15◦ and the coefficient of friction is 0.2. increased by 16%. Using Eq. (8.20), determine the percentage in8.104 Prove Eq. (8.1). crease in chip thickness when friction is doubled. Refer to the shear-plane length as l and note from Fig. 8.2a on p. 419 that the depth of cut, We begin with Eq. (8.1) on p. 420 which shows to , is the relationship between chip thickness and to = l sin φ depth of cut. Assuming that the depth of cut Similarly, from Fig. 8.3, the chip thickness is and the rake angle are constant, we can rewrite this equation as tc = l cos(φ − α) to cos (φ2 − α) sin φ2 = tc cos (φ1 − α) sin φ2

Substituting these relationships into the definition of cutting ratio gives

to l sin φ sin φ r= = = Now, using Eq. (8.20) on p. 433 we can estimate tc l cos(φ − α) cos(φ − α) the two shear angles. For Case 1, we have from Eq. (8.12) on p. 429 that µ = 0.2 = tan β, or 8.105 With a simple analytical expression prove the β = 11.3◦ , and hence validity of the statement in the last paragraph in Example 8.2. 11.3◦ 15◦ − = 46.85◦ φ1 = 45◦ + 2 2 The work involved in tension and machining, respectively, can be expressed as and for Case 2, where µ = 0.4, we have β = " n+1 # tan−1 0.4 = 21.8◦ and hence φ2 = 41.6◦ . SubDo 2 Wtension ∝ Do ln stituting these values in the above equation for Df chip thickness ratio, we obtain and to cos (φ2 − α) sin φ1 = Wmachining ∝ Do2 − Df2 umachining tc cos (φ1 − α) sin φ2 Since umachining is basically a constant, the racos (41.6◦ − 15◦ ) sin 46.85◦ = tio of Wt /Wm is a function of the original and cos (46.85◦ − 15◦ ) sin 41.6◦ 99

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Shear plane angle, φ

final diameters of the part. Either by inspection of these equations, or by substituting numbers (such as letting Do = 0.100 in and Df = 0.080 in.) and comparing the results, we find that as Do decreases, the ratio of Wt /Wm increases. 8.106 Using Eq. (8.3), make a plot of the shear strain, γ, vs. the shear angle, φ, with the rake angle, α, as a parameter. Describe your observations.

60

Eq. ( 8.20) Eq . (8 .2 1 )

40 20 0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Friction coefficient, µ

The plot is as follows: The cutting ratio is given by Eq. (8.1) on p. 420 as sin φ r= cos(φ − α)

α=1 0° α=0 ° α= 10°

5 4 3 2

α=

2

1.2 30 60 Shear plane angle, φ (°)

90

Cutting ratio, r

1 0

The two expressions for φ can be used to obtain the cutting ratio as a function of µ, which is plotted below. This can be compared to the results for Problem 8.103.

0°

Shear strain, γ

6

At high shear angles, the effect of α is more pronounced. At low shear angles, the rake angle α has a much lower effect. This can be visualized from the geometry of the cutting zone.

0.8 0.4 0

0

Eq. ( 8.20 ) Eq . (8 .2 1 )

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Friction coefficient, µ

1.0

8.107 Assume that in orthogonal cutting, the rake angle is 10◦ . Plot the shear plane angle and cut- 8.108 Derive Eq. (8.12). ting ratio as a function of the friction coefficient. From the force diagram in Fig. 8.11a on p. 428, we express the following: −1 Note from Eq. (8.12) that β = tan µ. The shear angle can be estimated, either from Eq. (8.20) or (8.21), as

F = (Ft + Fc tan α) cos α and

α β φ = 45 + − 2 2 ◦

N = (Fc − Ft tan α) cos α Therefore, by definition,

or φ = 45◦ + α − β

µ=

Substituting for α and β gives φ = 50◦ −

1 tan−1 µ 2

(Ft + Fc tan α) F = N (Fc − Ft tan α)

8.109 Determine the shear angle in Example 8.1. Is this calculation exact or an estimate? Explain. For the cutting ratio of r = 0.555, obtained in Example 8.1 on p. 435, and using Eq. (8.1) on p. 420 , with α = 10◦ , we find that φ = 31.17◦ . Assuming that shear takes place along a plane,

or φ = 55◦ − tan−1 µ These are plotted as follows: 100

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this is an exact calculation. If shear takes place in a zone (Fig. 8.2b), this is an approximation. Note that we can estimate φ theoretically using Eq. (8.20). 8.110 The following data are available from orthogonal cutting experiments. In both cases, depth of cut (feed) to = 0.13 mm, width of cut w = 2.5 mm, rake angle α = −5◦ , and cutting speed V = 2 m/s.

Chip thickness, tc , mm Cutting force, Fc , N Thrust force, Ft , N

Workpiece material Aluminum Steel 0.23 0.58 430 890 280 800

or Fc sin φ cos(φ + β − α) wto cos(β − α) (430) sin 28.2◦ cos(28.2◦ + 28.0◦ + 5◦ ) = (0.0025)(0.00013) cos(28.0◦ + 5◦ ) = 359 MPa

τ

=

From Eq. (8.3) the shear strain is given by γ

cot φ + tan(φ − α) cot 28.2◦ + tan(28.2◦ + 5◦ ) = 2.52

= =

The chip velocity is obtained from Eq. (8.5): Vc

= Determine the shear angle φ [do not use Eq. (8.20)], friction coefficient µ, shear stress τ and shear strain γ on the shear plane, chip velocity Vc and shear velocity Vs , as well as energies uf , us and ut . First, consider the aluminum workpiece, where tc = 0.23 mm, Fc = 430 N, Ft = 280 N, to = 0.13 mm, w = 2.5 mm, α = −5◦ and V = 2 m/s. From Eq. (8.1) on p. 420 , r=

to 0.13 = 0.565 = tc 0.23

sin φ cos(φ − α) sin(28.2◦ ) (2) = 1.13 m/s cos(28.2◦ + 5◦ )

= V

The shear velocity, Vs , is obtained from Eq. (8.6): V s = Vc

cos α cos(−5◦ ) = (1.13) = 2.38 m/s sin φ sin(28.2◦ )

The energies are given by Eqs. (8.24)-(8.25) and (8.27) as: ut = uf =

Fc 430 3 = 1323 MN-m/m = wto (2.5)(0.13) (Fc sin α + Ft cos α)r 3 = 420 MN-m/m wto

us = ut − uf = 1323 − 419 = 903 MN-m/m

Also from Eq. (8.1),

3

The same approach is used for the steel workpiece, with the following results:

sin φ =r cos(φ − α) or

rc = 0.224 µ = 0.752 γ = 4.90 Vs = 2.08 m/s us = 2244MN-m/m3

sin φ = 0.565 cos(φ + 5◦ )

φ = 12.3◦ τ = 458 MPa Vc = 0.448 m/s ut = 2738 MN-m/m3 uf = 494 MN-m/m3

This equation is solved numerically as φ = 28.2◦ . From Eq. (8.12), the coefficient of friction is given by 8.111 Estimate the temperatures for the conditions of Problem 8.110 for the following workpiece prop280 + 430 tan(−5◦ ) Ft + Fc tan α erties: = µ= Fc − Ft tan α 430 − 280 tan(−5◦ ) −1

Workpiece material Aluminum Steel

◦

or µ = 0.533. Therefore, β = tan µ = 28.0 . To obtain the shear stress on the shear plane, we solve Eq. (8.11) for τ : wto τ cos(β − α) Fc = sin φ cos(φ + β − α)

Flow strength Yf , MPa Thermal diffusivity, K, mm2 /s Volumetric specific heat, ρc, N/mm2◦ C

120

325

97

14

2.6

3.3

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From Problem 8.110, we note that V = 2 m/s = µ = 1.01, so that β = tan µ = 45.4◦ . Therefore, 2000 mm/s and to = 0.13 mm. Equation (8.29) can from Eq. (8.20), be used to calculate the temperature rise, but the equation requires English units. It can be shown β α that the equivalent form of Eq. (8.29) for SI units φ = 45◦ + − = 27.3◦ 2 2 is r 3.8Yf 3 V to T = ρc K Therefore, the temperature for the aluminum is 8.114 Taking carbide as an example and using Eq. (8.30), determine how much the feed should be changed in given as: order to keep the mean temperature constant when r r the cutting speed is tripled. 3.8(120) 3 (2000)(0.13) 3.8Yf 3 V to Tal = = ρc K 2.6 97 We begin with Eq. (8.32) which, for this case, can or Tal = 244◦ C. For steel, be rewritten as r r 3.8(325) 3 (2000)(0.13) 3.8Yf 3 V to Ts = = ρc K 3.3 14 V1a f1b = (3V1 )a f2b or Ts = 990◦ C 8.112 In a dry cutting operation using a −5◦ rake angle, the measured forces were Fc = 1330 N and Ft = 740 N. When a cutting fluid was used, these forces were Fc = 1200 N and Ft = 710 N. What is the change in the friction angle resulting from the use of a cutting fluid? Equation (8.12) allows calculation of the friction angle, β, as: tan β =

f2 = 3−a/b f1 For carbide tools, approximate values are given on in Section 8.2.6 as a = 0.2 and b = 0.125. Substituting these values, we obtain f2 = 3−(0.2/0.125) = 0.17 f1

Ft + Fc tan α Fc − Ft tan α

For the initial case,

Therefore, the feed should be reduced by (1-0.17) = 0.83, or 83%.

◦

tan β =

Rearranging and simplifying this equation, we obtain

740 + (1330) tan −5 = 0.447 1330 − 740 tan −5◦

Therefore, β = 24.1◦ . Eq. (8.12) gives:

With a cutting fluid, 8.115 With appropriate diagrams, show how the use of a cutting fluid can affect the magnitude of the thrust force, Ft , in orthogonal cutting. ◦ 710 + (1200) tan −5 = 0.479 tan β = 1200 − 710 tan −5◦ Note in Fig. 8.11 on p. 428 that the use of a cutor β = 25.6◦ . Thus, the cutting fluid has caused a ting fluid will reduce the friction force, F , at the change in β of 25.6◦ -24.1◦ = 1.5◦ . tool-chip interface. This, in turn, will change the force diagram, hence the magnitude of the thrust ◦ 8.113 In the dry machining of aluminum with a 10 rake force, Ft . Consider the sketch given below. The angle tool, it is found that the shear angle is 25◦ . left sketch shows cutting without an effective cutDetermine the new shear angle if a cutting fluid is ting fluid, so that the friction force, F is large comapplied which decreases the friction coefficient by pared to the normal force, N . The sketch on the 15%. right shows the effect if the friction force is a smaller fraction of the normal force because of the cutting From Eq. (8.20) and solving for β, fluid. As can be seen, the cutting force is reduced when using the fluid. The largest effect is on the β = 90◦ + α − 2φ = 90◦ + 10◦ − 2(25◦ ) = 50◦ thrust force, but there is also a noticeable effect on Therefore, from Eq. (8.12), µ = tan β = 1.19 If the cutting force, which becomes larger as the rake the friction coefficient is reduced by 15%, then angle increases.

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α

The Taylor equation for tool wear is given by Eq. (8.31), which can be rewritten as

Chip C = V Tn Fs φ β−α

Fc

R

Ft β

Tool We can compare two cases as

F

N

Workpiece V1 T1n = V2 T2n

α or

Chip

Ft

V2 = V1

Tool

Fc

R N

F

„

T1 T2

«n

solving for T1 /T2 ,

Workpiece T1 = T2 8.116 An 8-in-diameter stainless-steel bar is being turned on a lathe at 600 rpm and at a depth of cut, d = 0.1 in. If the power of the motor is 5 hp and has a mechanical efficiency of 80%, what is the maximum feed that you can have at a spindle speed of 500 rpm before the motor stalls? From Table 8.3 on p. 435, we estimate the power requirement for this material as 1.5 hp-min/in3 (a mean value for stainless steel). Since the motor has a capacity of 5 hp, the maximum volume of material that can be removed per unit time is 5/1.5 = 3.33 in3 /min. Because the depth of cut is much smaller than the workpiece diameter and referring to Fig. 8.42, we note that the material removal rate in this operation is

„

V2 V1

«1/n

(a) For the case where the speed is reduced by 30%, then V2 = 0.7V1 , and thus

T1 = T2

„

0.7V1 V1

«1/0.3 = 0.30

or the new life T2 is 3.3 times the original life. (b) For a speed reduction of 60%, the new tool life is T2 = 21.2T1 , or a 2120% increase.

MRR = πDdf N 8.118 The following flank wear data were collected in a series of machining tests using C6 carbide tools on 1045 steel (HB=192). The feed rate was 0.015 3.33 MRR in./rev and the width of cut was 0.030 in. (a) Plot f= = flank wear as a function of cutting time. Using πDdN π(8)(0.1)(600) a 0.015 in. wear land as the criterion of tool failor f = 0.0022 in./rev. ure, determine the lives for the four cutting speeds shown. (b) Plot the results on log-log plot and de8.117 Using the Taylor equation for tool wear and letting termine the values of n and C in the Taylor tool n = 0.3, calculate the percentage increase in tool life equation. (Assume a straight line relationship.) life if the cutting speed is reduced by (a) 30% and (c) Using these results, calculate the tool life for a (b) 60%. cutting speed of 300 ft/min. Thus, the maximum feed can now be calculated as

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600

800

1000

Cutting time min 0.5 2.0 4.0 8.0 16.0 24.0 54.0 0.5 2.0 4.0 8.0 13.0 14 0.5 2.0 4.0 5.0 0.5 1.0 1.8 2.0

100

Flank wear in. 0.0014 0.0023 0.0030 0.0055 0.0082 0.0112 0.0150 0.0018 0.0035 0.0060 0.0100 0.0145 0.0160 0.0050 0.0100 0.0140 0.0160 0.0100 0.0130 0.0150 0.0160

Tool life (min)

Cutting speed V , ft/min 400

0

Flank wear, in.

1000

V T 0.262 = 1190 If V = 300, then T = 192 min. 8.119 Determine the n and C values for the four tool materials shown in Fig. 8.22a. From Eq. (8.31) on p. 441 note that the value of C corresponds to the cutting speed for a tool life of 1 minute. From Fig. 8.22a, and by extrapolating the tool-life curves to a tool life of 1 min, the C values can be estimated as (ranging from ceramic to HSS): 11,000, 3,000, 400, and 200. Likewise the n values are obtained from the negative inverse slopes, and are estimated as 0.73 (36◦ ), 0.47 (25◦ ), 0.14 (8◦ ), and 0.11 (6◦ ), respectively. Note that these n values compare well with those given in Table 8.4 on p. 442. 8.120 Using Eq. (8.30) and referring to Fig. 8.18a, estimate the magnitude of the coefficient a.

60

The 0.015 in. threshold for flank wear is indicated by the dashed line. From this, the following are the estimated tool life: Speed (ft/min) 400 600 800 1000

500

From which a curve fit suggests n = 0.262 and C = 1190. Therefore, the Taylor equation for this material is

V=400 V=600 V=800 V=000 20 40 Cutting time, min

5

Cutting speed (ft/min)

0.020

0

10

1 100

The plot of flank wear as a function of cutting time is as follows:

0.010

50

Life (min) 54 13.5 4.5 1.8

The log-log plot of cutting speed vs. tool life is as follows:

For this problem, assume (although it is not strictly correct) that the mean temperature, T , is equal to the flank surface temperature, as given in Fig. 8.18a. We can then determine the values of temperature as a function of the cutting speed, V , and obtain a curve fit. The particular answers obtained by the students will vary, depending on the distance from the tool tip taken to obtain the estimate. However, as an example, note that at a value of 0.24 in. from the tool tip, we have Speed (ft/min) Flank temperature (◦ F)

200 900

300 1030

550 1270

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The resulting curve fit of the form of Eq. (8.30) on p. 439 gives the value of a as 0.34. Note that this is within a reasonable range of the value given on p. 439. 8.121 (a) Estimate the machining time required in rough turning a 1.5-m-long, annealed aluminum-alloy round bar 75-mm in diameter, using a high-speed-steel tool. (b) Estimate the time for a carbide tool. Let feed = 2 mm/rev.

Therefore, the material removal rate can be calculated from Eq. (8.38) on p. 470 as MRR

or MRR=3660 mm3 /s. The actual time to cut is given by Eq. (8.39) as t=

Let’s assume that annealed aluminum alloys can be machined at a maximum cutting speed of 4 m/s using high-speed steel tools and 7 m/s for carbide tools (see Table 8.9 on p. 472). The maximum cutting speed is at the outer diameter, and for high-speed steel it is V = N πD

4 V = = 16.97 rev/s πD π(0.075)

or t = 45 s. From Table 8.3, the unit energy required is between 3.0 and 4.1 W-s/mm3 , so lets use an average value of 3.5 W-s/mm3 . Thus, the power required is P = u(MRR) = (3.5)(3660) = 12, 810 W

T =

or N = 1018 rpm. For carbide, the speed is 1782 rpm. For a feed of 2 mm/rev, the time to perform one pass is given for high-speed steel by t=

l 150 mm = = 0.75 min fN 200 mm/min

or 12.8 kW. The cutting force, Fc , is the tangential force exerted by the tool. Since power is the product of torque and rotational speed, ω, we have

or N=

= πDave df N = π(70)(5)(0.50)(400) = 2.2 × 105 mm3 /min

Dividing the torque by the average workpiece radius, we have Fc =

L 1.5 = = 0.74 min = 44 s fN (0.002)(1018)

12, 810 W P = = 306 Nm ω 41.89 rad/s

T Dave /2

=

306 Nm = 8740 N 0.035 m

8.123 Calculate the same quantities as in Example 8.4 but for high-strength cast iron and at N = 500 Similarly, the machining time per pass for carrpm. . bide is 0.42 min or 25 s. 8.122 A 150-mm-long, 75-mm-diameter titaniumalloy rod is being reduced in diameter to 65 mm by turning on a lathe in one pass. The spindle rotates at 400 rpm and the tool is traveling at an axial velocity of 200 mm/min Calculate the cutting speed, material removal rate, time of cut, power required, and the cutting force. First note that the spindle speed is 400 rpm = 41.89 rad/s. The depth of cut can be calculated from the information given as d=

75 − 65 = 5 mm 2

V = πDN = π(0.500)(300) = 471 in./min The cutting speed at the machined diameter is V = πDN = π(0.480)(300) = 452 in./min The depth of cut is unaffected and is d = 0.010 in. The feed is v 8 in./min f= = = 0.0267 in/rev N 300 rpm Thus, according to Eq. (8.38), the material removal rate is MRR

and the feed is f=

The maximum cutting speed is at the outer diameter, Do , and is obtained from the expression

200 mm/min = 0.50 mm/rev 400 rev/min

= πDave df N = π(0.490)(0.010)(0.02)(300) = 0.0924 in3 /min

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The actual time to cut, according to Eq. (8.39), 8.125 A hole is being drilled in a block of magneis sium alloy with a 15-mm drill at a feed of 0.1 mm/rev. The spindle is running at 500 rpm. l 6 Calculate the material removal rate, and estit= = 300 = 0.75 min = 45 s. fN 0.0267 mate the torque on the drill. The power required can be calculated by referring to Table 8.3. Taking a value for high strength cast iron as 2.0 hp-min/in3 , the power dissipated is P = (2.0)(0.0924) = 0.1848 hp and since 1 hp = 396,000 in.-lb/min, the power is 73,180 in.-lb/min. The cutting force, Fc , is the tangential force exerted by the tool. Since power is the product of torque, T , and rotational speed in radians per unit time, we have T =

73, 180 = 38.8 in.-lb (300)2π

MRR

πD2 fN 4 π(15 mm)2 = (0.1 mm/rev)(500 rpm) 4 = 8840 mm3 /min =

or 147 mm3 /s. Referring to Table 8.3, lets take an average specific energy of 0.5 W-s/mm3 for magnesium alloys. Therefore 3 147 mm3 /s = 73.5 W P = 0.5 W-s/mm Power is the product of the torque on the drill and the rotational speed in radians per second, which, in this, case is (500 rpm)(2π)/60=52.36 rad/s. Therefore, the torque is

Since T = (Fc )(Davg /2), Fc =

The material removal rate can be calculated from Eq. (8.40) as

T 38.8 = = 158 lb Dave /2 0.490/2

T =

P 73.5 W = = 1.40 Nm ω 52.36 rad/s

8.124 A 0.75-in-diameter drill is being used on a √ lc in slab milling is apdrill press operating at 300 rpm. If the feed 8.126 Show that the distance proximately equal to Dd for situations where is 0.005 in./rev, what is the material removal D d. rate? What is the MRR if the drill diameter is tripled? The metal removal rate for drilling is given by Eq. (8.40) on p. 480 as MRR

= = =

πD2 fN 4 π(0.75)2 (0.005)(300) 4 0.66 in3 /min

R=D/2

x

d

lc

If the drill diameter is tripled (that is, it is now 2.25 in.), then the metal removal rate is Referring to the figure given above, the hypotenuse of the right triangle is assigned the value of x. From the triangle sketched inside the tool, θ x/2 x sin = = 2 R 2R From the lower triangle,

πD2 MRR = fN 4 π(2.25)2 = (0.005)(300) 4 = 5.96 in3 /min It can be seen that this is a ninefold increase in metal removal rate.

sin

θ d = 2 x

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Thus, eliminating sin θ2 ,

as 3.4 hp-min/in3 , as this is the largest value in the range given. Therefore, 3 P = 3.4 hp-min/in 8.1in3 /min = 27.5 hp

d x = 2R x or, solving for x, √ x=

The cutting time is given by Eq. (8.44) in which the quantity lc can be shown to be (see answer to Problem 8.126) p √ lc = Dd = (2.5)(0.15) = 0.61 in.

√ 2Rd =

Dd

From the lower triangle, cos

θ lc = 2 x

Therefore the cutting time is

l + lc 20 in. + 0.61 in. If θ is small, then cos θ2 can be taken as 1. t= = = 2.29 min v 9 in./min Therefore, lc ≈ x, and √ lc = Dd 8.130 Referring to Fig. 8.54, assume that D = 200 mm, w = 30 mm, l = 600 mm, d = 2 mm, 8.127 Calculate the chip depth of cut in Example 8.6. v = 1 mm/s, and N = 200 rpm. The cutter has 10 inserts, and the workpiece material is The chip depth of cut, tc , is given by Eq. (8.42) 304 stainless steel. Calculate the material reas moval rate, cutting time, and feed per tooth, r r and estimate the power required. d 0.125 tc = 2f = 2(0.1) = 0.05 in. D 2 The cross section of the cut is 8.128 In Example 8.6, which of the quantities will be affected when the spindle speed is increased to 200 rpm? By the student. The quantities affected will be workpiece speed, v, torque, T , cutting time, t, material removal rate, and power. 8.129 A slab-milling operation is being carried out on a 20-in.-long, 6-in.-wide high-strength-steel block at a feed of 0.01 in./tooth and a depth of cut of 0.15 in. The cutter has a diameter of 2.5 in, has six straight cutting teeth, and rotates at 150 rpm. Calculate the material removal rate and the cutting time, and estimate the power required. From the data given we can calculate the workpiece speed, v, from Eq. (8.43) as

wd = (30)(2) = 60 mm2 Noting that the workpiece speed is v = 1 mm/s, the material removal rate can be calculated as MRR = (60 mm2 )(1 mm/s) = 60 mm3 /s The cutting time is given by Eq. (8.44) in which the quantity lc can be shown to be (see answer to Problem 8.126) p √ lc = Dd = (200)(2) = 20 mm Therefore, the cutting time is t=

The feed per tooth is obtained from Eq. (8.43). Noting that N = 200 rpm = 3.33 rev/s and the number of inserts is 10, we have

v = f N n = (0.01)(150)(6) = 9 in./min Using Eq. (8.45) on p. 484, the material removal rate is

l + lc 600 mm + 20 mm = = 620 s v 1 mm/s

f=

v 1 mm/s = = 0.030 mm/tooth Nn (3.33 rev/s)(10)

MRR = wdv = (6)(0.15)(9) = 8.1 in3 /min

For 304 stainless steel, the unit power can be estimated from Table 8.3 as 4 W-s/mm3 . Therefore,

Since the workpiece is high-strength steel, the specific energy can be estimated from Table 8.3

P = (4 W-s/mm )(60 mm3 /s) = 240 W

3

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8.131 Estimate the time required for face milling an 8-in.-long, 3-in.-wide brass block using a 8-indiameter cutter with 12 HSS teeth. Using the high-speed-steel tool, let’s take a recommended cutting speed for brass (a copper alloy) at 90 m/min = 1.5 m/s, or 59 in./s (see Table 8.12 on p. 489), and the maximum feed per tooth as 0.5 mm, or 0.02 in., The rotational speed of the cutter is then calculated from V = πDN

If a single-threaded hob is used to cut forty teeth, the hob and the blank must be geared so that the hob makes forty revolutions while the blank makes one revolution. The expression for the cutting speed of the hob is V = πDN

V πD

Since the cutting speed is given as 200 ft/min = 2400 in./min, we have N=

or, solving for N ,

or N =

V 2400 = = 190 rad/min = 30.2 rpm πD π(4)

Therefore, the rotational speed of the blank is 30.2/40 = 0.75 rpm.

59 in./s V = = 2.34 rev/s = 131 rpm N= πD π(8 in.)

8.134 In deriving Eq. (8.20) it was assumed that the friction angle, β, was independent of the shear The workpiece speed can be obtained from angle, φ. Is this assumption valid? Explain. Eq. (8.43) as v = f N n = (0.02 in.)(141 rpm)(12) or v = 0.56 in./s. The cutting time is given by Eq. (8.44) in which the quantity lc can be shown to be (see answer to Problem 8.126) p √ lc = Dd = (8)(3) = 4.90 in.

We observe from Table 8.1 that the friction angle, β, and the shear angle, φ, are interrelated; thus, β is not independent of φ. Note however, that β varies at a much lower rate than φ does. Therefore, while it is not strictly true, the assumption can be regarded as a valid approximation.

8.135 An orthogonal cutting operation is being carried out under the following conditions: depth 8 in. + 4.9 in. l + lc of cut = 0.10 mm, width of cut = 5 mm, chip = = 23.0 s t= v 0.56 in./s thickness = 0.2 mm, cutting speed = 2 m/s, rake angle = 15◦ , cutting force = 500 N, and 8.132 A 12-in-long, 2-in-thick plate is being cut on a thrust force = 200 N. Calculate the percentband saw at 150 ft/min The saw has 12 teeth age of the total energy that is dissipated in the per in. If the feed per tooth is 0.003 in., how shear plane during cutting. long will it take to saw the plate along its The total power is length? Therefore the cutting time is

The workpiece speed, v, is the product of the number of teeth (12 per in.), the feed per tooth (0.003 in.), and the band saw speed (150 ft/min). The speed is thus v = (12)(0.003)(150) = 5.4 ft/min = 1.08 in./s For a 12-in. long plate, the cutting time is then (12)/(1.08)=11.1 s. Note that plate thickness has no effect on the answer. 8.133 A single-thread hob is used to cut 40 teeth on a spur gear. The cutting speed is 200 ft/min and the hob has a diameter of 4 in. Calculate the rotational speed of the spur gear.

Ptot = Fc V = (500 N)(2 m/s) = 1000 Nm/s The power dissipated in the shear zone is Pshear = Fs Vs where Fs = R cos(φ + β − α) and R=

q p Fc2 + Ft2 = 5002 + 2002 = 538 N

Also, note that the cutting ratio is given by Eq. (8.1) on p. 420 as r=

to 0.10 = = 0.5 tc 0.20

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the temperature rise in the chip is 155◦ F, calculate the percentage of the energy dissipated in the shear plane that goes into the workpiece.

From Fig. 8.2, it can be shown that r cos α −1 φ = tan 1 − r sin α (0.5) cos 15◦ −1 = tan 1 − (0.5) sin 15◦ ◦ = 29.0

The power dissipated in the shear zone is given as Pshear = Fs Vs where

Note that because all necessary data is given, we should not use the approximate shear-angle relationships in Section 8.2.4 to estimate the friction angle. Instead, to find β, we use Eq. (8.11):

solving for β, Fc 500 −1 −1 β = cos + α = cos + 15◦ R 538 or β = 36.7◦ Also, Fs is calculated as

R=

q p Fc2 + Ft2 = 2002 + 1502 = 250 lb

Note that because all the necessary data is given, we should not use the shear-angle relationships in Section 8.2.4 to estimate the friction angle. Instead, to find β, we use Eq. (8.11) to obtain Fc = R cos (β − α)

= R cos (φ + β − α) = (538 N) cos (29.0◦ + 36.7◦ − 15◦ ) = 340 N

Also, from Eq. (8.6), Vs =

and

Therefore, from Problem 8.135 above, r cos α φ = tan−1 1 − r sin α 0.3 cos 0◦ = tan−1 1 − 0.3 sin 0◦ ◦ = 16.7

Fc = R cos(β − α)

Fs

Fs = R cos (φ + β − α)

or, solving for β,

(2) cos 15◦ V cos α = cos (φ − α) cos(29.0◦ − 15◦ )

β

=

or Vs = 1.99 m/s. Therefore, =

Pshear = Fs Vs = (340 N)(1.99 m/s)

= or Pshear = 677 N-m/s. Hence the percentage is 677/1000=0.678 or 67.7%. Note that this value compares well with the data in Table 8.1 on p. 430. 8.136 An orthogonal cutting operation is being carried out under the following conditions: depth of cut = 0.020 in., width of cut = 0.1 in., cutting ratio = 0.3, cutting speed = 300 ft/min, rake angle = 0◦ , cutting force = 200 lb, thrust force = 150 lb, workpiece density = 0.26 lb/in3 , and workpiece specific heat = 0.12 BTU/lb◦ F. Assume that (a) the sources of heat are the shear plane and the tool-chip interface; (b) the thermal conductivity of the tool is zero, and there is no heat loss to the environment; (c) the temperature of the chip is uniform throughout. If

Fc +α R 200 cos−1 + 0◦ 250 36.9◦ cos−1

Therefore, Fs

= R cos (φ + β − α) = (250) cos (16.7◦ + 36.9◦ − 0◦ ) = 148 lb

Also, from Eq. (8.6), Vs =

(300) cos 0◦ V cos α = cos(φ − α) cos(16.7◦ − 0◦ )

or Vs = 313 ft/min. Therefore, Pshear = Fs Vs = (148)(313) = 46, 350 ft-lb/min or Pshear = 59.6 BTU/min. The volume rate of material removal is

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(300)(0.020)(0.10)(12)=14.4 in3 /min. the heat content, Q, of the chip is Qchip

Thus,

= cρV ∆T ◦ 3 (0.12 BTU/lb F) 0.26 lb/in × 14.4 in3 /min (155◦ F) = 70 BTU/min

(c)

=

(d) (e)

The total power dissipated is Ptotal = (200)(300)(1/778) = 77.1 BTU/min. Hence, the ratio of heat dissipated into the workpiece is (77.1-70)=7.1 BTU/min. In terms of the shear energy, this represents a percentage of 7.1/59.6=0.12, or 12%.

(f)

between the angles ψ and γ. Also from Eq. (8.3) we have a relationship between φ and γ. Therefore, we can determine the value of γ. From an analysis of the material and its hardness, its shear stress-shear strain curve can be estimated. We can then determine the value of us . Since φ and α are known, we are now able to determine the depth of cut, to , and consequently, the volume rate of removal, since V and the width of cut are also known. The product of us and volume removal rate is the power dissipated in the shear plane. We must add to this the energy dissipated in friction, uf , at the tool-chip interface. Based on observations such as those given in Table 8.1, we may estimate this quantity, noting that as the rake angle increases, the percentage of the friction energy to total energy increases. A conservative estimate is 50%.

8.137 It can be shown that the angle ψ between the shear plane and the direction of maximum grain elongation (see Fig. 8.4a) is given by the expression γ , ψ = 0.5 cot−1 2 where γ is the shear strain, as given by Eq. (8.3). Assume that you are given a piece 8.138 A lathe is set up to machine a taper on a bar of the chip obtained from orthogonal cutting of stock 120 mm in diameter; the taper is 1 mm an annealed metal. The rake angle and cutting per 10 mm. A cut is made with an initial depth speed are also given, but you have not seen the of cut of 4 mm at a feed rate of 0.250 mm/rev setup on which the chip was produced. Outline and at a spindle speed of 150 rpm. Calculate the procedure that you would follow to estimate the average metal removal rate. the power required in producing this chip. Assume that you have access to a fully equipped For an initial depth of cut of 4 mm and a taper laboratory and a technical library. of 1 mm/10 mm, there will be a 40 mm length which is tapered. If the depth of cut were a conRemembering that we only have a piece of the stant at 4 mm, the metal removal rate would be chip and we do not know its relationship to the given by Eq. (8.38) as workpiece, the procedure will consist of the following steps: MRR = πDave df N 120 + 116 (a) Referring to Fig. 8.4a on p. 422, let the = π (4)(0.250)(150) 2 angle between the direction of maximum grain elongation (grain-flow lines) and a vertical line be denoted it as η. Since we know the rake angle, we can position the chip in its proper orientation and then write φ + γ + η = 90◦ 8.139

=

55, 600 mm3 /min

Since the bar has a taper, the average metal removal rate is one-half this value, or 27,800 mm3 /min.

Note that we can now measure the angle η, but we still have two unknowns.

Develop an expression for optimum feed rate that minimizes the cost per piece if the tool life is as described by Eq. (8.34).

(b) From the formula given in the statement of the problem, we have a direct relationship

There can be several solutions for this problem, depending on the type of the machine tool. For

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example, Section 8.15 considers the case where an insert is used. The insert has a number of faces that can be used before the tool is replaced. Other tools may be used only once; others (such as drills) can be reground and reused. Since inserts are used in the textbook, the following solution considers a tool that can be periodically reground. From Eq. (8.46) on p. 507 the total cost per piece can be written as Cp = Cm + Cs + Cl + Ct

Taking the derivative with respect to the constant feed (f ) and setting it equal to zero gives: dCp df

=

0

1 πLD (Lm + Bm ) 2 = − V f πLDdV 6 +3Ψ f2 C7

Solving for f then gives

Note that Cl and Cs will not be dependent on the feed rate. However, in turning, the machining cost can be obtained by combining Eqs. (8.47) and (8.51) to obtain

f=

C 7 (Lm + Bm ) 3dV 7 Ψ

1/4

8.140 Assuming that the coefficient of friction is 0.25, calculate the maximum depth of cut for turning a hard aluminum alloy on a 20-hp lathe (with a mechanical efficiency of 80%) at a width of cut of 0.25 in., rake angle of 0◦ , and a cutting speed of 300 ft/min. What is your estimate of the material’s shear strength? The number of parts per tool grind is given as The maximum allowable cutting force that will C7 C 7 V −7 d−1 f −4 1 T = = Np = 6 3 stall the lathe is given as: Tm πLD/f V πLDdV f Cm

= Tm (Lm + Bm ) πLD (Lm + Bm ) = fV πLD 1 = (Lm + Bm ) V f

so that the tooling cost, Eq. (8.49), is Ct =

equivalent to

1 [Tc (Lm + Bm ) + Tg (Lg + Bg ) + Dc ] Np

where Lg and Bg are the labor and overhead rate associated with the tool grinding operation, respectively. We can define a function Ψ as:

P = (0.8)(20 hp) = 528, 000 ft-lb/min Solving for Fc , Fc =

or Fc = 1760 lb. From Eq. (8.11), Fc =

Ψ = [Tc (Lm + Bm ) + Tg (Lg + Bg ) + Dc ] which is a function of labor, overhead, and tool replacement costs, and is independent of feed. Therefore, the tooling cost is: 1 πLDdV 6 Ct = Ψ= Ψf 3 Np C7 The total cost per piece can be expressed as a function of feed, f : Cp

528, 000 ft-lb/min 528, 000 ft-lb/min = V 300 ft/min

= Cm + Cs + Cl + Ct + Cl + Cs 1 πLD (Lm + Bm ) = V f πLDdV 6 + Ψf 3 C7

or to =

wto τ cos(β − α) sin φ cos(φ + β − α)

Fc sin φ cos(φ + β − α) wτ cos(β − α)

It is known that α = 0◦ and w = 0.25 in. From Eq. (8.12), β = tan−1 µ = tan−1 0.25 = 14.0◦ Using Eq. (8.20), the shear angle, φ, is found as φ = 45◦ +

14◦ α β − = 45◦ + 0◦ − = 38◦ 2 2 2

The strength of an aluminum alloy varies widely, as can be seen from Table 3.7 on p. 116. 111

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Lets use Y = 300 MPa = 43.5 ksi as typical 8.142 A 3-in-diameter gray cast-iron cylindrical part for a very hard aluminum alloy, thus the shear is to be turned on a lathe at 500 rpm. The strength is τ = Y /2 = 21.7 ksi. Hence the maxdepth of cut is 0.25 in. and a feed is 0.02 in./rev. imum depth of cut is What should be the minimum horsepower of the lathe? Fc sin φ cos(φ + β − α) to = wτ cos(β − α) The metal removal rate is given as (1760) sin 31◦ cos(31◦ + 14◦ − 0◦ ) = MRR = πDave df N (0.25)(21, 700) cos(14◦ − 0◦ ) = π(3.875)(0.25)(0.02)(600) = 0.121 in. = 36.5 in3 /min The maximum depth of cut is just under 1 in. 8

8.141 Assume that, using a carbide cutting tool, you measure the temperature in a cutting operation at a speed of 250 ft/min and feed of 0.0025 in./rev as 1200◦ F. What would be the approximate temperature if the cutting speed is increased by 50%? What should the speed be to lower the maximum temperature to 800◦ F? From Eq. (8.30) we know that

The energy requirement for cast irons is, at most, 2.0 hp.min/in3 (see Table 8.3). Therefore, the horsepower needed in the lathe motor, corrected for 80% efficiency, is 3

P =

2.0 hp-min/in = 0.05 hp 36.5 in3 /min

This is a small number and suitable for a fractional-power lathe.

T ∝ V af b

8.143 (a) A 6-in.-diameter aluminum bar with a length of 12 in. is to have its diameter reduced T = kV f to 5 in. by turning. Estimate the machining where k is a constant. From Section 8.2.6, for time if an uncoated carbide tool is used. (b) a carbide tool, a = 0.2 and b = 0.125. For What is the time for a TiN-coated tool? the first problem, where the cutting speed is increased by 50%, we can write (a) From Table 8.9 on p. 472, the range of parameters for machining aluminum with un1 T1 kV1a f1b 1 kV1a f1b coated carbide tools is estimated as: = = = = T2 1.5a 1.50.2 kV2a f2b k(2V1 )a f1b d = 0.01 − 0.35 in. or T1 = 0.92. Therefore, the temperature inor

a b

T2

crease is 15% over the first case. Note that this equation is problematic if either of the temperatures T1 or T2 is zero or negative; therefore, an absolute temperature scale is required. The problem states that T1 = 1200◦ F, thus, on an absolute scale, T1 = 1660 R, and therefore, T2 = 1908 R, or T2 = 1448◦ F. For the second problem, where T2 = 800◦ F=1260 R, the temperature ratio is TT21 = 1.317. Therefore a V1 = 1.317 V2 or V1 = (1.317)1/a = 1.3175 = 3.97 V2 So that the speed has to be 250/3.97 = 63 ft/min.

f = 0.003 − 0.025 in. V = 650 − 2000 ft/min. This table gives a wide range of recommendations and states that coated and ceramic tools are on the high end of the recommended values. There is some variability in the actual speeds that can be selected by the student for analysis; the following solution will use these values for the uncoated carbide. It is not advisable to produce this part in a single machining operation, since the depth of cut would exceed the recommendations given in Table 8.9. Also, as described in Section 8.9, usually one or more roughing cuts are followed by a finishing cut to meet surface finish and dimensional tolerance requirements. Since the total

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depth of cut is to be 0.5 in., it would be appropriate to perform two equal roughing cuts, each with d = 0.24 in., and a finishing cut at d = 0.02 in. For the roughing cuts, the maximum allowable feed and speed can be used, so that f = 0.025 in./rev and V = 2000 ft/min. For the finishing cuts, the feed is determined by surface finish requirements, but is assigned the minimum value of 0.003 in./rev; the speed is similarly set at a value of V = 1000 ft/min. The average diameter for the first roughing cut is 5.76 in., and 5.28 in. for the second cut. The rotational speeds for first and second roughing and finishing cuts are (from V = πDave N ) 110 rpm, 120 rpm, and 60 rpm, respectively. The total machining time is thus t

Eq. (8.38) as: MRR

Therefore, the power required is: P = u(MRR) = (0.275)(11.94) or P = 3.28 hp. Similarly, for the second roughing cut, d = 0.24 in, f = 0.025 in./rev, N = 120 rpm, and Davg = 5.28 in. Therefore, MRR=11.94 in3 /min and P = 3.28 hp. For the finishing cut, d = 0.01 in., f = 0.02 in/rev, N = 60 rpm and Davg = 5.01 in. Therefore, MRR=0.19 in3 /min and P = 0.052 hp. 8.145 Using trigonometric relationships, derive an expression for the ratio of shear energy to frictional energy in orthogonal cutting, in terms of angles α, β, and φ only.

X l 12 in. = = fN (0.025 in./rev)(110 rpm) 12 in. + (0.025 in./rev)(120 rpm) 12 in. + (0.02 in./rev)(60 rpm) = 18.36 min

We begin with the following expressions for us and uf , respectively, (see Section 8.2.5): us =

(b) For a coated tool, such as TiN, the cutting speed can be higher than the values used above. Consequently, the cutting time will be lower than that for uncoated tools. 8.144 Calculate the power required for the cases given in Problem 8.143. Note that Problem 8.143 was an open-ended problem, and thus the specific feeds, speeds, and depths of cut depend on the number and characteristics of the roughing and finishing cuts selected. This answer will be based the solution to Problem 8.143. For aluminum, Table 8.3 gives a specific energy of between 0.15 and 0.4 hp-min/in3 , thus a mean value of u = 0.275 hp-min/in3 is chosen. Consider the first roughing cut, where d = 0.24 in, f = 0.025 in., N = 110 rpm, and Davg is given as Davg =

= πDavg df N = π(5.76)(0.24)(0.025)(110) = 11.94 in3 /min

6 in. + 5.52 in. = 5.76 in. 2

Therefore, the metal removal rate is given by

Fs Vs wto V

and uf =

F Vc wto V

Thus, their ratio becomes us Fs Vs = uf F Vc The terms involved above can be defined as F = R sin β and from Fig. 8.11, Fs = R cos(φ + β − α) However, this expression can be simplified further by noting in the table for Problem 8.107 that the magnitudes of φ and α are close to each other. This expression can thus be approximated as Fs = R cos β Also, V cos α cos(φ − α) V sin α Vc = cos(φ − α) Combining these expressions and simplifying, we obtain us = cot β cot α uf Vs =

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8.146 For a turning operation using a ceramic cutting tool, if the cutting speed is increased by 50%, by what factor must the feed rate be modified to obtain a constant tool life? Let n = 0.5 and y = 0.6.

The velocity of the drill into the workpiece is v = f N = (0.010 in./rev)(700 rpm) = 7 in./min. Since the hole is to be tapped to a depth of 1 in., it should be drilled deeper than this distance. Note from Section 8.9.4 that the point angle for steels ranges from 118◦ to 135◦ , so that (using 118◦ to get a larger number and conservative answer) the drill actually has to penetrate at least a distance of

Equation (8.33) will be used for this problem. Since the tool life is constant, we can write the following: −x/n −y/n f1 1/n V1

C 1/n d1

=

−x/n −y/n f2 1/n V2

C 1/n d2

l

Note that the depth of cut is constant, hence d1 = d2 , and also it is given that V2 = 1.5V1 . Substituting the known values into this equation yields: −0.6/0.5

V1−2 f1

−2

= (1.5V1 )

or 2

1.5 = so that

f1 f2

−0.6/0.5

−1.2

or the feed has to be reduced by about 50%. 8.147 Using Eq. (8.35), select an appropriate feed for R = 1 mm and a desired roughness of 1 µm. How would you adjust this feed to allow for nose wear of the tool during extended cuts? Explain your reasoning.

1+

In order to ensure that the tap doesn’t strike the bottom of the hole, let’s specify that the drill should penetrate 1.25 in., which is the nearest 1/4 in. over the minimum depth of the hole. Therefore, the time required for this drilling operation is 1.25 in./(7 in./min) = 0.18 min = 11 s.

f2

1/1.2 f1 = 1.52 = 1.96 f2

d sin(90◦ − 118◦ /2) 2 0.5 in. = 1+ (sin 31◦ ) 2 = 1.13 in. =

8.149 Assume that in the face-milling operation shown in Fig. 8.54, the workpiece dimensions are 5 in. by 10 in. The cutter is 6 in. in diameter, has 8 teeth, and rotates at 300 rpm. The depth of cut is 0.125 in. and the feed is 0.005 in./tooth. Assume that the specific energy required for this material is 2 hp-min/in3 and that only 75% of the cutter diameter is engaged during cutting. Calculate (a) the power required and (b) the material removal rate.

If Ra = 1 µm, and R = 1 mm, then

From the information given, the material removal rate is

f 2 = (1 µm)(8)(1 mm) = 8 × 10−9 m2

MRR Therefore, f = 0.089 mm/rev If nose wear occurs, the radius will increase. The feed will similarly have to increase, per the equation above.

=

(0.005 in./tooth)(8 teeth/rev) ×(300 rev/min)(0.125 in.) ×(0.75)(6 in.)

or MRR = 6.75 in3 /min. Since the specific energy of material removal is given as 2 hpmin/in3 ,

Power = (6.75)(2) = 13.5 hp 8.148 In a drilling operation, a 0.5-in. drill bit is being used in a low-carbon steel workpiece. The 8.150 Calculate the ranges of typical machining times for face milling a 10-in.-long, 2-in.-wide cutter hole is a blind hole which will then be tapped and at a depth of cut of 0.1 in. for the following to a depth of 1 in. The drilling operation takes workpiece materials: (a) low-carbon steel, (b) place with a feed of 0.010 in./rev and a spindle titanium alloys, (c) aluminum alloys, and (d) speed of 700 rpm. Estimate the time required to drill the hole prior to tapping. thermoplastics. 114

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The cutting time, t, in face milling is by Eq. (8.44) as l + lc t= v We know that l = 10 in., hence, as calculated in Example 24.1 (and proven in Problem 24.36), lc is obtained as p √ lc = Dd = (2 in.)(0.1 in.) = 0.45 in. The remaining main variable is the feed, a range of which can be seen in Table 8.12 for the materials listed in the problem. For example, with low-carbon steel, the feed per tooth is 0.0030.015 in/tooth. The cutting time, as obtained for 10 teeth in the cutter. is given below:

Material Low-carbon steel Titanium alloys Aluminum alloys Thermoplastics

Maximum time (s) 348 348 348 348

The optimum cutting speed is given by Eq. (8.57) as: n

Vo =

C (Lm + Bm ) n 1 Ψn n −1

where Ψ=

1 [Tc (Lm + Bm ) + Di ] + Ti (Lm + Bm ) m

Note that for a ceramic tool, n is estimated from Table 8.4 as 0.50. For Lm = $19.00, Bm = $15.00, m = 4, Di = $25.00, Tc = 5 min, and Ti = 1 min, 1 5 (19 + 15) + 25 + 1(19 + 15) Ψ= 4 60 or Ψ = 40.95. Therefore, the optimum cutting speed is

Minimum time (s) 70 70 58 58

n

Vo

=

C (Lm + Bm ) n 1 Ψn n −1

0.5

=

(100) (19 + 15) 0.5 1 7.5250.5 0.5 − 1 91 m/min.

8.151 A machining-center spindle and tool extend 12 = in. from its machine-tool frame. What temperature change can be tolerated to maintain a tol- 8.153 Estimate the optimum cutting speed in Proberance of 0.0001 in. in machining? A tolerance lem 8.152 for maximum production. of 0.001 in.? Assume that the spindle is made Using the same values as in Problem 8.152, the of steel. optimum cutting speed for maximum producThe extension due to a change in temperature tion is determined from Eq. (8.60) as: is given by C ∆L = α∆T L Vo = 1 Tc n − 1 + Ti n m where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion, which, for carbon steels, is α = 6.5 × 10−6 /◦ F. Substituting appropriate values, this gives a If ∆L = 0.0001 in. and L = 12 in., then ∆T cutting speed of 66.67 m/min for the ceramic can easily be calculated to be 1.28◦ F. Also, for inserts. ∆L = 0.001 in., we have ∆T = 12.8◦ F. Noting that the temperatures involved are quite small, 8.154 Develop an equation for optimum cutting speed in a face milling operation using a milling cutter this example clearly illustrates the importance with inserts. of environmental control in precision manufacturing operations, where dimensional tolerances The analysis is similar to that for a turning opare extremely small. eration presented in Section 8.15. Note that 8.152 In the production of a machined valve, the labor rate is $19.00 per hour and the general overhead rate is $15.00 per hour. The tool is a square ceramic insert and costs $25.00; it takes five minutes to change and one minute to index. Estimate the optimum cutting speed from a cost perspective. Let C = 100 for Vo in m/min.

some minor deviations from this analysis should be acceptable, depending on the specific assumptions made. The general approach should, however, be consistent with the following solution. The main differences between this problem and that in Section 8.15 are

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(a) The tool cost is given by: Ct

=

Solving for V ,

1 [Tc (Lm + Bm ) Np +Dc + Ti (Lm + Bm )]

V −2 V 1/(n−1)

=

n lD n−1 C 1/n f m Ψ lD(Lm +Bm ) fm

where Np = number of parts produced per simplifying, tool change, Ti =time required to change ! n−1 inserts, Dc is the cost of the inserts, and n C −1/n Ψ 2n−3 n−1 remaining terminology is consistent with V = Lm + Bm that in the textbook. (b) If the approach distance, lc , can be ignored, the machining time is obtained 8.155 Develop an equation for optimum cutting speed from Eqs. (8.43) and (8.44) as in turning where the tool is a high speed steel tool that can be reground periodically. lD Tm = fV m Compared to Section 8.15, the main difference is in the equation for Ct . Thus, Eq. (8.49) bewhere l is the cutting length, D is the cutcomes ter diameter, f is the feed per tooth, m is the number of teeth on the cutter pe1 riphery and C is the cutting speed. Note Ct = [Tc (Lm + Bm ) + Tg (Lg + Bg ) + Dc ] N p that m is the variable used to represent the number of inserts, whereas n is used in or, in order to simplify, Eq. (8.43). This substitution of variables has been made to avoid confusion with the Ψ Ct = exponent in the Taylor tool life equation. Np Note that this equation for cutting time is only slightly different than Eq. (8.51). Note that Ψ is independent of cutting and thus can be assumed to be constant in this derivation. Just as done in Section 8.15, these relations are substituted into the cost per piece given by Eq. (8.46), the derivative with respect to V is taken and set equal to zero. The result is C(Lm + Bm )n n Vo = 1 n −1 Ψ

Also note that the Taylor tool life equation results in: 1/n C T = V so that the number of parts per tool change is: Np =

T C 1/n f V (n−1)/n m = Tm lD

Substituting into Eq. (8.46), Cp

lD (Lm + Bm ) + Cs + Cl fm lD + 1/n V n/(n−1) Ψ C fm

If we substitute for Ψ, this is an expression very similar to Eq. (8.57).

= V −1

where Ψ = Tc (Lm + Bm ) + Dc + Ti (Lm + Bm )

8.156 Assume that you are an instructor covering the topics in this chapter, and you are giving a quiz on the quantitative aspects to test the understanding of the students. Prepare several numerical problems, and supply the answers to them.

Taking the derivative with respect to V : dCp dV

=

0 = −V +

By the student. This is a challenging, openended question that requires considerable focus and understanding on the part of the students, and has been found to be a very valuable homework problem.

−2 lD(Lm

+ Bm ) fm

n lD ΨV n/(n−1)−1 n − 1 C 1/n f m 116

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.

Design 8.157 Tool life could be greatly increased if an effective means of cooling and lubrication were developed. Design methods of delivering a cutting fluid to the cutting zone and discuss the advantages and shortcomings of your design.

By the student. The principal reason is that by reducing the tool-chip contact, the friction force, F , is reduced, thus friction and cutting forces are reduced. Chip morphology may also change. The student is encouraged to search the technical literature regarding this topic.

By the student. This is an open-ended problem and students are encouraged to pursue creative 8.160 The accompanying illustration shows drawings for a cast-steel valve body before (left) and afsolutions. Methods of delivering fluid to the ter (right) machining. Identify the surfaces that cutting zone include (see also Section 8.7.1): are to be machined (noting that not all sur(a) Flooding or mist cooling of the cutting faces are to be machined). . What type of zone, which has been the traditional apmachine tool would be suitable to machine this proach. part? What type of machining operations are involved, and what should be the sequence of (b) High-pressure coolant application. these operations? (c) Using a tool with a central hole or other passageway to allow for the fluid to be pumped into the cutting zone; an exam100 mm ple is the end mill shown below.

100 mm Casting

After machining

8.158 Devise an experimental setup whereby you can By the student. Note that the dimensions of the perform an orthogonal cutting operation on a part suggest that most of these surfaces are produced lathe using a short round tubular workpiece. in a drill press, although a milling machine could also be used. However, the sharp radius in the enlarged By the student. This can be done simply by hole on the right side cannot be produced with a drill; placing a thin-walled tube in the headstock of this hole was bored on a lathe. a lathe (see Fig. 8.19, where the solid bar is now replaced with a tube) and machining the end of 8.161 Make a comprehensive table of the process capabilities of the machining operations described the tube with a simple, straight tool (as if to in this chapter. Use several columns describe shorten the length of the tube). Note that the the (a) machines involved, (b) type of tools feed on the lathe will become the depth of cut, and tool materials used, (c) shapes of blanks to , in orthogonal cutting, and the chip width and parts produced, (d) typical maximum and will be the same as the wall thickness of the minimum sizes produced, (e) surface finish protube. duced, (f) dimensional tolerances produced, 8.159 Cutting tools are sometimes designed so that and (g) production rates achieved. the chip-tool contact length is controlled by recessing the rake face some distance away By the student. This is a challenging and comfrom the tool tip (see the leftmost design in prehensive problem with many possible soluFig. 8.7c). Explain the possible advantages of tions. Some examples of acceptable answers such a tool. would be: 117

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Rough surfaces on axisymmetric parts

Circular holes

8.164 In Figs. 8.16 and 8.17b, we note that the maximum temperature is about halfway up the face of the tool. We have also described the adverse effects of temperature on various tool materials. Considering the mechanics of cutting operations, describe your thoughts on the technical and economic merits of embedding a small insert, made of materials such as ceramic or carbide, halfway up the rake face of a tool made of a material with lower resistance to temperature than ceramic or carbide. By the student. This is an interesting problem that has served well as a topic of classroom discussion. The merits of this suggestion include:

Knurling

Assorted, usually HSS Assorted, usually HSS Drilling

Lathe, mill drill press Lathe, mill

Axisymmetric Turning

Cutting-tool materials Assorted; see Table 23.4 Process

Machine tools Lathe

Shapes

Typical sizes 1-12 in. diameter, 4-48 in. length 1-100 mm (50 µm possible) Same as in turning

turned on a lathe to establish the exterior surface and the grooves for the piston rings, and can be fixtured on an internal surface for these operations. The seat for the main piston bearing requires end milling and boring, and can be fixtured on its external surface. The face of the piston needs contour milling because of the close tolerances with the cylinder head.

8.162 A large bolt is to be produced from hexagonal bar stock by placing the hex stock into a chuck and machining the cylindrical shank of the bolt by turning on a lathe. List and explain the difficulties that may be involved in this operation.

(a) If performed properly, the tool life could be greatly improved, and thus the economics of the cutting operation could be greatly affected in a favorable way. (b) Brazing or welding an insert is probably easier than applying a coating at an appropriate location.

By the student. There could several diffiThe drawbacks of this approach include: culties with this operation. Obviously the (a) The strength of the joint between insert process involves interrupted cutting, with reand tool material must be high in order to peated impact between the cutting-tool and withstand machining operation. the workpiece surface, and the associated dynamic stresses which, in turn, could lead to tool (b) It is likely that the tool will wear beyond chipping and breakage. Even if the tool surwhere the insert is placed. vives, chatter may be unavoidable in the early (c) Thermal stresses can develop, especially at stages (depending on the characteristics of the the interface where coefficients of thermal machine-tool and of the fixtures used) when the expansion may be significantly different. depth of cut variations are at their maximum. Note that the ratio of length-to-cross-sectional 8.165 Describe your thought on whether chips proarea of the bolt also will have an influence on duced during machining can be used to make possible vibration and chatter. useful products. Give some examples of possible products and comment on their character8.163 Design appropriate fixtures and describe the istics and differences as compared to the same machining operations required to produce the products made by other manufacturing propiston shown in Fig. 12.62. cesses. Which types of chips would be desirable By the student. Note that the piston has to be for this purpose? Explain. 118

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By the student. This is an interesting design 8.167 One of the principal concerns with coolants is project and represents an example of cradle-todegradation due to biological attack by bactecradle life-cycle design (see Section 1.4). Some ria. To prolong their life, chemical biocides are examples of possible applications include: often added, but these biocides greatly complicate the disposal of coolants. Conduct a liter(a) If the chips are discontinuous, they can ature search regarding the latest developments have a high aspect ratio transverse to the in the use of environmentally-benign biocides in cutting direction; these chips can then cutting fluids. serve as metal reinforcement in composite By the student. This is an interesting topic for materials. a research paper. New and environmentally be(b) Filters can be made by compacting metal nign biocides are continuously being developed, chips into suitable shapes, such as cylinwith some surprising requirements. For examdrical or tubular. ple, the economic and safety and ecological concerns are straightforward. However, there is (c) The chips can be used as a vibrationalso the need to consider factors such as the isolating elastic support. taste of the biocide. That is, if a food container (d) The chips can be further conditioned (such is produced, trace amounts of lubricant and bioas in a ball mill) to produce different forms cide will remain on the surface and can influence or powders. the taste of the contents. Note that these traces are not considered hazardous. Also, the re(e) The chips can be used as a precursor in peatability of the biocide is an issue; it must be chemical vapor deposition. controllable to fulfill TQM considerations (see (f) Numerous artwork can be developed for Section 4.9). unique chips. 8.168 If expanded honeycomb panels (see Section 8.166 Experiments have shown that it is possible to 7.5.5) were to be machined in a form milling opproduce thin, wide chips, such as 0.08 mm eration (see Fig.8.58b), what precautions would (0.003 in.) thick and 10 mm (4 in.) wide, which you take to keep the sheet metal from buckling would be similar to rolled sheet. Materials used due to cutting forces? Think of as many soluhave been aluminum, magnesium, and stainless tions as you can. steel. A typical setup would be similar to orBy the student. This is an open-ended problem thogonal cutting, by machining the periphery of can be interpreted in two ways: That the hona solid round bar with a straight tool moving raeycomb itself is being pocket machined, or that dially inward (plunge). Describe your thoughts a fabricated honeycomb is being contoured. Eion producing thin metal sheet by this method, ther problem is a good opportunity to challenge its surface characteristics, and its properties. students to develop creative solutions. AcceptBy the student. This is an interesting problem able approaches include: that has served well as a topic of classroom con(a) high-speed machining, with properly choversation. This process does not appear to be in sen processing variables, any way advantageous to metal rolling. However, many aerospace alloys are too brittle or (b) using alternative processes, such as chemhard to be rolled economically, and this method ical machining, offers a possible manufacturing approach. This (c) filling the cavities of the honeycomb structechnique has also been used to develop materiture with a low-melting-point metal (to als that are highly oriented, which, for example, provide strength to the thin layers of matecan, for example, positively influence magnetic. rial being machined) which is then melted Note from Figs. 8.2 and 8.5 that the sheet would away after the machining operation has have a smooth surface on one side (where it has been completed, and rubbed against the tool face) and a rough surface on the opposite side. (d) filling the cavities with wax, or with water 119

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(which is then frozen), and melted after the machining operation is completed. 8.169 The part shown in the accompanying figure is a

power-transmitting shaft; it is to be produced on a lathe. List the operations that are appropriate to make this part and estimate the machining time.

Dimensions in inches 4.625 4.093

1.741 1.156 0.125 0.062 R

7.282 1.207 0.813

0.439

0.75

0.500 130 30

0.625

0.38-24 UNF

0.500 0.460

0.591

0.591

0.500

0.375 Key seat width 0.096 x depth 0.151

90 30

60 30

By the student. Note that the operations should be designed to incorporate, as appropriate, roughing and finishing cuts and should minimize the need for tool changes or refixturing.

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Chapter 9

Material-Removal Processes: Abrasive, Chemical, Electrical, and High-Energy Beams Questions 9.1 Why are grinding operations necessary for parts that have been machined by other processes? The grinding operations are necessary for several reasons, as stated in Section 9.1. For example, the hardness and strength of the workpiece may be too high to be machined to final dimensions economically; a better surface finish and dimensional tolerance is needed; or the workpiece is too slender to support machining forces. Students are encouraged to expand on these statements, giving specific examples based on the contents of Chapters 8 and 9. 9.2 Explain why there are so many different types and sizes of grinding wheels.

and in machining (Table 8.3)? Explain. Specific energies in grinding, as compared to machining, are much higher (see Table 9.3 on p. 534) due to: (a) The presence of wear flats, causing high friction. (b) The large negative rake angles of the abrasive grains, whereby the chips formed during grinding undergo higher deformation, and thus require more energy. (c) Size effect, due to very small chips produced (see Example 9.1 on p. 532), has also been discussed as a contributing factor.

There numerous types and sizes of grinding wheels because of the different types of operations performed on a variety of materials. The geometry of a grinding wheel and the material and structural considerations for a grinding wheel depend upon the workpiece shape and characteristics, surface finish desired, production rate, heat generation during the process, economics of wheel wear, and type of grinding fluids used.

9.4 Describe the advantages of superabrasives over conventional abrasives.

9.3 Why are there large differences between the specific energies involved in grinding (Table 9.3)

9.5 Give examples of applications for the grinding wheels shown in Fig. 9.2.

By the student. See also Sections 8.6.7 and 8.6.9. Superabrasives are extremely hard (diamond and cubic boron nitride are the two hardest materials known), thus they are able to remove material even from the hardest workpiece. Their higher costs are an important economic consideration.

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By the student; see also the Bibliography at the end of the chapter. As an example, the flaring cup wheel shown in Fig. 9.2d is commonly used for surface grinding with hand-held grinders, and the mounted wheel shown in Fig 9.2g is a common wheel for manual rework of dies.

the cutting zone, either through the chips generated or the use of grinding fluids. 9.9 What are the effects of wear flat on the grinding operation? Are there similarities with the effects of flank wear in metal cutting? Explain. A wear flat causes dissipation of energy and increases the temperature of the operation through friction. Wear flats are undesirable because they provide no useful work (they play no obvious role in producing the chip) but they significantly increase the frictional forces and can cause severe temperature rise of the workpiece. Recall that in orthogonal cutting, flank wear is equivalent to wear flats in grinding (see, for example, Fig. 8.20a on p. 440).

9.6 Explain why the same grinding wheel may act soft or hard. An individual grinding wheel can act soft or hard depending on the particular grinding conditions. The greater the force on the grinding wheel grains, the softer the wheel acts; thus, a grinding wheel will act softer as the workpiece material strength, work speed, and depth of cut increase. It will act harder as the wheel speed and wheel diameter increase. Equation (9.6) gives the relationship between grain force and the process parameters. See also Section 9.5.2. 9.7 Describe your understanding of the role of friability of abrasive grains on the performance of grinding wheels.

9.10 It was stated that the grinding ratio, G, depends on the following factors: (1) type of grinding wheel, (2) workpiece hardness, (3) wheel depth of cut, (4) wheel and workpiece speeds, and (5) type of grinding fluid. Explain why. The grinding ratio, G, decreases as the grain force increases and is associated with high attritious wear of the wheel. Consider also:

By the student. High friability means that the grains will fracture with relative ease during grinding. In effect, this allows for sharp cutting points to be developed, leading to more effective grinding. If, on the other hand, the grains do not fracture easily, the cutting points will become dull and grinding will become inefficient; this situation will then lead to unacceptable temperature rise and adversely affecting surface integrity.

(a) The type of wheel will have an effect on wheel wear; vitrified wheels generally wear slower than resinoid bonded. (b) Depth of cut has a similar effect. (c) Workpiece hardness will lower G because of increased wear, if all other process parameters are kept constant. (d) Wheel and workpiece speed affect wear in opposite ways; higher wheel speed reduces the force on the grains, which reduces wheel wear. (e) Type of grinding fluid, as it reduces wear and thus improves the efficiency of grinding.

9.8 Explain the factors involved in selecting the appropriate type of abrasive for a particular grinding operation. By the student. Consider, for example, the following: Abrasives should be inert to the workpiece material so that the material does not bond to the abrasive grain during the grinding operation, as this will reduce the effectiveness of the abrasive. The abrasives should be of appropriate size for the particular application. Applications that require better surface finish require smaller grains, while those where surface finish is a secondary consideration to removal rate should use larger grains. The grinding wheel should provide for heat removal from

9.11 List and explain the precautions you would take when grinding with high precision. Comment on the role of the machine, process parameters, the grinding wheel, and grinding fluids. By the student. When grinding for high precision (see also p. 477), it is essential that the forces involved remain low so that workpiece and machine deflections are minimal. As can

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be seen from Eq. (9.6) on p. 532, to minimize grinding forces, hence minimize deflections, the wheel speed should preferably be high, the workpiece speed should be low, and the depth of cut should be small. The machine used should have high stiffness with good bearings. The temperature rise, as given by Eq. (9.9) on p. 535, should be minimized.

(b) The low elastic modulus of thermoplastics can make it difficult to hold dimensional tolerances during grinding. (c) Thermosets are harder and do not soften with temperature (although they decompose and crumble at high temperatures). Consequently, grinding by using appropriate wheels and processing parameters is relatively easy.

The grinding wheel should have fine grains and the abrasive should be inert to the workpiece material to avoid any adverse reactions. A grinding fluid should be selected to provide low wheel loading and wear, and also to provide for effective cooling. Automatic dressing capabilities should be included and the wheel should be dressed often. 9.12 Describe the methods you would use to determine the number of active cutting points per unit surface area on the periphery of a straight (Type 1; see Fig. 9.2a) grinding wheel. What is the significance of this number? By the student. One method is to examine the wheel periphery under a microscope, and count the points that are in sharp focus. Another method is to measure the chip thickness and other variables in a known grinding operation and use Eq. (9.5) on p. 532 to determine C. Another method involves rolling the grinding wheel over a flat glass coated with soot; each point on the periphery of the wheel contacting the soot removes a small amount of soot. The glass is then placed under a microscope and with back lighting, the points are counted and expressed as a number per unit area. Note, however, soot thickness will affect the results.

(d) Grinding of ceramics is relatively easy by using diamond wheels, appropriate processing parameters, and implementing ductile-regime grinding. Note also the availability of machinable ceramics (see p. 702). 9.14 Explain why ultrasonic machining is not suitable for soft and ductile metals. In ultrasonic machining, the stresses developed from particle impact should be sufficiently high to cause spalling of the workpiece. This involves surface fracture on a very small scale. If the workpiece is soft and ductile, the impact force will simply deform the workpiece locally (as does the indenter in a hardness test), instead of causing fracture. 9.15 It is generally recommended that a soft-grade wheel be used for grinding hardened steels. Explain why. Note that grinding hardened steels involves higher forces and the use of hard-grade wheels (meaning higher bond strength; see Section 9.3.2) will tend to cause wear and dulling of the abrasive grains. As a result, temperature will increase, possibly causing surface damage and loss of dimensional accuracy. The use of a soft-grade wheel (see Figs. 9.4 and 9.5) means that under the high grinding forces present, dull grains will be dislodged more easily, exposing sharp new cutting edges and thus leading to more efficient grinding.

9.13 Describe and explain the difficulties involved in grinding parts made of (a) thermoplastics, (b) thermosets, and (c) ceramics. By the student. Some of the difficulties encountered would be: (a) Thermoplastics have a low melting point and have a tendency to soften and become gummy; thus, they tend to bond to grinding wheels by mechanical locking. An effective coolant, including cool air jet, can be used to keep temperatures low.

9.16 Explain the reasons that the processes described in this chapter may adversely affect the fatigue strength of materials. Fatigue (see Section 2.7) is a complex phenomenon which accounts for a vast majority of component failures. It is known that cracks

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generally start at or just below the workpiece surface, and grow with repeated cyclic loadings. Since different material-removal processes result in different surface finishes (see, for example, Fig. 8.26 on p. 448), the size and shape of cracks, and also similar stress raisers, vary with the particular process employed. This is the basic reason why smooth polished surfaces are best suited for fatigue applications. Recall also the role of residual stresses, particularly the beneficial effects of compressive surface residual stresses, in improving the fatigue strength of materials.

and chemical properties of the workpiece material. Thus, for example, hardness, which is an important factor in conventional machining processes, is not significant in chemical machining because it does not adversely affect the ability of the chemical to react with the workpiece. The student should elaborate further based on the contents of this chapter. 9.20 Give all possible technical and economic reasons that the material removal processes described in this chapter may be preferred, or even required, over those described in Chapter 8. By the student. Note that the main reasons are listed in Section 9.1. Students are encouraged to give specific examples after studying each of the individual processes.

9.17 Describe the factors that may cause chatter in grinding operations and give the reasons why they cause chatter. Grinding chatter (see Section 9.6.8) is similar to chatter in machining, hence many of the factors discussed in Section 8.12 apply here as well. Basically, chatter is caused by any periodic variation in grinding forces. Factors that contribute to chatter are: stiffness of the machine and damping of vibration, irregular grinding wheels, improper dressing techniques, uneven wheel wear, high material-removal rates, eccentric support or mounting of wheels, gears and shafts, vibrations from nearby machines through foundations, and inadequate clamping of the workpiece. Sources of regenerative chatter, such as workpiece material inhomogeneity and surface irregularities (such as from a previous machining operation), also can cause chatter. 9.18 Outline the methods that are generally available for deburring manufactured parts. Discuss the advantages and limitations of each method.

9.21 What processes would you recommend for die sinking in a die block, such as that used for forging? Explain. (See also Section 6.7.) By the student. Review the die manufacturing methods described in Section 6.7, and note that the most commonly used die-sinking methods are: (a) milling, using rounded-tip end mills, followed by finishing processes, including grinding and polishing, and (b) electrical-discharge machining. 1. smaller dies may be made by processes such as electrochemical machining and hubbing. 9.22 The proper grinding surfaces for each type of wheel are shown in Fig. 9.2. Explain why grinding on other surfaces of the wheel is improper and/or unsafe.

By the student. See Section 9.8. Some examples of methods for deburring include grinding using bench or hand grinders, using wire brushes, filing, scraping, chemical machining, and tumbling in a ball mill. 9.19 In which of the processes described in this chapter are the physical properties of the workpiece material important? Explain. By the student. Recall that advances machining processes generally depend on the electrical

Because the wheels are designed to resist grinding forces, the proper grinding faces indicated in Fig. 9.2 on p. 507 should be utilized. Note, for example, that if grinding forces act normal to the plane of a thin straight wheel (Type 1), the wheel will flex and may eventually fracture. Thus, from a functional standpoint, grinding wheels are made stiffer in the directions in which they are intended to be used. There are serious safety and functional considerations involved. For example, an operator grinding on the side surface of a flared-cup wheel causes

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wear to take place. The flange thickness is then significantly reduced and the wheel may eventually fracture, exploding with violent force and potentially causing serious injury or death.

(b) The workpiece may distort due to thermal gradients. (c) With increasing temperature, the part will expand, and thus the actual depth of cut will be greater. Upon cooling, the part will contract and the dimensional tolerances may not be within the desired range.

9.23 Note that wheel (b) in Fig. 9.3 has serrations along its periphery. Explain the reason for such a design. The basic advantages of this design are the following:

9.26 Comment on any observations you have regarding the contents of Table 9.4. By the student. Students should be encouraged to make comparisons and list advantages and disadvantages of the processes listed in the table. An instructor may ask students to answer this question for a particular workpiece material, such as carbon steel, Ti-6Al-4V, or a hard ceramic, or to calculate the grinding time to produce a simple part.

(a) The stresses developed (rotational as well as thermal) along the periphery of the wheel are lower. (b) The serrations allow increased flow of grinding fluid, thus lowering temperatures and reducing wheel wear, (c) The grinding chips can be ejected easier from the grinding zone through these grooves.

9.27 Why has creep-feed grinding become an important manufacturing process? Explain.

9.24 In Fig. 9.10, it will be noted that wheel speed and grinding fluids can have a major effect on the type and magnitude of residual stresses developed in grinding. Explain the possible reasons for these phenomena. Grinding wheel speed affects temperature in the same way that cutting-tool speed affects temperature (see Section 8.2.6), but the effect is more complex and even greater in grinding since a significant portion of the energy is dissipated in plowing and sliding abrasive grains over the workpiece surface without chip generation (see Figs. 9.7 and 9.9). The three grinding fluids indicated in the figure have different effectiveness on grinding mechanics and thus in reducing the temperature, leading to lower residual stresses. This is a good topic for a student paper.

Recall that the advantages of creep-feed grinding (see Section 9.6.6) is the ability for high material-removal rates while still maintaining the advantages in high dimensional tolerance and surface finish of grinding operations, and thus significant economic advantages. Note that these advantages are most pronounced with highly-alloyed materials which are difficult to machine, and where an abrasive process is required. 9.28 There has been a trend in manufacturing industries to increase the spindle speed of grinding wheels. Explain the possible advantages and limitations of such an increase in speed. Increasing spindle speed has the benefit of increasing the material-removal rate, thus increasing productivity and reducing costs; see also high-speed machining, Section 8.8. The drawbacks could include increases in temperatures [see Eq. (9.9) on p. 535] and associated problems, and more importantly the need for more stiff machine tools and better bearings to avoid chatter. Also, grinding wheels, if improperly designed, manufactured, selected, used, or handled, can explode at high spindle speeds.

9.25 Explain the consequences of allowing the workpiece temperature to rise excessively in grinding operations. Recall the discussion of residual stresses in the answer to Question 9.24. Temperature rise can have additional major effects in grinding, including: (a) If excessive, it can cause metallurgical burn and heat checking.

9.29 Why is preshaping or premachining of parts generally desirable in the advanced machining processes described in this chapter? Explain.

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By the student. This is basically a matter of economics, since large amounts of material may first be removed by other means in less time and at lower cost. Surface finish and dimensional accuracy is not important in these preshaping operations, unless they cause serious substrate damage that cannot be removed by subsequent material removal and finishing processes.

thermosets, (5) diamond, and (6) annealed copper. Explain. By the student. It will be noted that, as described in Chapter 8, most of these materials can be machined through conventional means. Consider the following processes: (a) Ceramics: water-jet machining, abrasivejet machining, chemical machining. (b) Cast iron: chemical machining, electrochemical machining, electrochemical grinding, EDM, laser-beam and electronbeam machining, and water- and abrasivejet machining. (c) Thermoplastics: water-jet and abrasivejet machining; electrically-conducting polymers may be candidates for EDM processing. (d) Thermosets: similar consideration as for thermoplastics. (e) Diamond: None, because diamond would not be responsive to any of the methods described in this chapter. (f) Annealed copper: Chemical and electrochemical processes, EDM, and laser-beam machining.

9.30 Why are finishing operations sometimes necessary? How could they be minimized to reduce product costs? Explain, with examples. By the student. Finishing operations are necessary when the dimensional tolerances or surface finish required cannot be obtained from primary processing. For example, sand casting cannot produce a very smooth surface finish whereas grinding can. However, if the part could be roll forged instead of cast, smooth surfaces can be obtained. The trend towards nearnet-shape manufacturing (see p. 18) is driven by a desire to avoid time-consuming and costly finishing operations. 9.31 Why has the wire-EDM process become so widely used in industry, especially in tool and die manufacturing? Explain. Wire EDM has become widely accepted for several reasons (see also Section 9.13.2). The process is relatively easy to automate, and numerical control can be applied to machine tapers, inclines, or complex contours. Wire EDM is a process that can be used on any electrically conducting workpiece, regardless of its mechanical properties, so it can be preferred over processes such as band sawing where wear and dulling of the blade would otherwise be an important concern. With increasing strength and toughness and various other properties of advanced engineering materials, there was a need to develop processes that were not sensitive to these properties. As in all other processes, it has its advantages as well as limitations, regarding particularly the material-removal rate and possible surface damage, which could significantly reduce fatigue life. 9.32 Make a list of the material removal processes described in this chapter that may be suitable for the following workpiece materials: (1) ceramics, (2) cast iron, (3) thermoplastics, (4)

9.33 Explain why producing sharp corners and profiles using some of the processes described in this chapter can be difficult. By the student. Some of the processes are functionally constrained and cannot easily provide very small radii. Consider water-jet machining: the minimum radius which can be cut will depend on the ability to precisely focus the water jet. With wire EDM, the minimum radius depends on the wire diameter. Small radii are possible with small wires, but small wires have low current-carrying capacity, thus compromising the speed of the process. With laser-beam cutting, radii are adversely affected by material melting away from the cutting zone, as well as beam diameter. Similar problems exist in chemical machining as the chemical tends to remove a wider area than that required for sharp profiles. 9.34 How do you think specific energy, u, varies with respect to wheel depth of cut and hardness of the workpiece material? Explain.

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The specific energy, u, will decrease with increasing depth of cut, d, according to the size effect, discussed on p. 533. It will increase with workpiece hardness because of the higher strength and hence the more energy required. An increase in the wheel depth of cut will result in higher forces on the grains, as seen in Eq. (9.6) on p. 532. Increasing workpiece hardness also means higher forces.

By the student. This problem is a good topic for classroom discussion. Students may, for example, be asked which of the processes are affected by hardness, melting temperature, and electrical and thermal conductivity. 9.39 Which of the processes listed in Table 9.4 would not be applicable to nonmetallic materials? Explain. By the student. The following are generally not applicable to nonmetallic materials: electrochemical machining, electrochemical grinding, EDM, and wire EDM.

9.35 It is stated in Example 9.2 that the thrust force in grinding is about 30% higher than the cutting force. Why is it higher? We note in Fig. 9.7 that abrasive grains typically have very high negative rake angles. Let’s now compare the force differences in grinding with that for machining. Referring to Fig. 8.12 we note that as the rake angle decreases, the thrust force increases rapidly. Inspecting the data in Tables 8.1 and 8.2 on pp. 430-431, we note the same phenomenon, and particularly the fact that the difference between the two forces becomes smaller as the rake angle becomes negative. Based on these observations, it is to be expected that the thrust force in grinding will be higher than the cutting force. 9.36 Why should we be interested in the magnitude of the thrust force in grinding? Explain.

9.40 Why does the machining cost increase rapidly as surface finish requirements become finer? By the student. As surface finish requirements become finer, the depth of cut must be decreased, and the grit size must also be decreased. The operation must be carried out carefully using rigid machines, proper control of processing variables, and effective metalworking fluids. These generally lead to longer machining times and thus higher costs. 9.41 Which of the processes described in this chapter are particularly suitable for workpieces made of (a) ceramics, (b) thermoplastics, and (c) thermosets? Explain.

By the student. Major considerations include the fact that the thrust force determines the strength required in supporting the grinding wheel on the machine. Note also the load that is exerted onto the workpiece, which influences the elastic recovery in the workpiece and thus affect the dimensional accuracy.

By the student. Note that many processes have limited suitability for difficult-to-process workpieces. However, an example of an acceptable answer is: (a) Ceramics: grinding, ultrasonic machining, chemical machining;

9.37 Why is the material removal rate in electricaldischarge machining a function of the melting point of the workpiece material? Explain. By the student. As described in Section 9.13, material removal in EDM is accomplished by melting small amounts of material through sparks supplied by electrical energy. Consequently, the higher the melting point, the higher the energy required.

(b) thermoplastics: chemical machining, highenergy-beam machining, water-jet and abrasive-jet machining; (c) thermosets: grinding, ultrasonic machining, chemical machining, and water-jet and abrasive-jet machining. 9.42 Other than cost, is there a reason that a grinding wheel intended for a hard workpiece cannot be used for a softer workpiece? Explain.

9.38 Inspect Table 9.4 and, for each process, list and describe the role of various mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of the workpiece material on performance.

By the student. Recall that a soft workpiece may load a grinding wheel unless it is specifically intended for use on that material. This

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would mean that the grinding wheel would need to be dressed and trued more often for efficient grinding. 9.43 How would you grind the facets on a diamond, such as for a ring, since diamond is the hardest material known? Diamond grinding is typically done using fine diamond powder. It should be realized that just because diamond is the hardest material known does not mean that it does not wear. Hardness not only arises from material properties but also local geometry (see Section 2.6), so at the asperity scale it is possible for abrasion to occur on diamond. 9.44 Define dressing and truing, and describe the difference between them.

to apply equal pressure on all surfaces for uniform polishing. 9.47 Explain the reasons why so many different deburring operations have been developed over the years. By the student. There are several deburring operations because of the wide variety of workpiece materials, their characteristics, shapes, surface features, and textures involved. There is also the requirement for different levels of automation in deburring operations. 9.48 Note from Eq. (9.9) that the grinding temperature decreases with increasing work speed. Does this mean that for a work speed of zero, the temperature is infinite? Explain. Consider the heat flow in grinding: The heat source is at the wheel/workpiece interface and is caused by the work of plastic deformation in producing chips and by friction (as it is in metal cutting). The heat is removed through the following mechanisms:

These two terms are sometimes confused or difficult to differentiate, since they usually are performed at the same time. As discussed in Section 9.5.1, dressing is the process of conditioning worn grains to expose new and aggressive grains. Truing involves reshaping an out-ofround wheel.

(a) Chips leaving the ground surface. (b) By conduction to the workpiece (c) By convection in the workpiece, with the heat being physically moved with the material.

9.45 What is heat checking in grinding? What is its significance? Does heat checking occur in other manufacturing processes? Explain.

(d) By the grinding fluid, if used.

Heat checking refers to small surface cracks on a workpiece, and in grinding this is caused by high stresses and excessively high temperatures (see also section 9.4.3). Heat checking is often associated with development of tensile residual stresses on a surface. This is significant because it compromises both the fatigue properties of the workpiece as well as its appearance. Heat checking also occurs in casting, especially in die casting. 9.46 Explain why parts with irregular shapes, sharp corners, deep recesses, and sharp projections can be difficult to polish.

(e) Radiation, although this is usually much smaller than the other forms of heat transfer in the system. According to the equation (which is an approximation), decreasing the work speed will increase the temperature, but the temperature cannot be infinite because there are still the other means of heat transfer listed above. 9.49 Describe the similarities and differences in the action of metalworking fluids in machining vs. grinding operations.

By the student. Students are likely to have had some experience relevant to this question. The basic reason why these shapes may be difficult to polish is that it is difficult to have a polishing medium to can properly follow an intricate surface, penetrate corners or depths, and be able

Compare the contents of Sections 8.7 and 9.6.9. From a functional standpoint, the purposes of these fluids are primarily cooling and lubricating to reduce friction, temperature, wear, and power requirements. There are many similarities between the two groups, including chemical, rheological, and tribological properties. As

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for differences, note that the dimensions involved in grinding are much smaller than those in machining, and consequently the fluids must be able to penetrate the small interfaces. Thus, properties such as viscosity, wetting, surfacetension characteristics, and method of application would be more important in grinding. (See also Section 4.4.3.)

strength, hardness, and fatigue life. The students are encouraged to explore this topic further. 9.53 If not performed properly, honing can produce holes that are bellmouthed, wavy, barrelshaped, or tapered. Explain how this is possible. If the honing tool is mounted properly on its center and the axis of the tool is aligned with the axis of the hole, the hole will be cylindrical. However, if this is not the case, the path followed by the hone will not be circular. Its shape will depend on the geometric relationships of the axes involved. This topic could be interesting exercise in solid and descriptive geometry, referring also to the literature on honing practices.

9.50 Are there any similarities among grinding, honing, polishing, and buffing? Explain. By the student. All of these processes use abrasive particles of various types, sizes, and shapes, as well as various equipment to remove material in very small amounts. Based on the details of each process described in this chapter, the student should elaborate further on this topic. 9.51 Is the grinding ratio an important factor in evaluating the economics of a grinding operation? Explain. A high grinding ratio, G, is high, means that much material is removed with relatively little wear of the grinding wheel. Note, however, that this is not always desirable because it could indicate that abrasive grains may be dulling, raising the workpiece temperature and possibly causing surface damage. Low grinding ratios, on the other hand, indicate high wheel-wear rate, leading to the need to dress wheels more frequently and eventually replacing the whole wheel. These considerations also involve the cost of the wheel, as well as the costs incurred in replacing the wheel and the economic impact of having to interrupt the production run. Consequently, as in all aspects of manufacturing, an optimum set of parameters have to be established to minimize any adverse economic impact.

9.54 Which of the advanced machining processes described in this chapter causes thermal damage to workpieces? List and explain the possible consequences of such damage. The advanced machining processes which cause thermal damage are obviously those that involve high levels of heat, that is, EDM, laserbeam, and electron-beam machining. The thermal effect can cause the material to develop a heat-affected zone (see Fig. 12.15), thus adversely affecting hardness and ductility. For the various effects of temperature in machining and grinding, see Sections 8.2.6 and 9.4.3, respectively. 9.55 Describe your thoughts regarding laser-beam machining of nonmetallic materials. Give several possible applications and include their advantages as compared to other processes. By the student. Most nonmetallic materials, including polymers and ceramics, can be laserbeam machined using different types of lasers. The presence of a concentrated heat source and its various adverse effects on a particular material and workpiece must of course be considered. Some materials can involve additional concerns; wood, for example, is flammable and may require an oxygen-free environment.

9.52 Although grinding can produce a very fine surface finish on a workpiece, is this necessarily an indication of the quality of a part? Explain. The answer is not necessarily so because surface integrity includes factors in addition to surface finish (which is basically a geometric feature). As stated on p. 133, surface integrity includes several mechanical and metallurgical parameters which, in turn, can have adverse effects on the performance of a ground part, such as its

9.56 It was stated that graphite is the generally preferred material for EDM tooling. Would

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graphite also be appropriate for wire EDM? Explain. It is presently impossible to produce graphite wires, although significant effort has been directed towards impregnating tungsten wire with graphite to improve its performance in EDM. An important consideration is their lack of ductility, which is essential in wire EDM (note the spools and wire guides in Fig. 9.35). Such hybrid wires have considerable promise,

but to date they have not produced sufficient utility, especially when compared to their cost. 9.57 What is the purpose of the abrasives in electrochemical grinding? Explain. By the student. The purpose of the abrasives in electrochemical grinding are described in Section 9.12. Namely, they act as insulators and, in the finishing stages, help produce a surface with good surface finish and dimensional accuracy.

Problems 9.58 In a surface-grinding operation, calculate the chip dimensions for the following process variables: D = 8 in., d = 0.001 in., v = 30 ft/min, V = 5000 ft/min, C = 500 per in2 , and r = 20. The approximate chip length, l, is given by Eq. (9.1) on p. 530 as p √ l = Dd = (8)(0.001) = 0.0894 in. The undeformed chip thickness, t, is given by Eq. (9.5) on p. 532 as s r 4v d t = V Cr D s r 4(30) 0.001 = (5000) (500) (20) 8 =

9.60 Taking a thin, Type 1 grinding wheel, as an example, and referring to texts on stresses in rotating bodies, plot the tangential stress, σt , and radial stress, σr , as a function of radial distance (from the hole to the periphery of the wheel). Note that because the wheel is thin, this situation can be regarded as a plane-stress problem. How would you determine the maximum combined stress and its location in the wheel? Explain.

The tangential and radial stresses in a rotating cylinder are given, respectively, by (see Hamrock, Jacobson, and Schmid, Fundamentals of Machine Elements, McGraw-Hill, 1999, p. 401)

1.64 × 10−4 in.

9.59 If the workpiece strength in grinding is increased by 50%, what should be the percentage decreases in the wheel depth of cut, d, in order to maintain the same grain force, all other variables being the same? From Section 9.4.1, it is apparent that if the workpiece-material strength is doubled, the grain force will be doubled. Since the grain force is dependent on the square root of the depth of cut, the new depth of cut would be one-fourth the original depth of cut. Thus, the reduction in the wheel depth of cut would be 75%.

σθ =

3+ν 2 2 r2 r2 1 + 3ν 2 ρω ri + ro2 + i 2 o − r 9 r 3+ν

and

σr =

3+ν 2 2 r2 r2 ρω ri + ro2 − i 2 o − r2 8 r

where ρ is the material density, ω is the angular velocity, ri and ro are the inner and outer radii, respectively, and ν is Poisson’s ratio for the material. These are plotted as follows:

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For the second case, we have Normal stress,

θ

∆T

∝ D

1/4 3/4

d

V v

0.5

∝ (150)1/4 (0.1)3/4 r

Radius, r

25 0.3

0.5 = 5.681

Therefore, we expect the temperature to decrease, with the temperature rise to be about 20% lower in the second case.

ri ro

9.63 For a surface-grinding operation, derive an expression for the power dissipated in imparting kinetic energy to the chips. Comment on the magnitude of this energy. Use the same terminology as in the text. The combined stresses can be calculated for each radial position by referring to Section 2.11.

The power, P , in terms of kinetic energy per unit time, can be expressed as

9.61 Derive a formula for the material removal rate in surface grinding in terms of process parameters. Use the same terminology as in the text.

P =

The material removal rate is defined as Volume of material removed MRR = Time In surface grinding, the situation is similar to the metal removal rate in slab milling (see Section 8.10.1). Therefore,

1 2

Volume of chips Time

ρV 2

or 1 P = w 2

rt2 4

(V Cρ) V 2

Since

lwd = vwd t where w is the width of the grinding wheel. MRR =

rt2 4

(V C) = vd

we have P =

9.62 Assume that a surface-grinding operation is being carried out under the following conditions: D = 250 mm, d = 0.1 mm, v = 0.5 m/s, and V = 50 m/s. These conditions are then changed to the following: D = 150 mm, d = 0.1 mm, v = 0.3 m/s, and V=25 m/s. What is the difference in the temperature rise from the initial condition? The temperature rise is given by Eq. (9.9) on p. 535. Note that the value of C is not known, but we can assume that it does not change between the two cases, so it can be ignored in this analysis. For the initial case, we have 0.5 V 1/4 3/4 ∆T ∝ D d v 0.5 50 ∝ (250)1/4 (0.1)3/4 = 7.071 0.5

dwρV 2 v 2

The same expression can be derived by noting that the volume of the chips removed is dwL, where L is the length ground. The work done in imparting velocity V to the chips is Work =

mV 2 dwLρV 2 = 2 2

Since power is the time rate of work, P =

dW dwρV 2 dL dwρV 2 v = = dt 2 dt 2

which is the same expression as before. 9.64 The shaft of a Type 1 grinding wheel is attached to a flywheel only, which is rotating at a certain initial rpm. With this setup, a surface-grinding

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or m = 1.78 × 10−5 kg. Therefore, from Eq. (9.13),

operation is being carried out on a long workpiece and at a constant workpiece speed, v. Obtain an expression for estimating the linear distance ground on the workpiece before the wheel comes to a stop. Ignore wheel wear.

Fave =

or Fave = 77.3 N (b) Repeating this calculation for a height of 2 m gives a force of Fave = 119 N. (c) For a height of 10 m, Fave = 312.7 N.

By the student. Note that, because of the variables involved, there will be many possible answers. The specific energy (energy per unit volume) is given by Eq. (9.7) as

Note that these calculations are for free fall and do not include air resistance on the particle.

u = uchip + uplowing + usliding The magnitude of uchip can be found using a negative rake angle and the material properties as described in Chapter 8. uplowing can be found through various means, including upper-bound analysis. Equating the energy in the flywheel to the work done per unit length plowed, one can then calculate the total length.

9.66 A 50-mm-deep hole, 25 mm in diameter, is being produced by electrochemical machining. Assuming that high production rate is more important than the quality of the machined surface, estimate the maximum current and the time required to perform this operation. The maximum current density for electrochemical machining is 8 A/mm2 (see Table 9.4 on p. 554). The area of the hole is

9.65 Calculate the average impact force on a steel plate by a 1-mm spherical aluminum-oxide abrasive grain, dropped from heights of (a) 1 m, (b) 2 m, and (c) 10 m. Plot the results and comment on your observations.

Note also that the maximum material removal rate in Table 9.4 (given in terms of penetration rate) is 12 mm/min. Since the depth of the hole is 50 mm, the time required is

The solid wave velocity in the workpiece is given by s s E 200 × 109 Pa c= = 3 = 5103 m/s ρ 7680 kg/m and hence the contact time is calculated from Eq. (9.11) as 1/5 5r co 1/5 5(0.0005) 5000 = co v 5000 4.43

t=

50 mm = 4.17 min 12 mm/min

9.67 If the operation in Problem 9.66 were performed on an electrical-discharge machine, what would be the estimated machining time?

or to = 2.01 × 10−6 s. From Table 11.7, the density of aluminum oxide is, on average, 4250 kg/m3 . Therefore, the mass of the particle is m=

πD2 π(25)2 = = 491 mm2 4 4 The current is the product of the current density and the cathode area, which is assumed to be the same as the cross-sectional area of the hole. Thus, 2 491 mm2 = 3927 A i = 8 A/mm A=

(a) The velocity of the particle as it strikes the surface from an initial height of one meter is given by q p 2 v = 2gh = 2(9.81 m/s )(1 m) = 4.43 m/s

to =

2mv 2(1.78 × 10−5 )(4.43) = to 2.04 × 10−6

4 3 4 πd ρ = π(0.001)3 (4250) 3 3

For electrical discharge machining, Table 9.4 gives the material removal rate as typically 300 mm3 /min. The volume to be removed is V = Ah = (491)(50) = 24, 550 mm3 hence the time required is t=

24, 550 mm3 = 81.83 min 300 mm3 /min

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The required time could, however, be much less. If, for example, a through hole is being machined, then the entire hole volume does not have to be machined, only a volume associated with the hole periphery, the depth of the hole, and the kerf (known as trepanning). For large blind holes or for deep cavities, a more common approach is to rough machine by end milling (see Fig. 8.1d), then follow EDM. 9.68 A cutting-off operation is being performed with a laser beam. The workpiece being cut is 14 in. thick and 4 in. long. If the kerf is 61 in. wide, estimate the time required to perform this operation.

9.71 It is known that heat checking occurs when grinding under the following conditions: Spindle speed of 4000 rpm, wheel diameter of 10 in., and depth of cut of 0.0015 in., and a feed rate of 50 ft/min. For this reason, the spindle speed is to be kept at 3500 rpm. If a new, 8in-diameter wheel is now used, what should be the spindle speed before heat checking occurs? What spindle speed should be used to maintain the same grinding temperatures as those encountered with the existing operating conditions?

From Table 9.4, a typical traverse rate is 0.5-7 m/min. For a 4 in. (0.10 m) length, the range of machining time is 12-0.85 s. The 14 -in. workpiece thickness is a moderate workpiece thickness, so an average traverse rate is a reasonable approximation. Therefore, an estimate for machining time is around 6 s. It should be recognized, however, that the time required will depend greatly on the power available in the machinery. 9.69 Referring to Table 3.3, identify two metals or metal alloys that, when used as workpiece and electrode, respectively, in EDM would give the (1) lowest and (2) highest wear ratios, R. Calculate these quantities. (1) For lowest wear ratio (workpiece to electrode): tungsten/lead alloys (R = 0.00266), although the use of lead would be unrealistic for such an application. (2) For highest wear ratio: lead alloys/tungsten (R = 1902). An example of a more realistic value of the highest wear ratio is for tungsten electrode/tantalum workpiece (R = 3.03). 9.70 It was stated in Section 9.5.2 that, in practice, grinding ratios typically range from 2 to 200. Based on the information given in Section 9.13, estimate the range of wear ratios in electricaldischarge machining and then compare them with grinding ratios. For grinding ratios we refer to Section 9.5.2, where we note that this ratio ranges between 2 and 200, and even higher. Thus, the values are very comparable.

Heat checking is associated with high surface temperatures, so the temperature rise given by Eq. (9.9) on p. 535 will be used to solve this problem. For the known case where heat checking occurs, the velocity is calculated to be 1 = 1667 ft/min V = rω = (5)(4000) 12 Eq. (9.9) gives ∆T ∝ D

1/4 3/4

d

V v

1/2

or ∆T

= AD1/4 d3/4 1/4

= A(10) =

V v

1/2

3/4

(0.0015)

1667 50

1/2

0.0783A

where A is a constant. The known safe operating condition has a speed of 1460 ft/min. This leads to a temperature rise of 1/2 V ∆T = AD1/4 d3/4 v 1/2 1460 = A(10)1/4 (0.0015)3/4 50 = 0.0732A If an 8-in. wheel is used, the speed at which heat checking occurs is: V 1/4 3/4 0.0783A = AD d v 0.5 V = A(8)1/4 (0.0015)3/4 50

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or V = 1865 ft/min. This indicates a spindle speed of 5600 rpm. For the known safe condition, we perform the same calculation using ∆T = 0.0732A to obtain: V 0.0732A = AD1/4 d3/4 v 0.5 V 1/4 3/4 = A(8) (0.0015) 50

Eq. (9.9) gives ∆T ∝ D1/4 d3/4

∆T = AD

1/2

1/4 3/4

d

V v

1/2

so that 1800◦ F = A(10)1/4 (0.002)3/4

1667 50

1/2

hence A = 18, 500. If the spindle speed is now 5000 rpm, or a surface speed of 2080 ft/min, the temperature rise will be

9.72 A hard aerospace aluminum alloy is to be ground. A depth of 0.003 in. is to be removed from a cylindrical section 8 in. long and with a 3-in. diameter. If each part is to be ground in not more than one minute, what is the approximate power requirement for the grinder? What if the material is changed to a hard titanium alloy?

∆T

The volume to be removed is Volume = πDavg dl = π(3 − 0.003)(0.003)(8)

= AD1/4 d3/4

V v

1/2

1/4

=

(18, 500)(10)

=

2010◦ F

3/4

(0.002)

2080 50

1/2

At a spindle speed of 10,000 rpm, the surface speed is 4167 ft/min, and the temperature rise is 1/2 V 1/4 3/4 ∆T = AD d v 1/2 4167 1/4 3/4 = (18, 500)(10) (0.002) 50 ◦ = 2840 F

or 0.226 in3 . Therefore, the minimum metal removal rate is 0.226 in3 /min. Taking the specific energy requirement as 10 hp-min/in3 (see Table 9.3), the power requirement is 3

P = (10 hp-min/in )(0.226 in3/min) = 2.26 hp For the hard titanium, let u = 20 hp-min/in3 ; thus, the new power would be 4.52 hp.

At a rotational speed of 4000 rpm, the surface speed is 1 = 1667 ft/min V = rω = (5)(4000) 12

V v

or

or V = 1630 ft/min. This corresponds to a spindle speed of 4900 rpm.

9.73 A grinding operation is taking place with a 10in. grinding wheel at a spindle rotational speed of 4000 rpm. The workpiece feed rate is 50 ft/min, and the depth of cut is 0.002 in. Contact thermometers record an approximate maximum temperature of 1800◦ F. If the workpiece is steel, what is the temperature if the spindle speed is increased to 5000 rpm? What if it is increased to 10,000 rpm?

Note that this temperature is above the melting point of steel (see Table 3.3 on p. 106). Clearly, the temperature cannot increase above the melting point of the workpiece material. This indicates that the 10,000 rpm speed, combined with the other process parameters, would not be a realistic process parameter. 9.74 The regulating wheel of a centerless grinder is rotating at a surface speed of 25 ft/min and is inclined at an angle of 5◦ . Calculate the feed rate of material past the grinding wheel.

The temperature rise for d = 0.002 in., v = 50 ft/min, and D = 10 in. is 1800◦ F; therefore,

The feed rate is merely the component of the velocity in the feed direction, given by f = V sin α = (25 ft/min)(sin 5◦ ) or f = 2.18 ft/min or 0.44 in./s.

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9.75 Using some typical values, explain what changes, if any, take place in the magnitude of the impact force of a particle in ultrasonic machining of a hardened-steel workpiece as its temperature is increased?

involve an increased cost of about 400%. This is a very significant increase in cost, and is a good example of the importance of the statement made throughout the book that, in order to minimize manufacturing costs (see also Fig. 16.6), dimensional accuracy and surface finish should be specified as broadly as is permissible.

Inspecting Eqs. (9.11) and (9.13) we can see that the force of a particle on a surface is given by

9.77 Assume that the energy cost for grinding an aluminum part is $0.90 per piece. Letting the specific energy requirement for this material be 8 Ws/mm3 , what would be the energy cost if the workpiece material is changed to T15 tool steel?

4/5

Fave

=

=

2mv 6/5 co 2mv = 5r co 1/5 5r co v 2mv 6/5 E 2/5 5rρ2/5

From Fig. 2.9, the stiffness of carbon steel over a temperature increase of 700◦ C changes from 27 to 20 × 106 psi. For the same temperature range, there is a thermal strain of = 1 + α∆T = 1 + 11.7 × 10−6 (700)

From Table 9.3 on p. 534, note that the power requirement for T15 tool steel ranges from 17.7 to 82 W-s/mm3 . Consequently, the costs would range from 2.5 to 11.7 times that for the aluminum. This means an energy cost between $2 and $9.36 per part.

or = 1.00819. Comparing the two states, one at room temperature and the other at elevated temperature, and noting that the density is affected by thermal strain, we can write 2mv 6/5 E10.4 Fave,1 5rρ0.4 1 = Fave,2 2mv 6/5 E20.4 5rρ0.4 2 0.4 0.4 E1 ρ2 = E2 ρ1 0.4 3 0.4 E1 1 = E2 32

9.78 Derive an expression for the angular velocity of the wafer as a function of the radius and angular velocity of the pad in chemical mechanical polishing.

Since E1 /E2 = 20/27 and 1 /2 = (0.00819)3 , we calculate the right-hand side of this equation as 0.89. Therefore, it can be concluded that the force decreases with an increase in temperature. It should be noted, however, that the change is small. For example, a 700◦ C temperature rise is required for a force reduction of around 10%. 9.76 Estimate the percent increase in the cost of the grinding operation if the specification for the surface finish of a part is changed from 63 to 16 µin. Referring to Fig. 9.41, note that changing the surface finish from 63 µin. to 16 µin. would

y

r rw x

+

Table

r* ωw

Wafer

ωt

By the student. Refer to the figure above and consider the case where a wafer is placed on the x-axis, as shown. Along this axis there is no velocity in the x-direction. The y-component of the velocity has two sources: the rotation of

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the table and the rotation of the carrier. Considering the table movement only, the velocity distribution can be expressed as

speed of the work is v = 20 ft/min. and the operation is performed dry. (a) What is the length of contact between the wheel and the work? (b) What is the volume rate of metal removed? (c) Letting C = 300, estimate the number of chips produced per unit time. (d) What is the average volume per chip? (e) If the tangential cutting force on the workpiece is Fc = 10 lb, what is the specific energy for the operation?

Vy = rωt and for the carrier Vy = r ∗ ω w where r∗ can be positive or negative, and is shown positive in the figure. Note that r = rw + r∗ , so that we can substitute this equation into Vy and combine the velocities to obtain the total velocity as

(a) The length of contact between the wheel and the workpiece is given by Eq. (9.1) as p √ l = Dd = (8)(0.002) = 0.1265 in.

Vy,tot = (rw + r∗ )ωt + r∗ ωw

(b) The metal removal rate is given by (See Example 9.2 on p. 533):

If ωw = −ωt , then Vy,tot = rw ωt . Since the location of the wafer and the angular velocity of the carrier are fixed, the y-component of velocity is constant across the wafer.

MRR = dwv = (0.002)(20)(12)(0.15) or MRR = 0.072 in3 /min. (c) The rate of chip production is given by

9.79 A 25-mm-thick copper plate is being machined by wire EDM. The wire moves at a speed of 1.5 m/min and the kerf width is 1.5 mm. Calculate the power required. (Assume that it takes 1550 J to melt one gram of copper.)

n = V wC = (5000)(12)(0.15)(300) or n = 2.7 × 106 chips/min. (d) The average volume is: Vol =

Note from Table 3.3 on p. 106 that the density of copper is ρ = 8970 kg/m3 . The metal removal rate is given by Eq. (9.22) on p. 565 as

or Vol= 2.67 × 10−8 in3 /chip. (e) Note that the power required is P = Fc V . The specific energy is the ratio of power to material removal rate, or

MRR = Vf hb = (1500)(25)(1.5) or MRR=56,250 mm3 /min = 56.25 × 10−6 m3 /min. Therefore, we can calculate the rate of mass removal as:

u=

Fc V (10)(5000)(12) = MRR 0.072

or u = 8.33 × 106 in-lb/in3 . hp=396,000 in-lb/min,

Mass MRR = ρ(MRR) = (8970)(56.25 × 10−6 ) or 505 g/min. Therefore, the required power is calculated as 1 = 13, 046 Nm/s P = (505)(1550) 60

u=

Since 1

8.33 × 106 3 = 21 hp-min/in 396, 000

As can be seen from Table 9.3, this is a reasonable specific energy for grinding a hard (i.e., heat-treated) steel.

or P = 13 kW. 9.80 An 8-in. diameter grinding wheel, 1 in. wide, is used in a surface grinding operation performed on a flat piece of heat-treated 4340 steel. The wheel is rotating with a surface speed V = 5, 000 fpm, depth of cut d = 0.002 in./pass, and cross feed w = 0.15 in. The reciprocating

MRR 0.072 = Chips/min 2.7 × 106

9.81 A 150-mm-diameter tool steel (u = 60 Ws/mm3 ) work roll for a metal rolling operation is being ground using a 250-mm-diameter, 75mm-wide, Type 1 grinding wheel. The work roll rotates at 10 rpm. Estimate the chip dimensions and grinding force if d = 0.04 mm,

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N = 3000 rpm, r = 12, C = 5 grains per mm2 , and the wheel rotates at N = 3000 rpm. This solution is similar to that given in Example 9.1 on p. 532, except the undeformed chip length, l, is given by Eq. (9.2) since the workpiece is cylindrical. Therefore, the chip length is: s s Dd (0.25)(0.00004) = l= 1 + (D/Dw ) 1 + (0.25)/(0.15)

9.82 Estimate the contact time and average force for the following particles striking a steel workpiece at 1 m/s. Use Eqs. (9.11) and (9.13) and comment on your findings. (a) 5-mm-diameter steel shot; (b) 0.1-mm-diameter cubic boron nitride particles; (c) 3-mm-diameter tungsten sphere; (d) 75-mm-diameter rubber ball; (e) 3mm-diameter glass beads. (Hint: See Tables 2.1, 3.3 and 8.6.)

which is solved as l = 0.00194 m = 1.94 mm. Note that the velocities are v = 2πrN = 2π(0.075)(10) = 4.7 m/min or v = 0.0785 m/s, and V = rω = 2πrN = 2π(0.075)(3000) or V = 1413.7 m/min = 23.6 m/s. Therefore, the undeformed chip thickness is given by (see Section 9.4): r rt2 l 4vd VC = vd or t = 4 V Crl Substituting into this expression, t is found to be s 4(0.0785)(0.00004) t= = 0.0074 mm (23.6)(5)(0.00194)

The time of contact depends on the elastic wave velocity in the workpiece; for steel, where E = 195 GPa (from Table 2.1) and ρ = 8025 kg/m3 (from Table 3.3), the wave velocity is calculated as: s r E 195 × 109 = = 4930 m/s co = ρ 8025 Therefore, for the steel shot with a diameter of 5 mm (r = 0.0025 m), Eq. (9.11) gives: 1/5 5r co 1/5 5(0.0025) 4930 to = = co v (4930) 1 or to = 13.9 µs. Therefore, the average force exerted is Fave =

or Fave = 56.7 N. Using the same calculations, the following table can be constructed: r

The material removal rate is MRR

= dwv = (0.00004)(0.075)(4.7) = 1.41 × 10−5 m3 /min = 235 mm3 /s

Since u is given as 60 W-s/mm3 , the power consumed will be: P = u(MRR) = (60)(235) = 14.1 kW Also, we know P = Fc V so that Fc =

or Fc =

2πr3 ρv 2π(0.0025)3 (8025)(1) = to 13.9 × 10−6

Material

(mm)

Steel 2.5 cBN 0.1 Tungsten 3 Rubber 75 Glass 3 Notes: 1. From Table 2.1. 2. From Table 8.6.

„ ρ « kg m3 80251 35002 19,2901 9001 25501

to

Fave

(µs)

(N)

13.9 2.77 8.32 208 8.32

56.7 0.00794 393.3 11,470 52

Note that these results are reasonable for the cBN particles in part (b), as the values are well within the parameters suggested in Section 9.9. However, as particle size increases, the applicability of the equations is compromised and unreasonable results are obtained. Consider the extreme case of a rubber ball, similar to a toy

P V

14, 100 = 597 N 23.6 137

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ball that is gently tossed. These equations predict a force of over 1400 N, an answer that is clearly unrealistic. Equations (9.11) and (9.13) are based upon stress waves; for compliant and large objects, the stress waves interact and the contact is pseudostatic, so that these equations no longer apply.

on the quantitative aspects to test the understanding of the students. Prepare three quantitative problems, and supply the answers. By the student. This is a challenging, openended question that requires considerable focus and understanding on the part of the students, and has been found to be a very valuable homework problem.

9.83 Assume that you are an instructor covering the topics in this chapter, and you are giving a quiz

Design 9.84 Would you consider designing a machine tool that combines, in one machine, two or more of the processes described in this chapter? Explain. For what types of parts could such a machine be useful? Make preliminary sketches for such machines.

dressing techniques, and the processing parameters such as feed, speed, and depth of cut. 9.87 Size effect in grinding was described in Section 9.4.1. Design a setup and suggest a series of experiments whereby size effect can be investigated.

By the student. This is a valuable though difficult exercise. Note that, in some respects, processes such as chemical mechanical polishing and electrochemical machining satisfy the criteria stated in this problem.

By the student. Refer to various sources listed in the bibliography. The experiments can be macroscaled by measuring power consumption as a function of chip thickness (see Eq. (9.5) for the important parameters affecting chip thickness). The experiments could also utilize an effective system on a microscale, such as indenters mounted on piezo-electric load cells and dragged across a surface.

9.85 With appropriate sketches, describe the principles of various fixturing methods and devices that can be used for each of the processes described in this chapter. By the student. This is an open-ended problem that would also be suitable for a project. The students are encouraged to conduct literature search on the topic, as well as recall the type of fixtures used and described throughout the chapters. See especially Section 14.9. 9.86 As also described in Section 4.3, surface finish can be an important consideration in the design of products. Describe as many parameters as you can that could affect the final surface finish in grinding, including the role of process parameters as well as the setup and the equipment used. By the student. Note that among major parameters are the grit size and shape of the abrasive,

9.88 Describe how the design and geometry of the workpiece affects the selection of an appropriate shape and type of a grinding wheel. By the student. The workpiece shape and size have a direct role on grinding wheel selection (see, for example, pp. 527, 539, and 543). The part geometry places restrictions on the grinding surfaces, such as with gear teeth where the wheel edge radius must be less than the gear tooth notch radius in order to properly grind the teeth. (See also Sections 8.10.7 and 9.6.) 9.89 Prepare a comprehensive table of the capabilities of abrasive machining processes, including the shapes of parts ground, types of machines involved, typical maximum and minimum workpiece dimensions, and production rates.

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1-10 No limit All types

By the student. Processes include laser machining, where the laser path is computer controlled, chemical etching, where a droplet of solution is placed in similar fashion to ink-jet printers, and machining on a CNC milling machine. 9.92 On the basis of the information given in Chapters 8 and 9, comment on the feasibility of producing a 10-mm diameter, 100-mm deep through hole in a copper alloy by (a) conventional drilling and (b) other methods. By the student. Note that this is a general question and it can be interpreted as either a through hole or a blind hole (in which case it does not specify the shape of the bottom of the hole). Furthermore, the quality of the hole, its dimensional accuracy, and the surface finish of the cylindrical surface are not specified. It is intended that the students be observant and resourceful to ask such questions so as to supply appropriate answers.

Sand, SiO2

0.05 and lower Al2 O3 , SiC

13 in.

Barrel finishing

labels and stickers but also by various mechanical and nonmechanical means (see also Section 9.14.1). Make a list of some of these methods, explaining their advantages and limitations.

Chemicalmechanical polishing Shot blasting

0.2

Limited aspect ratio Flat surfaces

Flat: no limit. Round: 12 in. Circular: 12 in. 6 in. Flat, round or circular

Al2 O3 SiC, cBN Diamond Al2 O3 , SiC Grinding

Maximum size Abrasives used Process

Part shapes

Typical surface finish (µm) 0.2

By the student. This is a challenging assignment. The following should be considered as an example of the kinds of information that can be contained in such a table.

Briefly, a through hole with the dimensions specified can easily be drilled; if the dimensional accuracy and surface finish are not acceptable, the hole can subsequently be reamed and honed. Holes can be internally ground, depending on workpiece shape and accuracies required; note, however, that there has to be a hole first in order to be ground internally.

9.90 How would you produce a thin circular disk with a thickness that decreases linearly from the center outward? By the student. If the part is sufficiently thick, one method is to machine it on a CNC milling machine, but the stiffness of the workpiece is an important factor due to cutting forces that would deflect thin parts. A similar method would be grinding the part, using numerical control equipment. A simpler method is to take a round disc with a constant thickness, insert it fully into a chemical-machining solution (Section 9.10), and withdraw it slowly while it is being rotated; such a part has been made successfully by this method. Note that there will be a major difference in production rates.

For blind holes, the answers will depend on the required shape of the hole bottom. Drills typically will not produce flat bottom, and will require an operation such as end milling. Internal grinding is possible on an existing hole, noting also the importance of internal corner features (relief) as stated in the design considerations for grinding in Section 9.16. 9.93 Conduct a literature search and explain how observing the color, brightness, and shape of sparks produced in grinding can be a useful guide to identifying the type of material being ground and its condition.

9.91 Marking surfaces of manufactured parts with letters and numbers can be done not only with

By the student. Various charts, showing pho-

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tographs or sketches of the type and color of sparks produced, have been available for years as a useful but general guide for material identification at the shop level, especially for steels. Some of these charts can be found in textbooks, such as in Fig. 24.15 on p. 458 of Machining Fundamentals, by J.R. Walker.

only an illustration of an answer. The students should give further details, based on a study of each of the processes covered in the chapter. Process Comments Bonded abrasives Grinding These processes are basically Belt grinding similar to each other and Sanding have a wide range abrasive Honing sizes, the material removal Superfinishing rates, surface finish, and lay (see Fig. 33.2 on p. 1039). Loose abrasives Ultrasonic A random surface lay is most machining common for these processes Chemicalmechanical polishing Barrel finishing Abrasive-flow machining

9.94 Visit a large hardware store and inspect the various grinding wheels on display. Make a note of the markings on the wheels and, based on the marking system shown in Figs. 9.4 and 9.5, comment on your observations, including the most commonly found types and sizes of wheels in the store. By the student. This is a good opportunity to encourage students to gain some exposure to grinding wheels. The authors have observed an increased reluctance on students to gain practical experience and exposure to machinery by actually visiting vendors, and have found this exercise to be very valuable. The markings on grinding wheels will have the type of information given in Figs. 9.4 or 9.5. It will also be noted that the most common grinding wheels are basically the same as those shown in Fig. 9.2. Those in Fig. 9.3 are less common and also more expensive. Students may also comment on sizes; many grinding wheel shapes are available for hobbyists but not on a larger scale.

9.97 Based on the topics covered in Chapters 6 through 9, make a comprehensive table of holemaking processes. (a) Describe the advantages and limitations of each method, (b) comment on the quality and surface integrity of the holes produced, and (c) give examples of specific applications. By the student. This is a challenging topic for students. The statement of the problem implies that holes are to generated on a sheet or a block of solid material, and that it does not include finishing processes for existing holes. It should be recalled that holemaking processes include (a) piercing, (b) punching, (c) drilling and boring, (d) chemical machining, (e) electrochemical machining, (f) electrical-discharge machining, (g) laser-beam and electron-beam machining, and (h) water-jet and abrasive water-jet machining. The students should prepare a comprehensive answer, based on the study of these processes in various chapters.

9.95 Obtain a small grinding wheel and observe its surfaces using a magnifier or a microscope, and compare with Fig. 9.6. Rub the periphery of the wheel while pressing it hard against a variety of flat metallic and nonmetallic materials. Describe your observations regarding (a) the type of chips produced, (b) the surfaces developed, and (c) the changes, if any, to the grinding wheel surface. By the student. This is a good project and can become a component of a laboratory course. 9.96 In reviewing the abrasive machining processes in this chapter it will noted that some processes use bonded abrasives while others involve loose abrasives. Make two separate lists for these two types and comment on your observations.

9.98 Precision engineering is a term used to describe manufacturing high-quality parts with close dimensional tolerances and good surface finish. Based on their process capabilities, make a list of advanced machining processes (in decreasing order of quality of parts produced). Include a brief commentary on each method.

By the student. This is an open-ended problem and the following table should be regarded as

By the student. This is a challenging task. Students should carefully review the contents of Figs. 4.20, 8.26, 9.27, 16.4, and 16.5, as well

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as the relevant sections in the text. Note that the order in such a listing will depend on the size of the parts to be produced, the quantity required, the workpiece materials, and the desired dimensional tolerances and surface finish.

requiring frequent redressing. Recall also that an electrically-insulating material is impossible for EDM; a tough material can be difficult to cut with a water jet; and a shiny or transparent material is difficult for laser machining. Note that it is rare that a workpiece material has all of these properties simultaneously.

9.99 It can be seen that several of the processes described in this chapter can be employed, either singly or in combination, to produce or 9.101 Make a list of the processes described in this chapter in which the following properties are finish tools and dies for metalworking operarelevant or significant: (a) mechanical, (b) tions. Prepare a brief technical paper on these chemical, (c) thermal, and (d) electrical. Are methods, describing their advantages and limithere processes in which two or more of these tations, and giving typical applications. properties are important? Explain. By the student. See also Section 6.7. This By the student. Because the term relevant is a valuable exercise for students, and the remay be interpreted as subjective, the stusponses should include the latest technical innodents should be encouraged to be responsive as vations, including rapid prototyping and rapid broadly as possible. Also, the question can be tooling (described in Chapter 10). Traditioninterpreted as properties that are important in ally, processes such as casting, die-sinking (such the workpiece or the phenomenon that is the as with an end mill), and plunge EDM was most basic principle of the advanced machining procommonly used for these applications, although cess. Some suggestions are: polishing and electrochemical grinding may also be used for near-net-shape parts to improve Mechanical: Electrochemical grindtheir surface finish. Laser-beam and electricaling, water-jet machining, discharge machining is sometimes performed to abrasive-jet machining. roughen tool and die surfaces for improved maChemical: Chemical machining, electroterial formability (by virtue of its effects on trichemical machining, electrobological behavior at workpiece-die interfaces). chemical grinding. Thermal: Chemical machining, elec9.100 List the processes described in this chapter that trochemical machining, would be difficult to apply to a variety of nonelectrochemical grinding, metallic or rubberlike materials. Explain your plunge EDM, wire EDM, thoughts, commenting on such topics as part laser-beam machining, geometries and the influence of various physical electron-beam machining. and mechanical properties of workpiece materiElectrical: Electrochemical machining, als. electrochemical grinding, plunge EDM, wire EDM, By the student. Some materials will be diffielectron-beam machining. cult for some of the processes. For example, a chemically inert material will obviously be difficult to machine chemically. Grinding may be Clearly, there are processes (such as chemical difficult if the workpiece is nonmetallic, and the machining) where two properties are imporcompliance of rubber materials may limit the tant: the chemical reactivity of workpiece and grinding force (and thus material removal rate) reagents, and the corrosion processes (the printhat can be achieved. Furthermore, a rubberciple of chemical machining) which are temperlike material may quickly load a grinding wheel, ature dependent.

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Chapter 10

Properties and Processing of Polymers and Reinforced Plastics; Rapid Prototyping and Rapid Tooling Questions 10.1 Summarize the most important mechanical and physical properties of plastics in engineering applications.

10.3 What properties are influenced by the degree of polymerization? By the student. As described in Section 10.2.1, the degree of polymerization directly influences viscosity. In addition, as can be understood by reviewing Figs. 10.3 and 10.5, a higher degree of polymerization will lead to higher strength and strain hardening in thermoplastics, and will accentuate the rubber-like behavior of networked structures.

The most important mechanical and physical properties of plastics are described in Sections 10.3 through 10.8. Students may create summaries of mechanical properties, make comparisons with other material classes, or investigate novel graphical methods of summarizing the properties. 10.2 What are the major differences between the properties of plastics and of metals?

10.4 Give applications for which flammability of plastics would be a major concern. By the student. There are several applications where flammability of plastics is a major concern. These include aircraft, home insulation (thermal and electrical), cookware, clothing, and components for ovens and stoves (including components such as handles and dials). Students should be encouraged to describe additional applications.

There are several major differences that can be enumerated, as described throughout the chapter. Some examples are: (a) Plastics are much less stiff than metals. (b) They have lower strength than metals and are lighter. (c) The thermal and electrical conductivities of metals are much higher than those for plastics.

10.5 What properties do elastomers have that thermoplastics, in general, do not have?

(d) There are much wider color choices for plastics than for metals.

By the student. By virtue of their chemical structures, elastomers have the capability of returning to their original shape after being

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stretched, while thermoplastics cannot. Elas(e) Wear resistance: rope, seats. tomers can do so because they have a low elastic modulus and can undergo large elastic deforma- 10.10 Discuss the significance of the glass-transition temperature, Tg , in engineering applications. tion without rupture. By the student. The glass-transition temperature is the temperature where a thermoplastic behaves in a manner that is hard, brittle and glassy below this temperature, and rubbery or leathery above it (see Section 10.2.1). Since thermoplastics begin to lose their load-carrying capacity above this temperature, there is an upper useful temperature range for the plastic. In engineering applications where thermoplastics would be expected to carry a load, the material for the part would have to have a glass transition temperature higher than the maximum temperature to which it would be subjected in service.

10.6 Is it possible for a material to have a hysteresis behavior that is the opposite of that shown in Fig. 10.14, whereby the arrows are counterclockwise? Explain. If the arrows were counterclockwise, the material would have a hysteresis gain. This would mean that the energy put into the material is lower than the energy recovered during unloading, which, of course, is impossible. 10.7 Observe the behavior of the tension-test specimen shown in Fig. 10.13, and state whether the material has a high or low m value. (See Section 2.2.7.) Explain why. Recall that the m value indicates the strain rate sensitivity of a material. The material in Fig. 10.13 on p. 598 elongates extensively by orientation of the polymer molecules, thus it would be expected to have high strain-rate sensitivity. This is related to diffuse necking, as opposed to localized necking observed with metals in tension tests (see Fig. 7.1d).

10.11 Why does cross-linking improve the strength of polymers?

10.8 Why would we want to synthesize a polymer with a high degree of crystallinity?

Cross-linked polymers have additional bonds linking adjacent chains together (see Fig. 10.3 on p. 589). The strength is increased with thermoplastics because these cross links give additional resistance to material flow since they must be broken before the molecules can slide past one another. With thermosets, they represent additional bonds that must be broken before fracture can occur.

This is an open-ended question that can be answered in several ways. Students may rely upon 10.12 Describe the methods by which optical properties of polymers can be altered. particular applications or changes in material properties. One can refer to Section 10.2.1 and Optical properties can be altered by additives Fig. 10.4, and note that a high degree of cryswhich can alter the color or translucence of tallinity leads to increased stiffness, especially the plastic. Additives can either be dyes or at higher temperatures. pigments. Recall also that stress whitening makes the plastic appear lighter in color or more 10.9 Add more to the applications column in Table opaque. As stated in Section 10.2.1, optical 10.3. properties are also affected by the degree of By the student. Some additional examples are: crystallinity of the polymer. (a) Mechanical strength: rope, hangers.

10.13 Explain the reasons that elastomers were developed. Based on the contents of this chapter, are (b) Functional and decorative: electrical outthere any substitutes for elastomers? Explain. lets, light switches. (c) Housings, etc.: pens, electrical plugs. (d) Functional and transparent: food and beverage containers, packaging, cassette holders.

By the student. Elastomers (Section 10.8) were developed to provide a material that could undergo a large amount of deformation without failure. They provide high friction and nonskid

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surfaces, abrasive-wear resistance, shock and vibration isolation, and protection against corrosion. They are also used in rubber-pad forming operations.

• Alloys are mixtures of metals, whereas composites are not necessarily metals. Metal-matrix composites require a reinforcement in the form of fibers or whiskers.

10.14 Give several examples of plastic products or components for which creep and stress relaxation are important considerations.

• With composites, the reinforcement is much stronger than the matrix. Even in two-phased alloys, where a matrix could be defined, such a difference in strength or stiffness is not necessarily significant.

By the student. Recall that creep in polymers is particularly important in high-temperature, low-stress applications. In low temperature, high-stress circumstances stress relaxation is 10.18 Describe the functions of the matrix and the important. As an example of the importance reinforcing fibers in reinforced plastics. What of creep, consider polymers as pot handles in fundamental differences are there in the charcookware. As an example of stress relaxation, acteristics of the two materials? seat cushions will deform to provide a uniform stress distribution and thus provide better comBy the student. As described in Section 10.9, fort for the occupant. consider, for example, the fact that reinforcing 10.15 Describe your opinions regarding recycling of fibers are generally stronger and/or stiffer than plastics versus developing plastics that are the polymer matrix. The function of the reinbiodegradable. forcement is therefore to increase the mechanical properties of the composite. On the other By the student. Some arguments may be made hand, the fibers are less ductile and generally are that recycling actually has a cost associhave limited resistance to chemicals or moisated with it, such as costs involved in collectture (graphite, for example, decomposes when ing the materials to be recycled and the enexposed to oxygen). The matrix is very resisergy required in recycling methods. Note also tant to chemical attack and thus protects the that the properties of the recycled polymer will fibers. likely be inferior as compared to the virgin polymer. Biodegradable plastics have drawbacks as well; it is difficult to design them to degrade 10.19 What products have you personally seen that in the intended time frame, and they may have are made of reinforced plastics? How can you more failures in service. They can be signifitell that they are reinforced? cantly more expensive than polymers that are not biodegradable. By the student. This is an open-ended question and students can develop a wide variety of 10.16 Explain how you would go about determining answers. Some suggestions are tennis rackets, the hardness of the plastics described in this baseball bats, chairs, and boat hulls. Somechapter. times, it is readily apparent that the part has Many of the hardness tests described in Secbeen produced through lay-up; other times the tion 2.6 (see also Fig. 2.22 on p. 52) are not fiber reinforcements can be seen directly on the suitable for polymers, for reasons such as insurface of the part. elastic recovery of the surface indentation and time-dependent stress relaxation. Recall that durometer testing is an appropriate approach 10.20 Referring to earlier chapters, identify metals for such materials. and alloys that have strengths comparable to those of reinforced plastics. 10.17 Distinguish between composites and alloys. Give several examples. By the student. See Table 16.1 on p. 956. A By the student. Consider the following: typical comparison is given below: 145

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Metal (MPa) Magnesium (165-195) Al alloys (90-600)

Cu alloys (140-1310) Iron (185-285)

Reinforced plastics (MPa) Nylon (70-210) Polyester (110-160) ABS (100) Acetal (135) Nylon (70-210) Polycarbonate (110) Polyester (110-160) Polypropylene (40-100) Nylon (70-210) Polyester (40-100) Nylon (70-210)

randomly in the composite. The student is encouraged to elaborate further in greater detail. 10.24 Why are fibers capable of supporting a major portion of the load in composite materials? Explain. By the student. Refer to Example 10.4 on p. 617. The reason that the fibers can carry such a large portion of the load is that they are stiffer than the matrix. Although both the matrix and the fibers undergo the same strain, the fibers will this support a larger portion of the load.

10.21 Compare the relative advantages and limita- 10.25 Assume that you are manufacturing a product in which all the gears are made of metal. A tions of metal-matrix composites, reinforced salesperson visits you and asks you to consider plastics, and ceramic-matrix composites. replacing some of the metal gears with plastic ones. Make a list of the questions that you By the student. This is a challenging question would raise before making such a decision. Exand the students are encouraged to develop a plain. comprehensive table based on their understanding of the contents of this chapter. By the student. Consider, for example, the following questions: 10.22 This chapter has described the many advantages of composite materials. What limitations or disadvantages do these materials have? What suggestions would you make to overcome these limitations? By the student. Consider, for example, two disadvantages as anisotropic properties and possible environmental attack of the fibers (especially water adsorption). Anisotropy, though not always undesirable, can be reduced by having a random orientation of reinforcing materials. Environmental attack of the fibers would cause loss of fiber strength and possibly debonding from the matrix. 10.23 A hybrid composite is defined as a material containing two or more different types of reinforcing fibers. What advantages would such a composite have over other composites?

(a) Will the plastic gear retain its required strength, stiffness, and tolerances if the temperature changes during its use? (b) How acceptable is the wear resistance and fatigue life of the plastic gears? (c) Is it compatible with meshing metal gears and other components in the gear train? (d) Are there any backlash problems? (e) What are its frictional characteristics? (f) Is the lighter weight of the plastic gear significant? (g) Is noise a problem? (h) Is the plastic gear affected adversely by lubricants present? (i) Will the supplier be able to meet the quantity demanded? (j) How much cost savings are involved? (See also Section 16.9.)

By the student. The hybrid composite can have tailored properties. Thus, a certain strength 10.26 Review the three curves in Fig. 10.8, and delevel could be obtained at a lower cost by using scribe some applications for each type of bea combination of fibers, rather than just one havior. Explain your choices. fiber. The anisotropic properties could also be controlled in different ways, such as having, for By the student. See also Section 10.5. Several example, Kevlar fibers oriented along the maexamples can be given; consider the following jor stress direction and other fibers dispersed simple examples: 146

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• Rigid and brittle: Handles, because they should not flex significantly. • Tough and ductile: Helmets, to dissipate the energy from impact without fracturing. • Soft and flexible: Beverage bottles, because they can flex when dropped and regain their shape and not break, unlike glass bottles. 10.27 Repeat Question 10.26 for the curves in Fig. 10.10. By the student. See also Section 10.5 and consider the following:

• Wood: a composite consisting of block cells and long fibrous cells. • Particle board: a composite that is a combination of wood scraps and a binder. • Winter coat: a layered type of composite consisting of an outer cloth material which is weather resistant and an insulating inner material to prevent loss of body heat. • Pencil: graphite rod core surrounded by wood covering. • Walls: consists of a plaster matrix with wood stud or metal reinforcements. The students are encouraged to cite several other examples.

• Low-density polyethylene: nonbreakable 10.30 What applications for composite materials can food containers with impact strength at you think of in which high thermal conductivity low temperatures, such as in freezers. would be desirable? Explain. • High-impact polypropylene: products By the student. See also Sections 3.9.4 that that when dropped or in a collision, and.3.9.5. Composite materials with high therwill not crack at a wide range of temperamal conductivity could be useful as heat extures. changers, food and beverage containers, and • Polyvinyl chloride (PVC): it can be either medical equipment. flexible or hard, and either type can be used for tubing; since it is not too strong 10.31 Conduct a survey of a variety of sports equipor impact resistant, it must be limited to ment, and identify the components that are low pressure tubing. made of composite materials. Explain the reasons for and advantages of using composites for • Polymethylmethacrylate: has moderate these specific applications. strength, good optical properties, and is weather resistant; these properties make By the student. Examples include rackets for them useful for lighting fixtures that do tennis, badminton, and racquetball; baseball not require high impact resistance. and softball bats; golf clubs; fishing rods; and skis and ski poles. The main reason is the light 10.28 Do you think that honeycomb structures could weight of these materials, combined with high be used in passenger cars? If so, which compostiffness and strength, thus resulting in superior nents? Explain. performance. By the student. As an example, two suggestions concerning automobiles: (1) Radiators 10.32 We have described several material combinations and structures in this chapter. In relative with copper honeycomb structure to improve terms, identify those that would be suitable for heat conduction, and (2) passenger compartapplications involving one of the following: (a) ment walls consisting of honeycomb structures very low temperatures; (b) very high temperawith cavities filled with noise- and vibrationtures; (c) vibrations; and (d) high humidity. damping materials, making the compartment more sound proof. 10.29 Other than those described in this chapter, what materials can you think of that can be regarded as composite materials? By the student. Some examples are:

By the student. This is a challenging topic and the students are encouraged to develop responses with appropriate rationale. For example, very low temperature applications require (1) considerations of the polymer or matrix mechanical properties with appropriate ductility

147

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toughness, (2) warpage that can occur when 10.36 Explain the reasons that some forming and lowered from room temperature, and (3) thershaping processes are more suitable for certain mal stresses that may develop due to differences plastics than for others. in thermal expansion between the polymer part By the student. Consider, for example, the foland other parts that are in contact. Temperalowing: It is difficult to extrude thermosets beture variations are particularly important, as cause curing is not feasible during the contindescribed in Sections 3.9.4 and 3.9.5. uous extrusion process. Injection molding of composites is difficult because the fluidity of 10.33 Explain how you would go about determinthe material is essential to ensure proper filling ing the hardness of the reinforced plastics and of the die, but characteristics and presence of composite materials described in this chapter. the fibers interferes with this process. Plastics What type of tests would you use? Are hardwhich are produced through reaction molding ness measurements for these types of materials are difficult to produce through other means, meaningful? Does the size of the indentation and other processes are not readily adaptable make a difference in your answer? Explain. to allow sufficient mixing of the two ingrediBy the student. The important consideration ents. These difficulties should, however, be rehere is the fact that the smaller the indentation, garded as challenges and thus novel approaches the more localized the hardness measurement are encouraged. The students are encouraged will be (see Section 2.6). Consequently, one to develop additional answers. can then distinguish the hardness of the matrix and the reinforcements separately by using 10.37 Would you use thermosetting plastics in injection molding? Explain. small indentations. A large indentation, such as resulting from a Brinell test, will only give Thermosetting plastics are suitable for injection an overall hardness value. (Note that this is a molding (Section 10.10.2), although the process consideration similar to microhardness testing is often referred to as reaction injection moldof individual components of an alloy or of the ing; see p. 629. The basic modification which individual grains.) must be made to the process is that the molds must be heated to allow polymerization and 10.34 Describe the advantages of applying traditional cross-linking of the material. The major drawmetalworking techniques to the forming and back associated with this change is that, beshaping of plastics. cause of the longer cycle times, the process will By the student. Review Section 10.10 and not have as high a production rate as for therChapters 6 and 7. Note also that this topic is moplastics. briefly described in Section 10.10.9. Applying traditional metalworking techniques to shaping 10.38 By inspecting plastic containers, such as for baby powder, you can see that the lettering on of plastics is advantageous for several reasons. them is raised and not sunk in. Offer an exSince the stock shapes are similar (sheet, rod, planation as to why they are molded in that tubing, etc.), well-known and reliable processes way. can be applied efficiently. Being able to utilize similar machines and many years of research, The reason is that in making molds and dies development, and experience associated with for plastics processing, it is much easier to promachine design and process optimization will duce letters and numbers by removing material have major significance in plastics applications from mold surfaces, such as by grinding or end as well. milling, similar to carving of wood. As a result, the molded plastic part will have raised 10.35 Describe the advantages of cold forming of plasletters and numbers. On the other hand, if we tics over other methods of processing. want depressed letters on the product itself, the By the student. See Section 10.10.9 where four markings on the molds would have to protrude. main advantages are outlined. This is possible to do but would be costly and 148

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time consuming to make such a mold, and its wear resistance will likely be lower.

assembled. Several ingenious designs use insert molding. Integrated circuits and many other electrical components may be potted.

10.39 Give examples of several parts that are suitable for insert molding. How would you manufacture 10.42 Inspect several similar products that are made of metals and plastics, such as a metal bucket these parts if insert molding were not available? and a plastic bucket of similar shape and size. By the student. See also the parts shown in Comment on their respective thicknesses, and Fig. 10.30 on p. 628. Some common parts are explain the reasons for their differences, if any. screw drivers with polymer handles, electrical By the student. Recall that the basic differjunction boxes with fasteners that are insert ence between metals and plastics have been dismolded, screws and studs in polymer parts to cussed in detail in the text. Consider the folaid assembly, and some writing instruments. lowing examples: Usually, these parts would have to be mechanically assembled or adhesively bonded if insert (a) Metal buckets are thinner than plastic molding was not an option. ones, and are more rigid; plastic buckets thus have to be thicker because of their 10.40 What manufacturing considerations are inmuch lower elastic modulus, as well as involved in making a metal beverage container volve designs with higher section modulus. versus a plastic one?

3D random

In-plane random

Cross-ply

Uniaxial

(b) Mechanical pencils vs. plastic pens; the By the student. See also Fig. 16.31 on p. 452 of polymer pens are much thicker, because Kalpakjian and Schmid, Manufacturing Engithey must be rigid for its intended use. neering and Technology, 3d ed. and the Bibliog(c) Plastic vs. metal forks and spoons; alraphy at the end of Chapter 16. Since beverage though no major difference in overall size, cans are mass produced in the range of millions the plastic ones are more flexible but can per day, the processing must be simple and ecobe made more rigid by increasing the secnomical. Other important considerations are tion modulus (as can be observed by inchilling characteristics, labeling, feel, aesthetspecting their designs). ics, and ease of opening. Students should comment on all these aspects. Note also that the 10.43 Make a list of processing methods used for reinbeverage can must have sufficient strength to forced plastics. Identify which of the following prevent from rupturing under internal pressure fiber orientation and arrangement capabilities (which is on the order of about 120 psi), or each has: (1) uniaxial, (2) cross-ply, (3) inbeing dropped, or buckling under a compresplane random, and (4) three-dimensional ransive load during stacking in stores. The can dom. should maintain its properties from low temperBy the student. An example of a partial answer atures in the refrigerator to hot summer temis the following: peratures, especially under the sun in hot climates. Particularly important is the gas permeability of plastic containers which will significantly reduce their shelf life. Also note how soft drinks begin to lose their carbonation in unopened plastic bottles after a certain period of time. (See also Section 10.10.) Process 10.41 Inspect several electrical components, such as Sheet-molding compound X light switches, outlets, and circuit breakers, and Tape lay-up X X describe the process or processes used in makContact molding X ing them. Injection molding X X Pultrusion X By the student. The plastic components are Pulforming X usually injection molded and then mechanically 149

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10.44 As you may have observed, some plastic products have lids with integral hinges; that is, no other material or part is used at the junction of the two parts. Identify such products, and describe a method for making them.

By the student. As examples, the students could investigate (a) cost (where FDM, 3DP, STL have advantages over SLS of metals, for example), (b) material properties (see Table 10.8 on p. 646) where selective laser sintering with bronze-infiltrated steel powder would be superior, or (c) dimensional tolerances or surface finish.

Such parts with integral lids are produced with one shot in processes such as injection molding. The hinge is actually a much thinner (reduced) section, which can bend easily, thus acting like 10.48 Explain why finishing operations generally are needed for rapid-prototyping operations. If you a hinge. It should be noted that there are signifare making a prototype of a toy car, list the finicant material requirements that must be met ishing operations you would want to perform. before such a design can be achieved, including stiffness and fatigue strength. Many polymers By the student. The finishing operations reare ideally suited for such applications. quired vary for different rapid prototyping applications. For example, in stereolithography, 10.45 Explain why operations such as blow molding the part has to be cured in order to fully deand film-bag making are done vertically and velop its mechanical properties (the laser does why buildings that house equipment for these not fully cure the photopolymer), and then the operations have ceilings 10 m to 15 m (35 ft to part may need to be sanded or finely ground to 50 ft) high. obtain a desired surface. Also, often decoration is needed for aesthetic purposes. On the other They are done vertically so that the gravitahand, in fused deposition modeling, the finishtional force does not interfere with the operaing operations would involve removal of suption. The height of ceilings is dictated by prodport material, followed by sanding and paintuct requirements. The height is large enough ing, whenever necessary. For a prototype of a so that the blown tube can be cooled from a toy automobile, the finishing processes would semi-molten state to a solid state suitable for be as discussed. compression, cutting and recoiling. 10.49 A current topic of research involves producing parts from rapid-prototyping operations and then using them in experimental stress analysis, in order to infer the strength of the final parts produced by conventional manufacturing operations. List the concerns that you may have with this approach, and outline means of adBy the student. Depending on the process used dressing these concerns. and the particular shape of the mug handle, this may or may not be a difficult problem; In theory, this technique can be successful for even if difficult, it can be overcome fairly easily. determining the stresses acting on a part of a Some processes, such as stereolithography and certain geometry, as long as the part remains fused deposition modeling, can allow building in the linear elastic range and the strains are of gradual arches, but a coffee mug is probasmall. However, it is difficult, although not bly too severe, and a ceiling design as shown in impossible, to infer performance of conventionFig. 10.49b on p. 649 would have to be used. ally manufactured parts, especially, for examOther processes such as selective laser sintering ple, with respect to fatigue or wear. The reaand laminated object manufacturing have no son is that the material microstructure and reneed for supports, and thus a coffee mug can sponse to loading will be very different than be produced easily. that for a rapid prototyped model.

10.46 Consider the case of a coffee mug being produced by rapid prototyping. Describe how the top of the handle can be manufactured, since there is no material directly beneath the arch of the handle.

10.47 Make a list of the advantages and disadvantages 10.50 Because of relief of residual stresses during curof each of the rapid-prototyping operations. ing, long unsupported overhangs in parts from 150

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stereolithography will tend to curl. Suggest methods of controlling or eliminating this problem.

The sketches are given below. Note that there is expected to be greater recovery at corners where the strain on the extruded polymer is highest.

These problems can be minimized in design by reducing overhangs or changing the support of the overhang. Otherwise, as shown in Fig. 10.49 on p. 649, gussets or ceilings could be used to support the material and minimize curl during curing. 10.51 One of the major advantages of stereolithography and cyberjet is that semi- and fullytransparent polymers can be used, so that internal details of parts can readily be discerned. List parts or products for which this feature is valuable. By the student. Some examples are (a) heat exchangers, where the fluid flow can be observed; (b) drug delivery systems, so that any blockage or residual medicines can be observed; (c) any ship-in-the-bottle type of part; d (d) market- 10.54 What are the advantages of using whiskers as a reinforcing material? Are there any limitaing models to explain the internal features of a tions? product. 10.52 Based on the processes used to make fibers as described in this chapter, explain how you would produce carbon foam. How would you make a metal foam?

By the student. Whiskers are much stronger than other fibers because of their small size and lack of defects (see pp. 105 and 463). Whiskers will yield composite materials with higher strength-to-weight ratios.

By the student. This is a good topic for a lit10.55 By incorporating small amounts of blowing erature search. One approach is to produce a agent, it is possible to produce polymer fibers polymer foam followed by a carburization prowith gas cores. List some applications for such cess, as would be performed to produce graphite fibers. powder. The result is a foam produced from carbon, a product that has value as a filter maBy the student. Examples include applications terial because of the very large surface areawhere weight is a primary concern, such as to-volume ratio. A metal foam can be easily aerospace structures. Also, such a structure is produced at this point by placing the carbon very common in foams, and the typical applicafoam in a CVD reactor, whereby the metal will tions are for flotation devices (life savers, surfcoat the carbon foam. Other alternatives are boards, etc), or thermal applications where the to blow hot air through molten metal; the froth gas cores act as an effective insulators (coffee solidifies into a metal foam, or to use a blowing cups, thermos, etc.). If woven into a fabric, it agent in a P/M process (see Chapter 11). can be an effective insulator for winter clothing. 10.53 Die swell in extrusion is radially uniform for cir- 10.56 With injection-molding operations, it is common practice to remove the part from its runcular cross-sections, but is not uniform for other ner and then to place the runner into a shredder cross-sections. Recognizing this fact, make and recycle into pellets. List the concerns you a qualitative sketch of a die profile that will would have in using such recycled pellets as opproduce (a) square and (b) triangular crossposed to so-called virgin pellets. sections of extruded polymer, respectively. 151

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By the student. Consider the following concerns:

also make it conductive. The students should comment further on this topic.

(a) The polymer may become chemically con- 10.59 Why is there so much variation in the stiffness of polymers? What is its engineering signifitaminated by tramp oils or parting agents cance? on the die; (b) Wear particles from the shredder may contaminate the polymer; (c) The polymer may be chemically degraded from the heating and cooling cycles encountered in injection molding;

By the student. Table 10.1 on p. 585 shows a wide range of stiffness; note, for example, that for polyethylene the change can be 1400%. This is mainly due to the widely varying degree of polymerization and crystallinity, and the number of crosslinks, if any, present, as well as the important effects of the reinforcements. Stiffness will increase with any of these variables.

(d) The molecular weight of the shredded polymer may be much lower than that for the original polymer, so that the mechanical properties of the recycled stock can be 10.60 Explain why thermoplastics are easier to recyinferior. cle than thermosets. 10.57 What characteristics make polymers attractive for applications such as gears? What characteristics would be drawbacks for such applications?

If a polymer’s chemistry can be identified, then a polymer product can be cut into small pieces (such as pellets or particles) and fabricated as is done with so-called virgin thermoplastics. There is some degradation of mechanical properties and a measurable loss of molecular weight, but if properly sorted (see top of p. 607), these drawbacks can be minimized. It is difficult to recycle thermosets because it is impossible to break down a thermosetting resin into its mer components. Thus, the manufacturing strategies for the original polymer and for its recycled counterparts have to be different. Furthermore, thermosets cannot be melted, or chopped up as would thermoplastics.

By the student. Students should be encouraged to develop answers that rely on their personal experience. The advantages include (a) the low friction of polymers, even when not lubricated), (b) wear resistance, (c) good damping characteristics, so that sound and impact forces are not as severe with plastic gears), and (d) manufacturing characteristics that allow the production of tooth profiles with superior surface finish (see Section 8.10.7). The main drawbacks to polymer gears are associated with low stiffness, especially at elevated temperature, and lower strength than metals (so the loads that can be 10.61 Describe how shrink-wrap works. transferred for an equivalent sized gear is much Shrink wrap consists of branched thermolower), but they would be suitable for motion plastics. When deformed above their glasstranslation. transition temperature, the branches attain a 10.58 Can polymers be used to conduct electricity? preferred orientation, similar to the effect of Explain, giving several examples. combing hair. The plastic is then quickly lowered in temperature, preventing stress relaxRecall that polymers can be made to conation. When the sheet is then wrapped around duct electricity (see Section 10.7.2), such as an object (including food products) and then polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polythiophene. heated, the stresses are relieved and the plastic Other polymers can be made more conducsheet or film shrinks around the object. tive by doping them with metal particles or whiskers. If continuous wire reinforcement is 10.62 List the characteristics required of a polymer for the following applications: (a) a total hip represent, the polymer can be directionally conductive. It can also be conductive in a plane placement insert, (b) a golf ball, (c) an automoif a mesh reinforcement is used. An electroless tive dashboard, (d) clothing, and (e) a child’s nickel plating (p. 160) of a polymer part can doll. 152

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By the student. Consider, for example, the following:

a glass-transition temperature is indicative of a thermoplastic. The shape of the part is often a clue; for example, thin films must be made of thermoplastics because they are blown from extruded tubing.

(a) Some of the characteristics required for a polymer insert in a total hip replacement are that it be biocompatible; not dissolve or warp in the presence of bodily fluids; 10.64 Describe the features of an extruder screw and comment on their specific functions. support the loads developed during normal walking, sitting, and standing; not By the student. A typical extruder is shown wear excessively; and provide low friction. in Figs. 10.22 and 10.23 on p. 620. The three Cost is not as imperative as other appliprincipal features of the screw shown are: cations, given the high cost of surgery for hip replacements. • Feed section: In this region, the screw is intended to entrain powder or pellets from (b) For a golf ball, abrasion resistance is imthe hopper; as a result, the flight spacing portant, as well as impact strength and and depth is larger than elsewhere on the toughness. The polymer needs to have a screw. stiffness consistent with typical golf balls, • Melt section: In the melt section, the flight and it must be coatable, so that it can be depth is very low and the plastic is melted made into a bright color. Cost is also imagainst the hot barrel; also, gases that are portant. entrained in the feed section are vented. (c) An automobile-dashboard polymer needs • Metering section: This region produced to be formable into the desired (and quite the pressure and flow rate needed for the demanding) shapes. It also has to be extrusion operation. available in a range of desired colors, and should have acceptable manufacturing cost.

Note that screws are designed for particular polymers, so the feed, melt, and metering sections are polymer-specific. Also, some extruders use two screws to increase the internal shearing and mixing of the polymer.

(d) The polymer in clothing needs to be produced into fibers and in continuous lengths. The fibers must be sufficiently flexible so that they can be woven into 10.65 An injection-molded nylon gear is found to concloth and withstand normal wear and tear. tain small pores. It is recommended that the The polymer must have low elastic modumaterial be dried before molding it. Explain lus but sufficient strength so that the cloth why drying will solve this problem. feels soft but doesn’t tear easily. It must also be inexpensive. The probable reason is that the porosity is due to entrapped moisture in the material. Recall (e) A child’s doll must be non-toxic, and also that nylon absorbs water (hygroscopy; see should be soft but tough so that the child top of p. 600), thus drying will alleviate this cannot break off a piece of the doll and problem. thus becoming a choking hazard. The polymer should be easy to decorate and 10.66 What determines the cycle time for (a) injection cleanable. molding, (b) thermoforming, and (c) compression molding? 10.63 How can you tell whether a part is made of a thermoplastic or a thermoset? Explain. The cycle time for injection molding is determined by several factors, including: By the student. There are several nondestructive and destructive tests that can be per• Material: Thermoplastics require much formed. For example, tension tests will demonless time than thermosets, and certain strate the difference: a pronounced plasticity is thermoplastics will require less time to indicative of a thermoplastic. Exposure to high cool and solidify than will others (i.e., diftemperatures is another test: the presence of ferent thermal properties). 153

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• Part shape: If the part has a high surface area-to-volume, it will cool rapidly. • Initial temperature: If a polymer is injected at a temperature much above its solidification temperature, it will require more time to cool. The considerations for thermoforming and compression molding are similar. The students are encouraged to analyze and elaborate further on this subject.

By the student. Refer to Table 10.9 on p. 658 and note that low quantities involve processes in which tooling costs must be kept low. Thus, the most suitable processes would be casting and machining (because of the readily available and versatile machine tools). However, rapid prototyping operations can also be used directly if the quantities are sufficiently small and part characteristics are acceptable. Also, tooling can be produced using the methods described in Section 10.12.6 to render processes such as injection molding viable for small production runs. Note, however, that these tools are not suitable for large production runs.

10.67 Does the pull-in defect (sink marks) shown in Fig. 10.57 also occur in metal forming and casting processes? Explain. 10.70 Review the Case Study to this chapter and explain why aligners cannot be made directly by The type of defect shown in Fig. 10.57 also ocrapid prototyping operations. curs in metal forming (because of the flow of the material into the die cavity) and casting As described in the Case Study on p. 658, the processes (because of excessive, localized surpolymers in stereolithography have a yellow face shrinkage during solidification and cooling tint, which is objectionable for cosmetic reain the mold). This is described in various handsons. However, there are some clear polymers books, but it should be noted that sink marks is now available (see WaterShed 11120 in Table a terminology restricted to polymer parts. For 10.8 on p. 646), but it is difficult to fully cure example, in Bralla, J.G., Design for Manufacthe monomer, making the aligners develop an turability Handbook, 2nd. ed., pp. 5.51, the sink unpleasant taste. marks are referred to as dishing for investment casting, and on p. 5.64 the same features are 10.71 Explain why rapid prototyping approaches are not suitable for large production runs. referred to as shrink marks. 10.68 List the differences between the barrel section of an extruder and that on an injection-molding machine. By the student. Some of the basic differences between an extruder and an injection-molding machine barrel are:

The main reasons are the long times required for producing parts (2 hours or so for a small part is rapid when only one part is required. Two hours per part is unacceptably long for a million parts. Recall also that rapid prototyping operations can be very demanding and require high-quality materials that have high cost associated with them.

• Extruders involve more heating from the 10.72 List and explain methods for quickly manufacheating elements and less from friction, turing tooling for injection molding. so there will be more (or larger capacity) heating elements and temperature sensors This topic is discussed in Section 10.12.6. Dein an extruder barrel. pending on the material, the following are options: • Extruders do not utilize torpedoes or reciprocating screws. • A mold can be directly produced with a rapid prototyping operation if the polymer • Extruders may use multiple screws to imto be injection molded has a lower melting prove mixing in the barrel. temperature than the mold material. 10.69 Identify processes that are suitable for making • An RTV molding/urethane casting operasmall production runs of plastic parts, such as tion can be employed (see p. 653), using a quantities of 100 or fewer. Explain. rapid prototyped pattern. 154

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• ACES injection molding uses a rapidprototyped tooling shell backed with a low-melting-point metal. • Sprayed metal tooling can produce a shell from a rapid-prototyped pattern. The shell is backed with an epoxy or aluminum-filled epoxy, for strength and to remove heat from injection molding.

other design considerations for metallic tooling can be relaxed. • The RTV mold can be produced with the aid of rapid prototyping operations so that the mold is quickly produced. Note that there are also disadvantages to this method, mainly the limited tool life.

• The Keltool process (see p. 654) can be 10.75 What are the similarities and differences beused, using an RTV mold, filled with powtween stereolithography and cyberjet? dered A6 tool steel infiltrated with copper. 10.73 Careful analysis of a rapid-prototyped part indicates that it is made up of layers with a white filament outline visible on each layer. Is the material a thermoset or a thermoplastic? Explain.

As seen in Table 10.7 on p. 646, note that (a) both processes rely on the same layer-creation technique, namely liquid-layer curing, (b) both use a principle of using a photopolymer to create a thermoset part, and (c) both have comparable materials, with similar characteristics of strength, cost, and appearance.

The presence of the filament outline suggests that the material was produced in fuseddeposition modeling (Section 10.12.3). This process requires adjacent layers to fuse after 10.76 Explain how color can be incorporated into rapid-prototyped components. being extruded. Extrusion and bonding is obviously possible with thermoplastics but very The following methods are the most straightdifficult for a thermoset. forward: 10.74 List the advantages of using a room• The ZCorp (see Fig. 10.52 on p. 651) temperature vulcanized (RTV) rubber mold versions of three-dimensional printing main injection molding. chines incorporate colored binders, so that The advantages include the following: full-color prototypes can be produced directly. • The tooling cost is low. • FDM machines usually have two heads, so • Very detailed part geometry can be incorthat two colors can be extruded as desired. porated into the RTV mold. • The mold is flexible, so that it can be peeled off of parts; thus, draft angles and

• Otherwise, color is most easily incorporated by painting the prototyped part.

Problems 10.77 Calculate the areas under the stress-strain curve (toughness) for the material in Fig. 10.9, plot them as a function of temperature, and describe your observations. The area under the curves is estimated by adding the area under the initial elastic region to that in the flat regions. The results are as follows:

Temperature (◦ C) -25 0 25 50 65 80

Toughess (MJ/m3 ) 140 635 760 730 520 500

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Toughness (MJ/m3)

800

10.79 Calculate the percentage increase in mechanical properties of reinforced nylon from the data shown in Fig. 10.19.

600 400

The following data is obtained from Fig. 10.19 on p. 615, with the last column calculated from the data. Also, note that the flexural modulus of nylon has been obtained from Table 10.1 on p. 585 as 1.4 GPa.

200 0 -50

0

50

100

Temperature (°C)

Note that there is an optimum temperature for maximum toughness. 10.78 Note in Fig. 10.9 that, as expected, the elastic modulus of the polymer decreases as temperature increases. Using the stress-strain curves given in the figure, make a plot of the modulus of elasticity versus temperature.

Temperature 0% 40% % Increase 100 200a 100 250b,c 150 70 150a 114 295b 321 80c 14 Flexural modulus 1.4 12a,b 757 (GPa) 25c 1686 Flexural strength 150 300a 100 (MPa) 330b 120 350c 133 Notes: 1. short glass; 2. long glass; 3. carbon. Property Tensile strength (MPa) Impact energy (J/m)

Note that all curves start at the origin, and undergo a transition from linear elastic behavior to plastic behavior at a strain of approximately 4%. We can therefore estimate the elastic modulus from the slope of the curves up to 4% strain. The following table can be constructed: 10.80 A rectangular cantilever beam 75-mm high, 25mm wide, and 1-m long is subjected to a concentrated force of 100 N at its end. Select two Stress at Elastic different unreinforced and reinforced materials Temperature 4% strain modulus from Table 10.1, and calculate the maximum (◦ C) (MPa) (GPa) deflection of the beam. Then select aluminum -25 70 1.75 and steel, and for the same beam dimensions, 0 60 1.5 calculate the maximum deflection. Compare 25 40 1.0 the results. 50 25 0.625 65 20 0.50 This is a simple mechanics of solids problem in 80 13 0.325 which the governing equation for the deflection, d, of a cantilever beam with a concentrated load of P (=100 N) at the end is

Elastic Modulus (GPa)

The resulting plot is as follows:

d=

2.0 1.5

P L3 3EI

where L is the beam length (1 m), E the elastic modulus of the material chosen from Table 10.1, and I is the moment of inertia, i.e.,

1.0 0.5 0 -25

0

25 50 75 Temperature (°C)

I=

100

(25)(75)3 bh3 = = 8.79 × 105 mm4 12 12

Substituting for moment of inertia, load, and 156

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Product Bearings

length gives the deflection as

Gears

d

= = =

P L3 3EI (100 N)(1 m)3 1 3 (8.79 × 105 mm4 ) E 3.792 × 107 N/m E

Cams Lenses Furniture Housings Low wear Guards Pipes Toys

Thus, the higher the elastic modulus, the smaller the deflection of the beam. Examples of the results are as follows:

Electrical insulation Food contact Gaskets

Polymers Acetals, fluorocarbons, nylon, polyimides Acetals, nylon, polyester, polyimides Acetals, polyester Acrylics, cellulosics, polycarbonates Acrylics, polystyrene Acetals, ABS, polypropylene, polysulfone, aminos Nylon, polyethylene Cellulosics, polycarbonates ABS, cellulosics, polypropylene, PVC Cellulosics, polyethylene, polystyrene Fluorocarbons, nylon, polycarbonate, polypropylene, polysulfone, PVC Polycarbonate, polypropylene, polystyrenes, melamine Fluorocarbons, PVC, silicones

10.82 Determine the dimensions of a tubular steel drive shaft for a typical automobile. If you now replace this shaft with shafts made of unreinforced and reinforced plastic, respectively, what should be the shaft’s new dimensions to transmit the same torque for each case? Choose the materials from Table 10.1, and assume a Poisson’s ratio of 0.4.

Material E (GPa) d (mm) Aluminum 70a 0.542 Steel 200a 0.190 ABS, nylon 1.4 27.1 Polyesters 2.0 19.0 Polystyrene 2.7 14.0 Note: a From Table 2.1.

Note that the answers will vary widely depending on the shaft dimensions. However, J= 10.81 In Sections 10.5 and 10.6, we listed several plastics and their applications. Rearrange this information, respectively, by making a table of products and the type of plastics that can be used to make the products.

The following is an example of an acceptable answer to this problem. Note that there are many approaches and part classifications that could be used, and the information in the textbook could be supplemented with Internet searches. Also, many more products could be listed if desired.

π Do4 − Di4 32

The shear stress under pure torsion for a tubular shaft is given by τ=

16T Do T (Do /2) = J π (Do4 − Di4 )

Therefore, the torque that can be carried by the shaft at the shear yield stress of the material is kπ Do4 − Di4 T = 16Do Since steel has a higher shear stress than reinforced polymers, the tube dimensions will have to be modified in order to accommodate the

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same torque. Using an s subscript for steel and p for polymer, it can be seen that 4 4 4 4 kp π Dop − Dip ks π Dos − Dis = 16Dos 16Dop

materials involved does not influence the results. Since the problem refers only to changes in strength, it is assumed that the moduli of elasticity are the same as in the original example.

or

If the strength is unaffected, but the elastic moduli are changed, there will be an effect on the load supported by the fibers. The percentage of the load supported by the fibers can then be calculated as follows:

4 4 −1 Dop − Dip Dop ks = −1 4 4 ) kp Dos (Dos − Dis

As an example, compare a low-carbon steel (UTS=395 MPa) to reinforced ABS, with a UTS of 100 MPa. For solid shafts, (Dis = Dip = 0), the required outer diameter of the ABS shaft is 395 = 100

Ec = (0.2)(600) + (1 − 0.2)(50) = 120 + 40 or Ec = 160 GPa. Also,

4 (1/Dop ) Dop 4 (1/Dop ) Dop

120 (0.20)(600) Ff = =3 = Fm (0.8)(50) 40

or

or

Dop = (3.95)1/3 Dos = 1.58Dos

Fc = Ff + Ff /3 = 1.33Ff

10.83 Calculate the average increase in the properties of the plastics listed in Table 10.1 as a result of their reinforcement, and describe your observations.

and Ff = 0.75Fc Thus, the fibers support 75% of the load in this composite material. As expected, this percentage is higher than the 43% in the sample calculations given in Example 10.4.

The results are given in the following table.

PropMaterial propertya ABS UTS E Acetal UTS E Epoxy UTS E Nylon UTS E PolycarbUTS onate E Polyester UTS E PolypropUTS ylene E Note: (a) UTS in MPa, E

Unreinforced (ave) 41.5 2.1 62.5 2.45 87.5 10.2 69 2.1 62.5 2.1 55 2.0 27.5 0.95 in GPa

Reinforced (ave) 100 7.5 135 10.0 735 36.5 140 6.0 110 6.0 135 10.2 70 4.75

Average increase % 59 54 73 75.5 648 263 71 39 48 39 80 82 43 38

10.85 Estimate the die clamping force required for injection molding 10 identical 1.5-in.-diameter disks in one die. Include the runners of appropriate length and diameter.

10.84 In Example 10.4, what would be the percentage of the load supported by the fibers if their strength is 1250 MPa and the matrix strength is 240 MPa? What if the strength is unaffected, but the elastic modulus of the fiber is 600 GPa while the matrix is 50 GPa? A review of the calculations in Example 10.4 on p. 617 indicates that the strength of the

Note that this question can be answered in several ways, and that the layout is somewhat arbitrary. In fact, the force could conceivably be based on the thickness of the disc, but this would be a much more difficult cavity to machine into a die, and a far more difficult part to eject. Instead, we will use central sprues with runners to feed two rows of five discs each. Using 0.25-in. diameter runners, their contribution to the area is Arunners = 2(0.25 in.)(10 in) = 5 in2 Note that we have allowed some extra space to have clearance between the disks. The total disk surface area is then 2 πd π(1.5 in.)2 Adiscs = 10 = 10 4 4

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or Adiscs = 17.7 in2 . Therefore, the total surface area of the mold is about 23 in2 . As stated in Section 10.10.2, injection pressures range from 10,000 to 30,000 psi. Therefore, the clamping force will range from 230,000 (115) to 690,000 lb (345 tons).

Strain rate γ (s−1 ) 10 23 100 230 1000

10.86 A two-liter plastic beverage bottle is made from a parison with the same diameter as the threaded neck of the bottle and has a length of 5 in. Assuming uniform deformation during blow molding, estimate the wall thickness of the tubular section.

The plot is constructed from this data as follows: Viscosity, η (Ns/m2)

12,000

This problem will use typical values for two-liter bottle dimensions, but small deviations from these numbers, and hence the answer, are likely. If open-ended problems are not desirable, the student can be asked to use L = 9 in., D = 4.25 in., and t = 0.015 in. for the finished bottle, with a 1.125 in. diameter neck. These are reasonable values that are used in this solution.

→

η=72,465γ-0.707

4,000

0

400

800

Strain rate, γ (s-1)

1200

A curve fit of the form of η = Aγ 1−n is fit to the data, suggesting that the consistency index is A = 72, 465 Ns/m2 , and that the power law index is 1 − n = −0.707

V = πDLt = π(4.25)(9)(0.015) = 1.8 in3

1.8 = π(1.125)tp (5)

8,000

0

The volume of the plastic material is estimated as

As stated in the problem, the parison is a tubular piece 5 in. long, and its diameter is the same as the threaded neck of a two-liter bottle, i.e., about 1 18 in., as measured. Let’s assume that, as in metals, the volume of the material does not change during processing (although this is not a good assumption because of significant density variations in polymers due to changes in the free space or free volume in their molecular structure). Assuming volume constancy as an approximation, the thickness tp of the parison is calculated as

Viscosity (Ns/m2 ) 11,000 8000 6000 1000 500

→

n = 1.707

10.88 An extruder has a barrel diameter of 100 mm. The screw rotates at 100 rpm, has a channel depth of 6 mm, and a flight angle of 17.5◦ . What is the highest flow rate of polypropylene that can be achieved? The highest flow rate is if there is zero pressure at the end of the barrel, and then we have pure drag flow, given by Eq. (10.20) as π 2 D2 HN sin θ cos θ 2 Using D = 100 mm, H = 6 mm, N = 100 rpm and θ = 17.5◦ gives Qd =

π 2 (100)2 (6)(100) sin 17.5◦ cos 17.5◦ 2 6 or Qd = 8.49 × 10 mm3 /min = 141,500 mm3 /sec.

tp = 0.10 in.

Qd =

10.87 Estimate the consistency index and power-law index for the polymers in Fig. 10.12. The solution requires consideration of the data given in Fig. 10.12b on p. 597. As an example, consider rigid PVC at 190◦ C. The following data is interpolated from the curve:

10.89 The extruder in Problem 10.88 has a pumping section that is 2.5 m long and is used to extrude round polyethylene solid rod. The die has a land of 1 mm and a diameter of 5 mm. If the polyethylene is at a mean temperature of

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250◦ C, what is the flow rate through the die? What if the die diameter is 10 mm? The extruder characteristic Eq. (10.23) on p. 621 as Q=

is

given

by

The pressure at the die can be determined from the die characteristic and the required flow rate, using Eq. (10.25):

π 2 D2 HN sin θ cos θ πDH 3 sin2 θ − p 2 12ηl

For polyethylene at 250◦ C, the viscosity η is about 80 Ns/m2 , as obtained from Fig. 10.12. Also, from the statement of Problem 10.88, we know that D = 100 mm, H = 6 mm, N = 100 rpm, and θ = 17.5◦ ; l is given as 2.5 m. Therefore, the extruder characteristic is Q =

lb-s/in2 . If the die characteristic is experimentally determined as Qx = (0.00210 in5 /lb-s)p, what screw speed is required to achieve a flow rate of 7 in3 /s from the extruder?

π 2 (0.100)2 (0.006)(100) sin 17.5◦ cos 17.5◦ 2 π(0.100)(0.006)3 sin2 17.5◦ − p 12 (80) (3)

or

Q = 7 in3 /s = Kp = (0.00210 in5 /lb-s)p Solving for p, p=

7 = 3.333 ksi 0.00210

From Eq. (10.23), the extruder characteristic is Q=

π 2 D2 HN sin θ cos θ πDH 3 sin2 θ − p 2 12ηl

Solving for N , Q =

0.00849 m3 /min − 2.13 × 10−12 m5 /N-min p

N=

For this die, the die characteristic is given by Eq. (10.25) on p. 621, where K is evaluated from Eq. (10.26) as K=

2 2 2 π D H sin θ cos θ

Q+

πDH 3 sin2 θ p 12ηl

or N

=

πDd4 π(0.005)4 = 128ηld 128(80)(0.001)

2 π 2 (4)2 (0.25) sin 18◦ cos 18◦ π(4)(0.25)3 sin2 18◦ (3333) × 7+ 12 (100 × 10−4 ) (72)

or K = 1.15 × 10−10 m5 /N-min. Therefore, the or N = 2.45 rev/s, or 147 rpm. die characteristic is given by Q = Kp = 1.15 × 10−10 m5 /N-min p 10.91 What flight angle should be used on a screw so that a flight translates a distance equal to the We now have two equations and two unknowns; barrel diameter with every revolution? these are solved as p = 72.5 MPa and Q = 0.00833 m3 /min. Refer to the following figure: If the die has a diameter of 10 mm, then K=

L

π(0.010)4 πDd4 = 128ηld 128(80)(0.001)

Barrel

or K = 3.07 × 10−9 , and the simultaneous equations then yield Q = 0.00848 m3 /min and p = 2.7 MPa. 10.90 An extruder has a barrel diameter of 4 in., a channel depth of 0.25 in., a flight angle of 18◦ , and a pumping zone that is 6 ft long. It is used to pump a plastic with a viscosity of 100 × 10−4

θ D

Barrel

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The relationship between the screw angle, θ, the lead, L, and diameter, D, can be best seen by unwrapping a revolution of the screw. This gives L θ = tan−1 πD For L = D, we have D 1 −1 −1 θ = tan = tan πD π

circle has an area of 1257 mm2 ; thus, a laser would have to travel a total distance of 7.35 m using the 0.171 mm linewidth. Since the required energy is 10 kJ for a length of 0.25 mm and the power available is 10 MW, the spot velocity can be obtained from 10 MW =

10 kJ v 0.25 mm

Solving for the velocity yields v = 0.25 m/s. Therefore, the laser will take 7.35/0.25=29.4 s to cure the circle.

Therefore, θ = 17.6◦ .

10.92 For a laser providing 10 kJ of energy to a 10.94 The extruder head in a fused-depositionspot with diameter of 0.25 mm, determine the modeling setup has a diameter of 1 mm (0.04 cure depth and the cured line width in sterein.) and produces layers that are 0.25 mm (0.01 olithography. Use Ec = 6.36 × 1010 J/m2 and in.) thick. If the velocities of the extruder head Dp = 100 µm. and polymer extrudate are both 50 mm/s, estimate the production time for generating a 50The exposure at the surface of the material is mm (2-in.) solid cube. Assume that there is a given by 15-s delay between layers as the extruder head is moved over a wire brush for cleaning. 10 kJ 2 11 J/m Eo = π 2 = 2.04 × 10 4 (0.25 mm) Note that although the calculations are given below, in practice, the rapid-prototyping softFor Dp = 100 µm=0.1 mm, Eq. (10.29) on ware can easily make such a calculation. Since p. 644 gives the cure depth as the thickness of the cube is 50 mm and the lay ers are 0.25 mm thick, there are 200 layers, for a Eo Cd = Dp ln total inactive’ time of (200)(15 s)=3000 s. Note Ec also that the cross section of the extruded fila2.04 × 1011 ment in this case is highly elliptical, and thus its = (0.1 mm) ln 6.36 × 1010 shape is not easily determined from the infor= 0.116 mm mation given in the problem statement. HowTherefore, the linewidth is given by Eq. (10.30) as s s Cd 0.116 Lw = B = (0.25 mm) 2Dp 2(0.1) or Lw = 0.19 mm. Note that this is smaller than the laser diameter of 0.25 mm. 10.93 For the stereolithography system described in Problem 10.92, estimate the time required to cure a layer defined by a 40-mm circle if adjacent lines overlap each other by 10% and the power available is 10 MW.

ever, the polymer extrudate speed is given as 50 mm/s and the orifice diameter is 1 mm, hence the volume flow rate is hπ i Q = vA = (50 mm/s) (1 mm)2 4 = 39.27 mm3 /s The cube has a volume of (50)(50)(50)=125,000 mm3 and the time required to extrude this volume is 125,000/39.27=3180 s. Hence, the total production time is 3180 s + 3000 s = 6180 s = 1.7 hrs. Note that this estimate does not include any porosity, and it assumes that extrusion is continuous. In practice, however, the extruder has to periodically pick up and move to a new location in a layer.

The following solution uses the results from the solution to Problem 10.92. If the linewidth is 0.19 mm, the allowable linewidth to incorporate 10.95 Using the data for Problem 10.94 and assuma 10% overlap is 0.171 mm. A 40-mm diameter ing that the porosity of the support material is 161

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50%, calculate the production rate for making a 100-mm (4-in.) high cup with an outside diameter of 88 mm (3.5 in.) and wall thickness of 6 mm (0.25 in.). Consider both the case with the closed-end (a) down and (b) up. (a) (a) Closed-end down. No support material is needed. There are 400 layers, so the inactive’ time is 6000 s. The cup wall volume is V

Q =

=

(b) (b) Closed-end up. In addition to the wall, the interior must now be filled with support for the closed-end on top. The volume of the cup is V

= = =

π 2 d h 4 π (88 mm)2 (100 mm) 4 608, 000 mm3

10.96 What would the answer to Example 10.5 be if the nylon has a power law viscosity with n = 0.5? What if n = 0.2? Since the nylon has a power law viscosity, then Eq. (10.24) on p. 621 has to be used for the extruder characteristic, instead of Eq. (10.23). The extruder characteristic is thus given by 4+n Q = π 2 HD2 N sin θ cos θ 10 −

pπDH 3 sin2 θ (1 + 2n)4η

π(0.05)(0.007)3 sin2 20◦ p [1 + 2(0.5)](4)(300)

2.08 × 10−5 − 2.62 × 10−12 p

If the same die characteristic can be used, then there are two equations and two unknowns. This results in p = 4.01 MPa and Q = 1.03 × 10−5 m3 /s. Using the more realistic value of n = 0.2, the extruder characteristics becomes 4+n Q = π 2 HD2 N sin θ cos θ 10 pπDH 3 sin2 θ (1 − 2n)4η 4 + 0.2 = π2 10 × (0.007)(0.05)2 (0.833) sin 20◦ cos 20◦ −

−

Since the support material has a porosity of 50%, the time required to extrude the support material is t = 304, 000/39.27 = 7740 s = 2.2 hrs. Therefore, the total time for producing the part and the support is 3.1 + 2.2 = 5.3 hrs. 10.97

π 2 HD2 N sin θ cos θ

pπDH 3 sin2 θ (1 + 2n)4η 4 + 0.5 = π2 10 × (0.007)(0.05)2 (0.833) sin 20◦ cos 20◦

=

or V = 202, 000 mm3 . It takes 202, 000/39.27 = 5140 s to extrude; the total time is 6000 + 5140 = 11, 140 s = 3.1 hrs.

−

−

π 2 d t + πdht 4 π (88 mm)2 (6 mm) = 4 +π(88 mm)(100 mm)(6 mm)

4+n 10

=

π(0.05)(0.007)3 sin2 20◦ p [1 + 2(0.2)](4)(300)

1.94 × 10−5 − 3.75 × 10−12 p

If the same die characteristic can be used, there are two equations and two unknowns. This results in p = 3.07 MPa and Q = 7.87 × 10−6 m3 /s. Referring to Fig. 10.7, plot the relaxation curves (i.e., the stress as a function of time) if a unit strain is applied at time t = to . Consider first the simple spring and dashpot models shown in parts (a) and (b) of the figure. If a unit strain is applied to a spring, the force developed is F = k, where k is the stiffness of the spring. This force will be maintained and will not change as long as the deformation is maintained. For the dashpot model, a unit change in strain causes an infinite force, but the force quickly drops to zero as the strain is maintained, because the strain rate is zero. Thus, the relaxation curve for a spring is a constant,

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and for the dashpot, it is a multiple of the Dirac delta function. For the Maxwell model, when the unit strain is applied, the spring immediately stretches since the dashpot has a high resistance to deformation. As the deformation is held, the load is transferred from the spring. The relaxation function is given by

has a higher coefficient of thermal expansion than the matrix, so that the fibers are compressed by the internal stress and the matrix is loaded in tension. Therefore, the deformation of the fibers is given by σf l δf = αf ∆tl − Ef and for the matrix:

−(k/η)t

σ(t) = ke

δm = αm ∆tl +

where k is the spring stiffness and η is the coefficient of viscosity for the dashpot. For the Voigt model, the application of a unit strain causes the dashpot to develop infinite force. After t = 0, the strain rate is zero and the dashpot develops no force, so that the force is that generated by the spring under a unit strain. The relaxation curve for the Voigt model is given by

Since the deformations have to be equal, we have σf σm l = αm ∆tl + l αf ∆tl − Ef Em or (αf − αm )∆t =

σf σm + Ef Em

Note that the internal forces must balance each other, so that

σ(t) = ηδ(t) + k

σf Af = −σm Am These

where the minus sign indicates that the fibers are loaded in compression and the matrix in tension (or vice-versa). Thus,

Stress

where δ is the Dirac delta function. curves are plotted below: Stress

σm l Em

σm =

x σf 1−x

Substituting, we have t=0

Time

t=0

Time

(αf − αm )∆t = σf

10.98 Derive a general expression for the coefficient of thermal expansion for a continuous fiberreinforced composite in the fiber direction. Note that, in this case, a temperature rise leads to a thermal expansion of the composite, so that its deflection can be written as

where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and a c subscript indicates a property of the composite. For the fiber and matrix, there will be an internal stress developed, unless the coefficients of thermal expansion are the same for the fiber and the matrix. If not, then an internal stress is developed in order to ensure that the fiber and matrix undergo the same deformation as the composite. Assume that the fiber

Solving for σf , σf = h

(αf − αm )∆t 1 Ef

+

x (1−x)Em

i

Therefore, the fiber deformation becomes δf

δc = αc ∆tl

1 x + Ef (1 − x)Em

(αf − αm )∆t h il x Ef E1f + (1−x)E m (αf − αm ) h i ∆tl = αf − 1 x E + = αf ∆tl −

f

Ef

(1−x)Em

Since this is the same as the deformation of the composite, (αf − αm ) i ∆tl αc ∆tl = αf − h Ef 1+ x (1−x) Em

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or αc = αf − h

Substituting into Eq. (10.12) yields (1 − x)Em Fc = Ff + Fm = Ff + Ff xEf

(αf − αm ) 1+

Ef x (1−x) Em

i

10.99 Estimate the number of molecules in a typical automobile tire. Estimate the number of atoms. An automobile tire is an example of a highly cross-linked network structure (see Fig. 10.3). In theory, a networked structure can continue indefinitely, so that an automobile tire could be considered as one giant molecule. In reality, there are probably a few thousand molecules. Although tires come in a wide variety of sizes, consider a tire with 10 kg of rubber, produced from polybutadiene, (C4 H6 )n . (Note that there is additional weight associated with the reinforcement and pigment in the tire.) The atomic weight of carbon is 12.011 and that of hydrogen is 1.0079, as obtained from a periodic table of elements. Thus, a polybutadiene mer has a molecular weight of 54.09. Therefore, 10.101 a mole of such mers (or 10 moles of atoms) would weigh 54.09 grams. In a 20-kg tire, there are 20000/54.09 = 370 moles of butadiene mers, or 3700 moles of atoms. Since 1 mole = 6.023 × 1023 , there are 2.23 × 1027 atoms in a tire. 10.100 Calculate the elastic modulus and percentage of load supported by fibers in a composite with an epoxy matrix (E = 10 GPa), with 20% fibers made of (a) high-modulus carbon and (b) Kevlar 29. From Table 10.4 on p. 609, for high-modulus carbon, E = 415 GPa and for Kevlar 29, E = 62 GPa. For x = 0.2, Eq. (10.16) on p. 617 gives, for the high-modulus carbon, Ec

= xEf + (1 − x)Em = (0.2)(415 GPa) + (1 − 0.2)(10 GPa) = 91 GPa

For the high-modulus carbon reinforced epoxy composite, (1 − 0.2)(10) Fc = 1 + Ff = 1.10Ff (0.2)(415) or Ff = 0.91Fc . For the Kevlar fiber-reinforced composite, (1 − 0.2)(10) Ff = 1.65Ff Fc = 1 + (0.2)(62) or Ff = 0.61Fc . Calculate the stress in the fibers and in the matrix for Problem 10.100. Assume that the crosssectional area is 50 mm2 and Fc = 2000 N. Using the results for Problem 10.100, we note: (a) For the high-modulus carbon fibers, Af = 0.2Ac = 0.2(50 mm2 ) = 10 mm2 Ff = 0.91Fc = 0.91(2000 N) = 1820 N Therefore, σf =

1820 N = 182M P a 10 mm2

Similarly, Am = 40 mm2 , Fm = 180 N, and σm = 4.5 MPa.

Af = 0.2Ac = 0.2(50 mm2 ) = 10 mm2 Ff = 0.61Fc = 0.61(2000 N) = 1220 N Therefore,

Ff Af Ef xAEf xEf = = = Fm Am Em (1 − x)AEm (1 − x)Em

σf =

So that Fm is:

(1 − x)Em Fc = 1 + Ff xEf

(b) For the Kevlar 29 fibers,

The same calculation for Kevlar 29 gives Ec = 20.4 GPa. Using Eq. (10.15),

Fm =

or

1220 N = 122M P a 10 mm2

and for the matrix, Am = 40 mm2 , Fm = 780 N, and σm = 19.5 MPa.

(1 − x)Em Ff xEf 164

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or

10.102 Consider a composite consisting of reinforcing fibers with Ef = 300 GPa. If the allowable fiber stress is 200 MPa and the matrix strength is 50 MPa, what should be the matrix stiffness so that the fibers and matrix fail simultaneously?

200 300 = 50 Em

which is solved as Em = 75M P a. 10.103 Assume that you are asked to give a quiz to students on the contents of this chapter. Prepare five quantitative problems and five qualitative questions, and supply the answers.

From Eq. (10.15), x Ef x 300 Ff = = Fm 1 − x Em 1 − x Em

By the student. This is a challenging question that requires considerable focus and understanding on the part of the students, and has been found to be a very valuable homework problem.

Since F = σA, σf Af 200xA x 300 Ff = = = Fm σm Am 50(1 − x)A 1 − x Em

DESIGN 10.104 Make a survey of the recent technical literature and present data indicating the effects of fiber length on such mechanical properties as the strength, elastic modulus, and impact energy of reinforced plastics. By the student.

in unopened plastic bottles after a certain period of time. Other important considerations are chilling characteristics, labeling, feel, aesthetics, and ease of opening. 10.106 Using specific examples, discuss the design issues involved in various products made of plastics versus reinforced plastics.

10.105 Discuss the design considerations involved in replacing a metal beverage container with a container made of plastic. By the student. See also Question 10.40 which pertains to manufacturing considerations of beverage cans. This is an open-ended problem that can involve a wide variety of topics. Some of the major concerns are as follows. Note that the beverage can must be non-toxic and should have sufficient strength resist rupturing under internal pressure (which typically is on 10.107 the order of about 120 psi) or buckling under a compressive load during stacking in stores. The can should maintain its properties, from low temperatures in the refrigerator to hot summer temperatures outside, especially under the sun in hot climates. Particularly important is the gas permeability of plastic containers which will significantly reduce their shelf life. Note how soft drinks begin to lose their carbonation

By the student. Reinforced plastics are superior to conventional plastics in terms of strength and strength- and stiffness-to-weight ratios, but not cost (see also Table 10.1 on p. 585. Consequently, their use is more common for critical applications. For example, the bucket supporting power-line service personnel is made of reinforced fiber, as are ladders and pressurized gas storage tanks (for oxygen, nitrogen, etc.) on the Space Shuttle. Make a list of products, parts, or components that are not currently made of plastics, and offer reasons why they are not. By the student. Consider, as examples, the following: • Some products, such as machine guards or automobile fenders, give an impression of robustness if made of a metal but not if made of a plastic.

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• Plastics are generally not suitable for high temperature applications, such as automobile pistons, cookware, or turbine blades. • Plastics are too compliant (flexible) for applications for machine elements such as ball bearings, cams, or highly-loaded gears. 10.108 In order to use a steel or aluminum container to 10.111 hold an acidic material, such as tomato juice or sauce, the inside of the container is coated with a polymeric barrier. Describe the methods of producing such a container. (See also Chapter 7.) By the student. The students are encouraged to section various cans and inspect their inner surfaces. The most common method is to (a) 10.112 dissolve a thermosetting polymer in a chemical liquid carrier, usually a ketone, (b) spraying it onto the interior of the can, and (c) boiling off, leaving an adherent polymer coating. A less common approach is to laminate or coat the inside surface of the sheet stock with a metallic materials.

trix alone, since the soft and flexible reinforcement material would blunt a propagating crack. However, such a composites usefulness will depend on whether or not it has a combination of higher strength and toughness than a composite with a ductile matrix and a strong reinforcement. Make a list of products for which the use of composite materials could be advantageous because of their anisotropic properties. By the student. Consider the following examples: cables, packaging tape, pressure vessels and tubing, tires (steel-belted radials), and sports equipment. Name several product designs in which both specific strength and specific stiffness are important. Specific strength and specific stiffness are important in applications where the material should be light and possess good strength and stiffness. A few specific applications are structural airplane components, helicopter blades, and automobile body panels.

10.109 Using the information given in this chapter, develop special designs and shapes for possible new applications of composite materials. 10.113 Describe designs and applications in which strength in the thickness direction of a comBy the student. This is a challenging topic posite is important. and suitable for a technical paper. Consider, for example, the following two possibilities: (a) A tough transparent polymer, such as polycarbonate, that is reinforced with glass fibers. Strength will increase but transparency will be reduced. (b) A ceramic-matrix composite reinforced with copper, thus help diminish thermal cracking of the ceramic. If continuously dispersed throughout the matrix, the copper would conduct heat evenly throughout the matrix and thus reduce the thermal gradients in the composite. However, the composites op10.114 erating temperature should be below the melting point of copper, even though ceramics resist high temperatures. 10.110 Would a composite material with a strong and stiff matrix and soft and flexible reinforcement have any practical uses? Explain. By the student. This type of composite probably will have a higher toughness than the ma-

By the student. The thickness direction is important, for example, in thick-walled pressure vessels, with application for high-pressure service of hydraulic fluids as well as for residential water service. Radial reinforcement can be done with discontinuous fibers, provided they are oriented in the optimum direction. The students are encouraged to search the literature to provide various other examples. Design and describe a test method to determine the mechanical properties of reinforced plastics in their thickness direction. By the student. This is a challenging problem, and a literature search will be useful as a guide to developing appropriate techniques. The mechanical properties in the thickness direction are difficult to measure because of the small thickness as compared with the surface

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area of a specimen. Note, however, that tension tests in the thickness direction can be carried out by adhesively bonding both surfaces 10.118 with metal plates, and then pulling the plates apart by some suitable means. A feasible and indirect approach may be to derive the properties in the thickness direction by performing tests in the other two principal directions, and then applying a failure criterion, as described in applied mechanics texts. 10.115 We have seen that reinforced plastics can be adversely affected by environmental factors, such as moisture, chemicals, and temperature variations. Design and describe test methods to determine the mechanical properties of composite materials under these conditions.

opaque and come in very limited colors, such as black or brown. It is possible to weave fibers in three dimensions, and to impregnate the weave with a curable resin. Describe the property differences that such materials would have compared to laminated composite materials. By the student. This is a challenging topic, requiring literature search. An example of an orthogonal three-dimensional weave is shown in the accompanying figure, to give a perspective to the items listed below.

By the student. This is an important and challenging topic. Note that simple experiments, such as tension tests, are suitable when conducted in a controlled environment. Chambers are commonly installed around test specimens for such environmentally-controlled testing. 10.116 As with other materials, the mechanical properties of composites are obtained by preparing appropriate specimens and testing them. Explain what problems you might encounter in preparing specimens for testing and in the actual testing process itself. By the student. Testing composite materials can be challenging because of anisotropic behavior, with significant warping possible, as well as difficulties involved in preparing appropriate specimens and clamping them in the test equipment. Other approaches would measure deformation in more than one direction (as opposed to conventional tests where generally only the longitudinal strain is measured). Traditional dogbone specimens can be used. 10.117 Add a column to Table 10.1, describing the appearance of these plastics, including available colors and opaqueness. By the student. Note that most thermoplastics can be made opaque, but only a few (such as acrylics and polycarbonates) are transparent. Most plastics are available in a variety of colors, such as polyethylene and ABS. Thermosets are

In general, the following comments can be made regarding three-dimensional weaves as compared to laminate composites: • The through-thickness properties can be tailored for a particular application and can be superior for 3D-weaves. • 3D woven composites have a higher delamination resistance and impact damage tolerance than 2D laminated composites. • Different materials can be blended into a fiber prior to weaving. Indeed, most clothing involves blends of polymers or of polymers and natural fibers such as cotton or linen. • The size of the weave can be varied more easily to allow for changes in the structure of such a material. • 3D woven composites are more difficult and expensive to manufacture than 2D composites produced from laminated materials. • 3D woven composites have lower mechanical properties than laminated composites.

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10.119 Conduct a survey of various sports equipment and identify the components that are made of composite materials. Explain the reason for and the advantages of using composites in these applications.

forming forces. The main reason that polymer tooling has become of greater interest is the availability of rapid prototyping technologies that are capable of producing such tools and die inserts with low cost and lead times.

By the student. Consider, for example, the fol- 10.122 For ease of sorting for recycling, all plastic prodlowing: ucts are now identified with a triangular symbol with a single-digit number at its center and two • Tennis and racquetball racquets made of or more letters under it. Explain what these fiber reinforced composites. The main numbers indicate and why they are used. reasons are to reduce weight, improve the stiffness-to-weight ratio, and increase This information can be summarized as (see damping. also top of p. 607): • Other examples with similar desired characteristics are softball bats, golf-club shafts, skis and ski bindings, and hockey and jai-alai sticks.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Polyethylene High-density polyethylene Vinyl Low-density polyethylene Polypropylene Polystyrene Other

10.120 Instead of a having a constant cross section, it may be possible to make fibers or whiskers with a varying cross section or a fiber with a wavy surface. What advantages would such fibers have? 10.123 Obtain different kinds of toothpaste tubes, carefully cut them across with a sharp razor By the student. Perhaps the most compelling blade, and comment on your observations rereason for this approach is associated with the garding the type of materials used and how the relatively poor adhesive bond that may develop tube could be produced. between fibers and the matrix in a composite material. In discontinuous-fiber-reinforced By the student. This is a topic suitable for composites, especially, failure is associated with some research. It will be noted that some colpull-out of the fiber (see Fig. 10.20). With a lapsible tubes are blow molded, others are inwavy fiber, there is mechanical interlocking bejection molded at one end and the other end is tween the matrix and fiber. Note, for example, sealed by hot-tool welding (see Section 12.16.1). steel bars for reinforced concrete with textured Another design is injection-molded rigid tubing surfaces for better interfacial strength between where the toothpaste is pumped out during use. the bar and the concrete. Note also that some collapsible tubes have walls that consist of multilayers of different materials 10.121 Polymers (either plain or reinforced) can be a and sealed on the closed end. suitable material for dies in sheet-metal forming operations described in Chapter 7. Describe 10.124 Design a machine that uses rapid-prototyping your thoughts, considering die geometry and technologies to produce ice sculptures. Deany other factors that may be relevant. scribe its basic features, commenting on the effect of size and shape complexity on your deBy the student. See also p. 397. Recall that sign. this is already a practice in operations such as rubber-pad forming and hydroforming (Section By the student. Consider the following sugges7.5.3). The polymers must have sufficient rigidtions: ity, strength, and wear resistance. Considering these desirable characteristics, the use of plastic • A machine based on the principles of dies is likely to be appropriate and economical ballistic particle manufacturing (such as for relatively short production runs, and light three-dimensional printing) to spray small 168

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droplets of water onto a frozen base, producing a sculpture incrementally, layer by layer. • Sheets of ice can be produced and then cut with a heat source, such as a laser, to produce different shapes. The individual pieces would then be bonded, such as with a thin layer of water which then freezes, thus producing a sculpture. • Layers of shaved ice can be sprayed, using a water jet, under controlled conditions (similar to three-dimensional printing). Note that in all these processes, the outer surfaces of the sculpture will have to be smoothened for a better surface finish. This can be done, for instance, using a heat source (just as it is done in rounding the sharp edges of cut glass plates using a flame). 10.125 A manufacturing technique is being proposed that uses a variation of fused-deposition modeling, where there are two polymer filaments that

are melted and mixed before being extruded to produce the workpiece. What advantages does this method have? There are several advantages to this approach, including: • If the polymers have different colors, blending the polymers can produce a part with a built-in color scheme. • If the polymers have different mechanical properties, then functionally-graded materials can be produced, that is, materials with a designed blend of mechanical properties. • Higher production rates and better workpiece properties may be achieved. • If the second polymer can be leached, it can be developed into a technique for producing porous polymers or ship-in-thebottle type parts.

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Chapter 11

Properties and Processing of Metal Powders, Ceramics, Glasses, Composites, and Superconductors Questions Powder metallurgy

Powder-injection molding has become an important process because of its versatility and economics. Complex shapes can be obtained at high production rates using powder metals that are blended with a polymer or wax. Also, the parts can be produced with high density to net or near-net shape.

11.1 Explain the advantages of blending different metal powders. Metal powders are blended for the following basic reasons: (a) Powders can be mixed to obtain special physical, mechanical, and chemical characteristics.

11.4 Describe the events that occur during sintering. In sintering, a green P/M part is heated to a temperature of 70-90% of the lowest melting point in the blend. At these temperatures, two mechanisms of diffusion dominate: direct diffusion along an existing interface, and, more importantly, vapor-phase material transfer to convergent geometries. The result is that the particles that were loosely bonded become integrated into a strong but porous media.

(b) Lubricants and binders can be mixed with metal powders. (c) A uniform blend can impart better compaction properties and shorter sintering times. 11.2 Is green strength important in powder-metal processing? Explain. Green strength is very important in powdermetal processing. When a P/M part has been ejected from the compaction die, it must have sufficient strength to prevent damage and fracture prior to sintering.

11.5 What is mechanical alloying, and what are its advantages over conventional alloying of metals?

11.3 Give the reasons that injection molding of metal powders has become an important process.

In mechanical alloying, a desired blend of metal powders is placed into a ball mill (see Fig. 11.26b). The powders weld together when trapped between two or more impacting balls, and eventually are mechanically bonded and alloyed because of large plastic deformations

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they undergo. The main advantage of mechanical alloying is that the particles achieve a high hardness due to the large amount of cold work, and alloys which otherwise cannot be obtained through solidification can be achieved.

operations (Sections 11.2.20 and 11.3). It is beneficial to have angular shapes with approximately equally-sized particles to aid in bonding. 11.9 Comment on the shapes of the curves and their relative positions shown in Fig. 11.6.

11.6 It is possible to infiltrate P/M parts with various resins, as well as with metals. What possible benefits would result from infiltration? Give some examples. The main benefits to infiltration of a metal P/M part with another metal or polymer resin are: (a) There can be a significant increase in strength; (b) the infiltration can protect the P/M part from corrosion in certain environments; (c) the polymer resin can act as a solid lubricant; (d) the infiltrated part will have a higher density and mass in applications where this is desired.

At low compaction pressures, the density of P/M parts is low and at high compacting pressures, it approaches the theoretical density (that of the bulk material). Note that the concavity of the curves in Fig. 11.6a is downward, because in order to increase the density, smaller and smaller voids must be closed. Clearly, it is easier to shrink larger cavities in the material than smaller ones. Note that there is a minimum density at zero pressure. The results in Fig. 11.6b are to be expected because as density increases, there is less porosity and thus greater actual area in a cross-section; this leads to higher strength and electrical conductivity. The reason why elongation also increases with density is because of the lower number of porous sites that would reduce ductility (see Section 3.8.1).

11.7 What concerns would you have when electroplating P/M parts? 11.10 Should green compacts be brought up to the sintering temperature slowly or rapidly? ExBy the student. There are several concerns in plain. electroplating (pp. 159-160) P/M parts, including: Note that rapid heating can cause excessive (a) electroplating solutions are toxic and dangerous; (b) it may be difficult to remove the residue liquid from inside P/M parts;

thermal stresses in the part being sintered and can lead to distortion or cracking; on the other hand, it reduces cycle times and thus improve productivity. Slow heating has the advantage of allowing heating and diffusion to occur more uniformly.

(c) it will be very difficult to perform plating in the interior of the part, as there is low current density. Thus, only the sur- 11.11 Explain the effects of using fine vs. coarse powders in making P/M parts. face will be plated and it will be difficult to obtain a uniform surface finish. Coarse powders will have larger voids for the same compaction ratios, an analogy of which is 11.8 Describe the effects of different shapes and sizes the voids between marbles or tennis balls in a of metal powders in P/M processing, commentbox (see also Fig. 3.2). The larger voids result ing on the magnitude of the shape factor of the in lower density, strength, stiffness, and therparticles. mal and electrical conductivity of P/M parts. The shape, size, size distribution, porosity, The shape, size and distribution of particles, chemical purity, and bulk and surface characporosity, chemical purity, and bulk and surface teristics of metal particles are all important. As characteristics are also important because they expected, they have significant effects on perhave significant effects on permeability and flow meability and flow characteristics during comcharacteristics during compaction and in subsepaction in molds, and in subsequent sintering quent sintering operations. 172

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11.12 Are the requirements for punch and die materials in powder metallurgy different than those for forging and extrusion, described in Chapter 6? Explain.

The operation shown in Fig. 11.7d would require a double-action press, so that independent movements of the two punches can be obtained. This is usually accomplished with a mechanical press.

In forging, extrusion, and P/M compaction, abrasive resistance is a major consideration in 11.16 Explain the difference between impregnation and infiltration. Give some applications for die and punch material selection. For that reaeach. son, the dies on these operations utilize similar and sometimes identical materials (see TaThe main difference between impregnation and ble 3.6 on p. 114). Processes such as isostatic infiltration is the media (see Section 11.5). In pressing utilize flexible molds, which generally impregnation, the P/M part is immersed in a is not used in forging and extrusion. liquid, usually a lubricant, at elevated temperatures. The liquid is drawn into the P/M part 11.13 Describe the relative advantages and limitaby surface tension and fills the voids in the tions of cold and hot isostatic pressing, respecporous structure of the part. The lubricant tively. also lowers the friction and prevents wear of the part in actual use. In infiltration, a lowerCold isostatic pressing (CIP) and hot isostatic melting-point metal is drawn into the P/M part pressing (HIP) both have the advantages of prothrough capillary action. This is mainly done to ducing compacts with effectively uniform denprevent corrosion, although low-melting-point sity (Section 11.3.3). Shapes can be made with metals could be used for frictional considerauniform strength and toughness. The main adtions in demanding environments. vantage of HIP is its ability to produce compacts with essentially 100% density, good met11.17 Explain the advantages of making tool steels by allurgical bonding, and good mechanical propP/M techniques over traditional methods, such erties. However, the process is relatively expenas casting and subsequent metalworking techsive and is, therefore, used mainly for componiques. nents in the aerospace industry or in making special parts. From a cost standpoint, there may not be a major advantage because P/M itself requires 11.14 Why do mechanical and physical properties despecial tooling to produce the part. However, pend on the density of P/M parts? Explain. some tool steels are very difficult to machine to desired shapes. Thus, by producing a P/M The mechanical properties depend on density tooling, the machining difficulties are greatly for a number of reasons. Not only is there less reduced. P/M also allows the blending of commaterial in a given volume for less dense P/M ponents appropriate for cutting tools. parts, hence lower strength, but voids are stress concentrations. Thus, the less dense material 11.18 Why do compacting pressure and sintering temwill have more and larger voids. The modulus perature depend on the type of powder metal of elasticity decreases with increasing voids beused? Explain. cause there is less material across a cross section Different materials require different sintering and hence elongation is greater under the same temperatures basically because they have difload, as compared to a fully dense part. Physferent melting points. To develop good strength ical properties such as electrical and thermal between particles, the material must be raised conductivity are also affected adversely because to a high enough temperature where diffusion the less dense the P/M part is, the less material and second-phase transport mechanisms can is available to conduct electricity or heat. become active, which is typically around 90% 11.15 What type of press is required to compact powof the material melting temperature on an abders by the set of punches shown in Fig. 11.7d? solute scale. As for the compacting pressure, it (See also Chapters 6 and 7.) will depend on the type of metal powder such 173

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as its strength and ductility, the shape of the particles, and the interfacial frictional characteristics between the particles. 11.19 Name various methods of powder production and describe the morphology of powders produced.

the punch and from the container walls (see Fig. 11.7). The variation can be reduced by using double-acting presses, lowering the frictional resistance of the punch and die surfaces, or by adding lubricants that reduce interparticle friction among the powders.

11.23 It has been stated that P/M can be competitive with processes such as casting and forging. Explain why this is so, commenting on technical • Atomization: spherical (for gas atomized) and economic advantages. or rounded (for water atomized).

By the student. Refer to Fig. 11.2. Briefly:

• Reduction: spongy, porous, spherical or irregular • Electrolytic deposition: dendritic • Carbonyls: dense, spherical • Comminution: irregular, flaky, angular • Mechanical alloying: flaky, angular 11.20 Are there any hazards involved in P/M processing? If any, what are their causes?

By the student. Refer to Section 11.7. As an example, consider MIM which is commonly used with metals with high melting temperatures. This process requires fine metal powder that is mixed with a polymer and injection molded; the material costs are high. On the other hand, the applications for magnesium and aluminum die castings are in large volumes (camera frames, fittings, small toys) are economical and not as well-suited for MIM.

There are several hazards in P/M processing; 11.24 Selective laser sintering was described in Secthe major one is that powder metals can be tion 10.12.4 as a rapid prototyping technique. explosive (particularly aluminum, magnesium, What similarities does this process have with titanium, zirconium, and thorium). Thus, the processes described in this chapter? dust, sparks, and heat from friction should be By the student. Recall that selective laser sinavoided. In pressing, there are general concerns tering uses the phenomena described in Section associated with closing dies, where a finger may 11.4 and illustrated in Fig. 11.14. However, the be caught. high temperatures required to drive the mate11.21 What is screening of metal powders? Why is it rial transfer is obtained from a laser and not by done? heating in a furnace as in P/M. Selective laser sintering also has significant part shrinkage. In screening (Section 11.2.2), the metal powders are placed in a container with a number 11.25 Prepare an illustration similar to Fig. 6.28, showing the variety of P/M manufacturing opof screens; the top is coarsest, and the mesh is tions. increasingly fine towards the bottom of the container. As the container is vibrated, the partiBy the student. cles fall through the screens until their opening size is smaller than the particle diameter. Thus, Ceramics and other materials screening separates the particles into ranges or sizes. This is done in order to have good control 11.26 Describe the major differences between ceramics, metals, thermoplastics, and thermosets. of particle size. 11.22 Why is there density variations in compacted metal powders? How is it reduced? The main reason for density variation in compacting of powders is associated with mechanical locking and friction among the particles and the container walls. This leads to variations in pressure depending on distance from

By the student. This broad question will require extensive answers that can be tabulated by the student. Note, for example, that the chemistries are very different: ceramics are combinations of metals and non-metals, and plastics and thermosets involve repeating mers, usually based on long chains. Mechanically, the stress-strain behavior is very different as

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well; metals are linearly elastic and generally 11.30 Explain why the mechanical-property data have high ductility and lower strain-hardening given in Table 11.7 have such a broad range. coefficients than thermoplastics. Ceramics are What is the significance of this wide range in linearly elastic and brittle; thermoplastics flow engineering applications? above a critical temperature, while thermosets By the student. The mechanical properties are elastic and brittle. Comparisons could also given in Table 11.7 on p. 701 vary greatly bebe made regarding various other mechanical, cause the properties of ceramics depend on the physical, and chemical properties, as well as quality of the raw material, porosity, and the their numerous applications. manner of producing the parts. Engineering 11.27 Explain why ceramics are weaker in tension applications that require high and reliable methan in compression. chanical properties (e.g., aircraft and aerospace components) must assure that the materials Ceramics are very sensitive to cracks, impuriand processing of the part are the best availties, and porosity, and thus generally have low able. tensile strength and toughness (see, for example, Table 8.6 on p. 454). In compression, how- 11.31 List the factors that you would consider when ever, the flaws in the material do not cause replacing a metal component with a ceramic the stress concentrations as they do in tension, component. Give examples of such possible hence compressive strength is high. (See also substitutions. Section 3.8.) By the student. Review Section 11.8. Consider, 11.28 Why do the mechanical and physical properties for example, the following factors: of ceramics decrease with increasing porosity? Explain. • The main drawbacks of ceramics are low tensile strength and toughness. Hence, the Porosity can be considered microscopic air application of the metal component to be pockets in the ceramic. Thus, porosity will alreplaced should not require high tensile ways decrease the strength of the ceramic bestrength or impact resistance. cause of the smaller cross-sectional area that • If the ceramic part is subjected to wear, has to support the external load. The holes in then the performance of the mating matethe material also act as stress concentrations to rial is important. It could be that a threefurther lower the strength. The porosity also body wear (see p. 147) would be introacts as crack initiation sites, thus decreasing duced that could severely affect product toughness. Physical properties are affected likelife. wise, in that pores in the ceramic are typically filled with air, which has much lower thermal • Ceramics are typically probabilistic maand no electrical conductivity as compared with terials, that is, there is a wide range of ceramics. mechanical properties in ceramic parts, 11.29 What engineering applications could benefit from the fact that, unlike metals, ceramics generally maintain their modulus of elasticity at elevated temperatures?

whereas metals are typically deterministic and have a smaller distribution of strength. Thus, a major concern is whether or not a material is suitable for the particular design.

By the student. Consider, for example, that by • As with all engineering applications, cost retaining their high stiffness at elevated temis a dominant consideration. peratures (see, for example, Fig. 11.24), dimensional accuracy of the parts or of the mechan- 11.32 How are ceramics made tougher? Explain. ical system can be maintained. Some examples are bearings, cutting tools, turbine blades, Ceramics may be made tougher by using highmachine-tool components, and various highpurity materials, selecting appropriate protemperature applications. cessing techniques, embedding reinforcements, 175

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modifying surfaces and reducing surface deand (2) ceramics are generally difficult to mafects, and by intentionally producing microcchine or form to the desired die shapes with the racks (less than 1 mm in size) in the ceramic to required accuracy without additional finishing reduce the energy of propagation of an advancoperations. ing crack tip. Another important technique is doping (see pp. 159 and 605), resulting in two or 11.36 Describe applications in which the use of a ceramic material with a zero coefficient of thermal more phases, as in partially stabilized zirconia expansion would be desirable. (PSZ) and transformation toughened zirconia (TTZ). By the student. A ceramic material with a near-zero coefficient of thermal expansion (see 11.33 Describe situations and applications in which Fig. 11.23 and Section 3.9.5) would have a much static fatigue can be important. lower probability of thermal cracking when exposed to extreme temperature gradients, such Static fatigue (see top of p. 702) occurs under as in starting an engine, contacting of two solid a constant load and in environments where wasurfaces at widely different temperatures, and ter vapor is present. Applications such as loadtaking a frozen-food container and placing it in bearing members and sewer piping are suscepa hot oven. This property would thus be usetible to static fatigue if a tensile stress is deful in applications where the ceramic is to be veloped in the pipe by bending or torsion. The subjected to temperature ranges. Note also the student is encouraged to describe other appliproperties of glass ceramics (Section 11.10.4). cations. 11.34 Explain the difficulties involved in making large ceramic components. What recommendations would you make to overcome these difficulties?

11.37 Give reasons for the development of ceramicmatrix components. Name some present and other possible applications for such large components.

By the student. Large components are difficult to make from ceramics, mainly because the ceramic must be fired to fuse the constituent particles. Firing leads to shrinkage of the part, resulting in significant warpage or residual stresses. With large parts, these factors become even greater, so that it is very difficult to produce reliable large ceramic parts. Such parts may be made by reinforcing the structure, or by producing the structure from components with a ceramic coating or from assembled ceramic components. 11.35 Explain why ceramics are effective cutting-tool materials. Would ceramics also be suitable as die materials for metal forming? Explain.

By the student. Ceramic-matrix components have been developed for high-temperature and corrosive applications where the strength-toweight ratio of these materials is beneficial. The applications of interest include: • aircraft engine components, such as combustors, turbines, compressors, and exhaust nozzles; • ground-based and automotive gas turbine components, such as combustors, first and second stage turbine vanes and blades, and shrouds; • engines for missiles and reusable space vehicles; and

• industrial applications, such as heat exThere are many reasons, based on the topchangers, hot gas filters, and radiant burnics covered Chapters 6 through 8. Ceramics ers. are very effective cutting materials, based especially on their hot hardness (see Table 8.6 on 11.38 List the factors that are important in drying p. 454 and Figs. 8.30 and 8.37), chemical inertceramic components, and explain why they are ness, and wear resistance. In ceramic dies for important. forming, the main difficulties are that (1) ceramics are brittle, so any tensile or shear load Refer to Section 11.9.4. Since ceramic slurwould lead to crack propagation and failure, ries may contain significant moisture content, 176

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resulting in 15-20% shrinkage, the removal of 11.42 Which properties of glasses allow them to be moisture is a critical concern. Recall that the expanded and shaped into bottles by blowing? moisture must be removed in order to fuse the Explain. ceramic particles. Important factors are: the The properties of glasses which allow them to rates at which moisture is removed (which can be shaped into bottles by blowing is their vislead to cracking, if excessive), the initial moiscoplasticity at elevated temperatures and their ture content (the higher it is, the greater the high strain-rate sensitivity exponent, m. Thus warpage and residual stress), and the particuvery large strains can be achieved as compared lar material (as some materials will not warp as to metals. The strains can exceed even the sumuch as others and are more ductile and resisperplastic aluminum and titanium alloys (see tant to local defects). p. 44). 11.39 It has been stated that the higher the coefficient of thermal expansion of glass and the lower its 11.43 What properties should plastic sheet have when used in laminated glass? Explain. thermal conductivity, the higher is the level of residual stresses developed during processing. A plastic sheet used in laminated glass (a) must Explain why. obviously be transparent, (b) have a strong, intimate bond with the glass, and (c) have high Refer to Sections 3.9.4 and 3.9.5. The coeffitoughness and strain to failure (see Fig. 10.13). cient of thermal expansion is important in the The reason for the need for high strain to failure development of residual stresses because a given is to prevent shards of glass from being ejected, temperature gradient will result in a higher and thus prevent serious or fatal injuries during residual strain upon cooling. Thermal conducfrontal impact. tivity is important because the higher the thermal conductivity, the more uniform the tem11.44 Consider some ceramic products that you are perature in the glass, and the more uniform familiar with and outline a sequence of prothe strains upon cooling. The more uniform cesses performed to manufacture each of them. the strains, the less the magnitude of residual stresses developed. By the student. As an example of a sequence 11.40 What types of finishing operations are typically performed on ceramics? Why are they done? Ceramics are usually finished through abrasive methods, and they may also be glazed (see Section 11.9.5). Abrasive machining, such as grinding, is done to assure good tolerances and to remove surface flaws. Recall that tolerances may be rather poor because of shrinkage. Glazing is done to obtain a nonporous surface, which is important for food and beverage applications; it may also be done for decorative purposes. 11.41 What should be the property requirements for the metal balls used in a ball mill? Explain why these properties are important.

of operations involved, consider the manufacture of a coffee cup: • A ceramic slurry is mixed. • The slurry is poured into the mold. • The mold is allowed to rest, allowing the water in the slurry to be absorbed by the mold or to evaporate. • The mold is opened and the green part is carefully removed. • The handle can be a separate piece that is formed and attached at this stage; in some designs, the handle is cast integrally with the cup. • The cup is then trimmed to remove the flash from the mold.

The metal balls in a ball mill (see Fig. 11.26b) must have very high hardness, strength, wear • It is then decorated and fired; it may be resistance, and toughness so that they do not glazed and fired again. deform or fracture during the milling operation. High stiffness and mass is desirable to maximize 11.45 Explain the difference between physical and the compaction force (see p. 553). chemical tempering of glass. 177

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By the student. Refer to Section 11.11.2. Note (b) Tempered glass will shatter into small that in both physical and chemical tempering, fragments. compressive stresses are developed on the sur(c) Laminated glass will shatter, but will not face of the glass. In physical tempering, this is fly apart because the polymer laminate achieved through rapid cooling of the surface, will hold the fragments in place and atwhich is then stressed in compression as the tached to the polymer. bulk cools. In chemical tempering, the same effect is achieved through displacement of smaller 11.50 Describe the similarities and the differences beatoms at the glass surface with larger ones. tween the processes described in this chapter and in Chapters 5 through 10. 11.46 What do you think is the purpose of the operation shown in Fig. 11.27d? By the student. This could be a challenging task, as it requires a detailed knowledge of all In this operation, a bur-like tool (see p. 493) rethe processes involved. Note, for example, that moves excess material from the top of the bottle there are certain similarities between (a) forgand gives the desired shape to the neck. ing and powder compaction, (b) slush casting 11.47 Injection molding is a process that is used for and slip casting, (c) extrusion of metals and plastics and powder metals as well as for ceramextruding polymers, and (d) drawing of metal ics. Why is it suitable for all these materials? wire and drawing of glass fibers. Students are encouraged to respond to this question with a Injection molding can be used for any material broad perspective and giving several more ex(brought to a fluid state by heating) that will amples. maintain its shape after forming and cooling. This is also the case with ceramic slurries and 11.51 What is the doctor-blade process? Why was it powder metals (in a polymer carrier, as in MIM. developed? 11.48 Are there any similarities between the strengthThe doctor-blade process, shown in Fig. 11.28, ening mechanisms for glass and those for other produces thin sheets of ceramic. This process metallic and nonmetallic materials described has, for example, been very cost-effective for throughout this text? Explain. applications such as making dielectrics in caThere are similarities. For example, metal parts pacitors. as well as glass parts can be stress relieved or annealed to relieve surface residual stresses, 11.52 Describe the methods by which glass sheet is manufactured. which is in effect a strengthening mechanism. The results may be the same for both types By the student. Glass sheet is produced by of materials, even though the means of achievthe methods described in Section 11.11 and in ing them may differ. Note, for example, that Fig. 11.32. Basically: compressive residual stresses are induced on glass surfaces through tempering, while metals are typically shot peened or surface rolled (see pp. 154-155).

• In the drawing process (or the related rolling process), molten glass is pinched and pulled through rolls and then drawn down to the desired thickness.

11.49 Describe and explain the differences in the manner in which each of the following flat surfaces would fracture when struck with a large piece of rock: (a) ordinary window glass, (b) tempered glass, and (c) laminated glass. By the student. Note that: (a) When subjected to an impact load, ordinary window glass will shatter into numerous fragments or shards of various sizes.

• In the float method, a glass sheet floats on a bath of molten tin, producing a superior surface finish; the glass then cools in a lehr. 11.53 Describe the differences and similarities in producing metal and ceramic powders. Which of these processes would be suitable for producing glass powder?

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There are several methods of producing powders, but only a few are applicable to both ceramics and metals. The similarities include: • Both can be produced by chemical reduction, mechanical milling, ball or hammer milling, and grinding. • Both require screening to produce controlled distributions of particle sizes. • Ball milling can be performed on either material to further reduce their particle size. The differences include: • Atomization is common for metals but not practical for ceramics, because of the high melting temperature of ceramics. • The shape of the powders is different; metals are often atomized and hence spherical in shape, whereas ceramics are angular. • Ceramics cannot be produced through electrolytic deposition. Glass powders are of limited industrial interest (other than as glass lubrication in hot extrusion; see bottom of p. 318), but could conceivably be produced through hammer milling, grinding, or mechanical comminution.

By the student. The similarities between polymer injection molding and metal injection molding (MIM) and ceramic injection molding (CIM) include: • The tool and die materials used are similar. • Die design rules are similar. • The pressures achieved and part sizes are the same, as is the equipment used. • Operator skill required is comparable. The differences include: • Tool and die life for MIM or CIM is lower than that in polymer injection molding, because of the abrasiveness of the materials involved. • Injection molding tooling requires heating (for reaction injection molding) or cooling (for injection molding) capabilities, whereas MIM and CIM do not require this capability. • Cycle times for MIM and CIM are lower at the molding machine because cooling or curing cycles are not necessary. • After molding, plastic parts have attained their full strength, whereas MIM and CIM parts require a sintering or firing step.

11.54 How are glass fibers made? What application 11.57 Aluminum oxide and partially stabilized zircodo these fibers have? nia are normally white in appearance. Can they be colored? If so, how would you accomplish Glass fibers (see pp. 612-613) are bundle drawn this? using platinum dies. They are used as reinforceColoring can be accomplished in a number of ments in polymer composite materials, and as ways. First, an impurity can be mixes with the thermal and electrical insulation, and as a luceramic in order to change its color. Alternabricant in hot extrusion. tively, a stain, paint, or dye can be applied after 11.55 Would you consider diamond a ceramic? Exfiring; some of the dyes may require a second plain. firing step. While diamond has many of the characteristics 11.58 It was stated in the text that ceramics have of ceramics, such as high hardness, brittleness, a wider range of strengths in tension than do and chemical inertness, diamond is not a cemetals. List the reasons why this is so. ramic. By definition, a ceramic is a combination By the student. This question can be answered of a metal and a non-metal, whereas diamond in a variety of ways. The students are encouris a form of carbon. (See Section 8.6.9.) aged to examine reasons for this characteristic, 11.56 What are the similarities and differences beincluding the susceptibility of ceramics to flaws tween injection molding, metal injection moldin tension and the range of porosity that ceing, and ceramic injection molding? ramic parts commonly contain. 179

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Problems 11.59 Estimate the number of particles in a 500-g sample of iron powder, if the particle size is 50 µm. From Table 3.3 on p. 106 and Fig. 11.6a, the density of iron is found to be ρ = 7.86 g/cm3 . The particle diameter, D, is 50 µm = 0.005 cm. The volume of each spherical powder is 3 3 4π 0.005 4π D = V = 3 2 3 2 or V = 6.545 × 10−8 cm3 . Thus, its mass is m = ρV = (7.86)(6.545×10−8 ) = 5.14×10−7 g Therefore, the number of particles in the sample is N=

500 = 9.73 × 108 = 973 million 5.14 × 10−7

or, solving for D, r r 3 6(144) 3 6V D= = = 6.50 π π The total surface area, A, of the particle is A = (2)(12)(12) + (4)(12)(1) = 336. Therefore, A 336 = = 2.33 V 144 Thus, the shape factor is SF=(6.50)(2.33) = 15.17. For the ellipsoid particle, all cross sections across the three major and minor axes are elliptical in shape. (This is in contrast to an ellipsoid of revolution, where one cross section is circular.) The volume of an ellipsoid is V =

11.60 Assume that the surface of a copper particle is covered with a 0.1-µm-thick oxide layer. What is the volume occupied by this layer if the copper particle itself is 75 µm in diameter? What would be the role of this oxide layer in subsequent processing of the powders? The volume of the oxide layer can be estimated as V = 4πr2 t = 4π(37.5 µm)2 (0.1 µm) or V = 1770 µm3 . Oxide layers adversely affect the bond strength between the particles during compaction and sintering, which, in turn, has an adverse effect on the strength and ductility of the P/M part. Its physical properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity are also affected. 11.61 Determine the shape factor for a flakelike particle with a ratio of surface area to thickness of 12 × 12 × 1, for a cylinder with dimensional ratios 1:1:1, and for an ellipsoid with an axial ratio of 5 × 2 × 1. The volume of the flakelike particle is, in arbitrary units, V = (12)(12)(1) = 144. The equivalent diameter for a sphere is π V = D3 6

4 πabc 3

where a, b, and c are the three semi-axes of the ellipsoid. Because of arbitrary units, we can calculate the volume of an ellipsoid with axes ratios of 5:2:1 as 4 4 V = πabc = (5)(2)(1) = 41.89 3 3 The equivalent diameter for a sphere is r r 3 6(41.89) 3 6V D= = = 4.3 π π It can be shown that the surface area of the ellipsoid is given by the expression 2 π (a + b) (c) A= 2 where c is the semi-axis of the longest dimension of the ellipse. Thus, again using arbitrary units, 2 π (2 + 1)(5) = 74.02 A= 2 Therefore, A 74.02 = = 1.77 V 41.89 Hence, the shape factor is SF= (4.30)(1.77) = 7.61.

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The key equation is Eq. (11.2) on p. 680: px = po e−4kx/D The results are plotted in three graphs, for D = 5 µm, D = 25 µm, and D = 50 µm. 1

0.2 0

1

(7.86 g/cm )(7360 mm )(10

px/p0

0.4

cm3 ) mm3

0

0

10

20

or W = 57.8 g. Thus, the initial volume is 1

W 57.8 = = 41.3 cm3 ρ 1.40

0.8

D=25 m

0.6 0.4

30 x, m

k=0 .1 0.2 5 0. 5

40

50

D=50 µm

1

11.64 In Fig. 11.7e, we note that the pressure is not uniform across the diameter of the compact. Explain the reasons for this variation.

px/p0

V =

20

1

−3

15

0.5

3

10 x, m

0.

0.6

0.2 3

5

k= 0.1 25

0.8

= ρV =

1

W

0.5

0.4

0

D=5 m

=0 .1

0.6

11.63 Referring to Fig. 11.6a, what should be the volume of loose, fine iron powder in order to make a solid cylindrical compact 25 mm in diameter and 15 mm high? The volume of the cylindrical compact is V = π[(25)2 /4]15 = 7360 mm3 . Loose, fine iron powder has a density of about 1.40 g/cm3 (see Fig. 11.6a). Density of iron is 7.86 g/cm3 (see Table 3.1). Therefore, the weight of iron needed is

k

0.8

5 0.2

First, note that the surface energy is proportional to the surface area generated during comminution. The surface area of a spherical particle is 4πr2 = πD2 . Consequently, the relative energies will be proportional to the diameter squared, or 1, 100, and 10,000, respectively.

process parameters: µ = 0 to 1, k = 0 to 1, and D = 5 mm to 50 mm.

px/p0

11.62 It was stated in Section 3.3 that the energy in brittle fracture is dissipated as surface energy. We also noted that the comminution process for powder preparation generally involves brittle fracture. What are the relative energies involved in making spherical powders of diameters 1, 10, and 100 µm, respectively?

0.2

Note in the figure that the pressure drops to0 0 10 20 30 40 50 wards the center of the compact; this is because x, m of the internal frictional resistance in the radial direction. This situation is similar to forging with friction, as described in Section 6.2.2. Also 11.66 Derive an expression, similar to Eq. (11.2), for note that the pressure drop is steepest at the compaction in a square die with dimensions a upper (punch) surface, and that at the level by a. where the pressure is in the range of 200-300 Referring to Fig. 11.8 and taking an element MPa, the pressure is rather uniform across the with a square cross section, the following equacross section of the compact. tion represents equilibrium: 11.65 Plot the family of pressure-ratio px /po curves a2 px − a2 (px + dpx ) − 4a(µσx ) dx = 0 as a function of x for the following ranges of 181

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(a) For this case, we have

which reduces to

Va = (1 − 0.045)Vf = 0.955Vf

adpx + 4µσx dx = 0

Because the linear shrinkage during firing is 3.5%, we write

This equation is the same as that in Section 11.3.1. Therefore, the expression for the pressure at any x is

Vd = Vf /(1 − 0.035)3 = 1.112Vf Therefore,

px = po e−4µkx/a

Va /Vd = 0.955/1.112 = 0.86, or86% Consequently, the porosity of the dried part is (1 - 0.86) = 0.14, or 14%. (b) We can now write

11.67 For the ceramic described in Example 11.7, calculate (a) the porosity of the dried part if the porosity of the fired part is to be 9%, and (b) the initial length, Lo , of the part if the linear shrinkages during drying and firing are 8% and 7%, respectively.

(Ld − L) = 0.035 Ld or L = (1 − 0.035)Ld

(a) For this case we have

Since L = 20 mm, we have 20 = 20.73 mm Ld = 0.965 and thus

Va = (1 − 0.09)Vf = 0.91Vf Because the linear shrinkage during firing is 7%, we can write

Lo = (1 + 0.04)Ld = (1.04)(20.73)

3

Vd = Vf /(1 − 0.07) = 1.24Vf

or Lo = 21.56 mm. 11.69 Plot the UTS, E, and k values for ceramics as a function of porosity, P , and describe and explain the trends that you observe in their behavior.

Therefore, Va 0.91 = = 0.73, or 73% Vd 1.24 Consequently, the porosity of the dried part is (1 - 0.73) = 0.27, or 27%.

The plots are given below. 1

or L = (1 − 0.07)Ld

0.6

5 n=

(Ld − L) = 0.07 Ld

0.8

4 n=

UTS/UTS0

(b) We can now write

0.4 0.2 0

Since L = 20 mm,

n=7 0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

0.8

1

Porosity

Ld = 20/0.93 = 21.51 mm

1 0.8 E/E0

and thus Lo = (1 + 0.08)Ld = (1.08)(21.51) or Lo = 23.23 mm.

0.6 0.4 0.2

11.68 What would be the answers to Problem 11.67 if the quantities given were halved?

0

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 Porosity

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1

Spherical particles will be in the sub-mm sizes (tens to hundreds of microns), while other shapes can approach a few mm in average diameter.

k/k0

0.8 0.6 0.4

11.72 A coarse copper powder is compacted in a mechanical press at a pressure of 20 tons/in2 . During sintering, the green part shrinks an additional 8%. What is the final density of the part?

0.2

0

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 Porosity

1

From Fig. 11.6, the copper density after compaction is around 7 g/cm3 . Since the material shrinks an additional 8% during sintering, the volume is 1/(0.92)3 times the original volume. Thus, the density will be around 8.99 g/cm3 .

11.70 Plot the total surface area of a 1-g sample of aluminum powder as a function of the natural log of particle size.

The density of aluminum is 2.7 g/cm3 . The 11.73 A gear is to be manufactured from iron powder. mass of each particle is: It is desired that it have a final density that is 90% of that of cast iron, and it is known that 4 D 3 3 the shrinkage in sintering will be approximately π m = ρV = 2.7 g/cm 3 2 5%. For a gear 2.5-in. in diameter and with a 0.75-in. hub, what is the required press force? hence the number of particles is given by N=

From Table 3.3 on p. 106, the density of iron is 7.86 g/cm3 . For the final part to have a final density of 90% of this value, the density after sintering must be 7.07 g/cm3 . Since the part contracts 5% during sintering, the density before sintering must be 6.06 g/cm3 . Referring to Fig. 11.6a, the required pressure for this density is around 20 tons/in2 . The projected area is A = π/4(2.52 − 0.752 ) = 4.47 in2 . The required force is then 89 tons, or approximately 90 tons.

1g 1 = 0.707 cm3 (D−3 ) = π 3 m (2.7) 6 D

The total surface area of these particles is A = N πD2 = (0.707 cm3 )(D−3 )πD2 or A = (2.22 cm3 )D−1 , where D is in cm (µm × 10,000). The plot is shown below.

Surface area, m2

2.5

11.74 What volume of powder is needed to make the gear in Problem 11.73 if its thickness is 0.5 in?

2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 -10 -9

-8 -7 -6 -5 lnD (D in cm)

-4

11.71 Conduct a literature search and determine the largest size of metal powders that can be produced in atomization chambers. By the student. The answer will depend on the material and desired particle morphology.

Refer to the solution to Problem 11.73. The volume of the gear is the product of the projected area and its thickness. The actual surface area of the gear is not given, but we can estimate the amount of powder needed by assuming that the diameter given is the pitch diameter and that the part can be treated as a cylinder with a circular cross section with a 2.5 in. diameter and a 0.75-in. hole. The projected area, as calculated in Problem 11.73, is A = 4.47 in2 . Thus, the volume is V = Ah = (4.47)(0.5) = 2.235 in3 = 36.6 cm3 Therefore, the weight of the gear is (7.07 g/cm3 )(36.6 cm3 )=260 g. From Fig. 11.6a, loose fine iron powder has a density of around

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1.4 g/cm3 . Therefore, the volume of powder 11.76 What techniques, other than the powder-inrequired is tube process, could be used to produce superconducting monofilaments? m 260 g 3 = 185 cm V = = 3 ρ Other principal superconductor-shaping pro1.4 g/cm cesses are: 11.75 The axisymmetric part shown in the accompa(a) coating of silver wire with superconductnying figure is to be produced from fine copper ing material, powder and is to have a tensile strength of 200 (b) deposition of superconductor films by laser MPa. Determine the compacting pressure and ablation, the initial volume of powder needed. (c) doctor-blade process (see Section 11.9.1),

Dimensions in mm

(d) explosive cladding (see Section 12.11), and (e) chemical spraying. 11.77 Describe other methods of manufacturing the parts shown in Fig. 11.1a. Comment on the advantages and limitations of these methods over P/M.

25 10 12 20 25

By the student. Several alternative methods for manufacturing the parts can be discussed. For example, the parts could be machined, in which case the machined part may have better dimensional accuracy and surface finish, and would be less expensive for short production runs. The P/M part would be less expensive for large production runs and would likely be less dense. As another example, consider forging of these parts; the forging would be denser and stronger, and have similar surface finish if cold forged. However, a P/M part would likely have a lower density and would be produced without flash.

From Fig. 11.6b, the density of the copper part must be around 8.5 g/cm3 to achieve the strength of 200 MPa. From Fig. 11.6a, the required pressure is around 1000 MPa. The press force will be determined by the largest crosssectional area, which has the 25 mm outer diameter. The cross-sectional area is π A = Do2 − Di2 4 π 0.0252 − 0.0102 = 4 or A = 4.123×10−4 m2 . Therefore, the required force is F = pA = (1000 MPa)(4.123 × 10−4 m2 )

11.78 If a fully-dense ceramic has the properties of UTSo = 180 MPa and Eo = 300 GPa, what are these properties at 20% porosity for values of n = 4, 5, 6, and 7, respectively?

or F = 412 kN. From the given geometry, the final part volume is found to be 8.0 cm3 , and hence the mass required is 3

m = ρV = (8.5 g/cm )(8.0 cm3 ) = 68 g From Fig. 11.6a, the apparent density of fine copper powder is 1.44 g/cm3 , so that the required powder volume is V =

m 68 g 3 = 3 = 45 cm ρ 1.44 g/cm

Inserting the appropriate quantities into Eqs. (11.5) and (11.6) on p. 701, we obtain the following: n 4 5 6 7

UTS (MPa) 80.9 66.2 54.2 44.4

E (GPa) 196.8 196.8 196.8 196.8

Note that the magnitude of n does not affect the magnitude of E. 184

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11.79 Calculate the thermal conductivities for ceramics at porosities of 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% for ko = 0.7 W/m-K. Equation (11.7) is needed to solve this problem, which gives the thermal conductivity as a function of porosity as

P¯

Z

1

0.1X(1 − X)dX

= 0

Z =

1

−0.1X 2 + 0.1X dX

0

k = ko (1 − P )

=

Inserting the values into the equation, we obtain thermal conductivities of: P = 1% 5 10 20 30

For the remainder of the problem, use X = x/L. The average porosity is then given by

k = 0.693 W/mK 0.665 0.630 0.56 0.49

0.0167

Since the thermal conductivity is linearly related to the porosity, the average porosity can be used, so that the average thermal conductivity is: k¯ = ko 1 − P¯ = (0.65)(1 − 0.0167)

Porosity

or k¯ = 0.639 W/mK. 11.80 A ceramic has ko = 0.65 W/m-K. If this ceramic is shaped into a cylinder with a porosity 11.81 Assume that you are asked to give a quiz to students on the contents of this chapter. Prepare distribution of P = 0.1(x/L)(1 − x/L), where three quantitative problems and three qualitax is the distance from one end of the cylinder tive questions, and supply the answers. and L is the total cylinder length, estimate the average thermal conductivity of the cylinder. By the student. This is a challenging, openended question that requires considerable focus The plot of porosity is given below: and understanding on the part of the students, 0.025 and has been found to be a very valuable homework problem. 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0

0

0.25

0.5 0.75 Position, x/L

1

Design 11.82 Make sketches of several P/M products in which density variations would be desirable. Explain why, in terms of the function of these parts.

making them more porous. With bearing surfaces, a greater density at the surface is desirable, while a substrate need not be as dense.

By the student. Any kind of minimum-weight 11.83 Compare the design considerations for P/M design application would be appropriate, such products with those for products made by (a) as aerospace and automotive, where lightly casting and (b) forging. Describe your observaloaded regions can be reduced in weight by tions. 185

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By the student. Note that design consideraparts are suitable for large parts (see, for extions for P/M parts (Section 11.6) are similar ample, Fig. 11.10). For example, bolts, arto those for casting (Section 5.12) and forging chitectural channels, and some biomedical im(Section 6.2.7). The similarities are due to the plants are poor P/M applications. Also, fatigue necessity of removing the parts from the molds applications are generally not appropriate for or dies. Hence, tapers should be used whenever P/M parts because cracks can propagate easier possible and internal cavities are difficult to through the structure. The students are enproduce. Large flat surfaces should be avoided, couraged to comment further. and the section thickness should be uniform as much as possible. There are many similarities 11.87 What design modifications would you recommend for the part shown in Problem 11.75? with casting and forging part design, mainly because P/M parts need to be ejected, just as By the student. A number of design changes in forging, and the pattern for casting need to would be advisable to increase manufacturabilbe removed. There are some differences. For ity using P/M techniques. For example, it is example, engraved or embossed lettering is difadvisable that the steps have a taper to aid ficult in P/M but can be done easily in casting. in ejection (see Fig. 11.17). The sharp radii P/M parts should be easy to eject; casting deshould be larger. The part is unbalanced, and signs are more flexible in this regard. the flange, though probably acceptable, could be made smaller, if appropriate. 11.84 It is known that in the design of P/M gears, the distance between the outside diameter of the hub and the gear root should be as large 11.88 The axisymmetric parts shown in the accompanying figure are to be produced through P/M. as possible. Explain the reasons for this design Describe the design changes that you would recconsideration. ommend. The reason for this is twofold. First, it is very difficult to develop a sufficiently high pressure in the cross section containing the root if the distance is small. Secondly, if the distance is small, it acts as a high stress concentration, which could cause part failure prior to being sintered, especially during ejection. 11.85 How are the design considerations for ceramics different, if any, than those for the other materials described in this chapter? By the student. Refer to Section 11.12. Consider, for example, the fact that ceramics are very notch sensitive, hence brittle, and are not suitable for impact or energy-dissipating type loading, and also not usable where any deformation is foreseeable. On the other hand, ceramics have exceptional properties at high temperatures, are very strong in compression, and are resistant to wear because of their high hardness and inertness to most materials. 11.86 Are there any shapes or design features that are not suitable for production by powder metallurgy? By ceramics processing? Explain. By the student.

Neither ceramics nor P/M

(a)

(b)

(c)

There are several design changes that could be advisable, and the students are encouraged to develop lists of their own recommendations. Some considerations are: (a) Part (a): • The part has very thin walls, and it would be advisable to have less severe aspect ratios.

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• The part cannot be pressed in its current shape, but could conceivably be metal injection molded. • Sharp corners are not advisable; radii should be incorporated for metal injection molding, and chamfers for 11.91 pressed parts. (b) Part (b): Same as in (a) (c) Part (c): Same as in (a), and the flanges should comply with the recommendations given in Fig. 11.19. 11.89 Assume that in a particular design, a metal beam is to be replaced with a beam made of ceramics. Discuss the differences in the behavior of the two beams, such as with respect to strength, stiffness, deflection, and resistance to temperature and to the environment. By the student. This is an open-ended problem that can be answered in a number of ways by the students. They can, for example, consider a cantilever, where the deflection at the end of the cantilever is, y=−

beneficial since higher speeds can be attained, but the engine may run rougher at low speeds. (See the discussion of coefficient of fluctuation in Hamrock, Jacobson, and Schmid, Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 2d ed., p. 464.) Assume that you are employed in technical sales. What applications currently using nonP/M parts would you attempt to develop? What would you advise your potential customers during your sales visits? What kind of questions do you think they would ask? By the student. This is a challenging question that requires knowledge of parts that are and are not currently produced by P/M. It would be advisable for the instructor to limit the discussion to a class of product, such as P/M gears. In this case, the questions that would be asked of customers include: (a) Are you aware of the advantages of P/M processes? (b) Are you aware of the tribological advantages of P/M parts? (c) Are you interested in unique alloys or blends that can only be achieved with P/M technologies?

P l3 3EI

and then compare materials that would give the same deflection for different beam heights, widths, or volumes. One could also consider the lightest weight cantilever that could support the load or one that would have a small deflection under the load. Students are encouraged to examine this problem in depth. 11.90 Describe your thoughts regarding designs of internal combustion engines using ceramic pistons.

(d) Is it beneficial to achieve a 5-10% weight savings using porous P/M parts? Typical anticipated questions from the customer could include: (a) Is there a cost or performance advantage? Are there any disadvantages? (b) We have had no failures, so why should we change anything? (c) Are the P/M materials compatible.

By the student. There are several difficulties 11.92 Pyrex cookware displays a unique phenomenon: associated with such designs. For example, luit functions well for a large number of cycles bricants (see Section 4.4.4) typically are formuand then shatters into many pieces. Investigate lated for use with aluminum and steel parts, this phenomenon, list the probable causes, and and the boundary additives may not be effecdiscuss the manufacturing considerations that tive on a ceramic surface, so higher wear rates may alleviate or contribute to such failures. may occur. Ceramic wear particles will be much harder than metal engine blocks or cylinder linBy the student. This is a challenging question. The basic phenomenon appears to be that, with ers, and will raise concerns of three-body wear (see p. 147). The entire engine needs to be each thermal stress cycle new flaws in the maredesigned to account for the reduced mass in terial may develop, and existing flaws begin to the pistons and other components. This can be grow. When the flaws have reached a critical 187

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size (see p. 102), the part fails under normal use. Note that any manufacturing that result in a larger initial flaw, or being subjected to less effective tempering, will contribute to the problem. 11.93 It has been noted that the strength of brittle materials, such as ceramics and glasses, are very sensitive to surface defects such as scratches (notch sensitivity). Obtain some pieces of these materials, make scratches on them, and test them by carefully clamping in a vise and bending them. Comment on your observations.

ues, (b) white ware for bathrooms, (c) common brick, and (d) floor tile. By the student. The answers will vary because of the different manufacturing methods used for these products. Some examples are: (a) Small ceramic statues are usually made by slip casting, then fired to fuse the particles and develop strength, followed by decorating and glazing. (b) White ware for bathrooms are either slip cast or pressed, then fired, and sometimes glazed and re-fired.

By the student. This experiment can be per(c) Common brick is wet pressed or slip cast, formed using a glass cutter to make a deep and then fired. sharp scratch on the glass. It can be demon(d) Floor tile is hot pressed or dry pressed, strated that glass with such a scratch can be fired, and sometimes glazed and re-fired. easily broken with bare hands. Note also the direction of the bending moment with respect to 11.96 As described in this chapter, one method of the direction of the scratch. As a comparison, producing superconducting wire and strip is by even a highly heat-treated aluminum plate (i.e., compacting powders of these materials, placing brittle behavior) will not be nearly as weakened them into a tube, and drawing them through when a similar scratch is made on its surface. dies, or rolling them. Describe your thoughts Note that special care must be taken in perconcerning the possible difficulties involved in forming these experiments, using work gloves each step of this production. and eye protection and the like. By the student. Concerns include fracture of 11.94 Make a survey of the technical literature and the green part before or during drawing, and its describe the differences, if any, between the implications; inhomogeneous deformation that quality of glass fibers made for use in reinforced can occur during drawing and rolling and its plastics and those made for use in fiber-optic possible effects as a fracture-causing process; communications. Comment on your observathe inability of the particles to develop suffitions. cient strength during this operation; and possible distortion of the part from its drawn or By the student. The glass fibers in reinforced rolled shape during sintering. plastics has a much smaller diameter and has to be of high quality for high strength. The glass 11.97 Review Fig. 11.18 and prepare a similar figure fibers for communications applications are forfor constant-thickness parts, as opposed to the mulated for optical properties and the strength axisymmetric parts shown. is not a major concern, although some strength By the student. The figure will be very similar is needed for installation. to Fig. 11.18, as the design rules are not neces11.95 Describe your thoughts on the processes that sarily based on the axisymmetric nature of the can be used to make (a) small ceramic statparts.

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Chapter 12

Joining and Fastening Processes Questions (a) (b) (c) (d)

12.1 Explain the reasons that so many different welding processes have been developed. A wide variety of welding processes have been developed for several reasons. There are many types of metals and alloys with a wide range of mechanical, physical, and metallurgical properties and characteristics. Also, there are numerous applications involving a wide variety of component shapes and thicknesses. For example, small or thin parts that cannot be arc welded can be resistance welded, and for aerospace applications, where strength-toweight ratio is a major consideration, laserbeam welding and diffusion bonding are attractive processes. Furthermore, the workpiece may not be suitable for in-plant welding, and the welding process may have to be brought to the site, such as pipelines and large structures. (See also Section 12.1.)

12.3 What are the similarities and differences between consumable and nonconsumable electrodes? By the student. Review Sections 12.3 and 12.4. Comment, for example, on factors such as the role of the electrodes, the circuitry involved, the electrode materials, and the manner in which they are used. 12.4 What determines whether a certain welding process can be used for workpieces in horizontal, vertical, or upside-down positions, or for all types of positions? Explain, giving appropriate examples. By the student. Note, for example, that some welding operations (see Table 12.2 on p. 734) cannot take place under any conditions except horizontal, such as submerged arc welding, where a granular flux must be placed on the workpiece. If a process requires a shielding gas, it can be used in vertical or upside-down positions. Oxyacetylene welding would be difficult upside-down because the flux may drip away from the surface instead of penetrating the joint.

12.2 List the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical fastening as compared with adhesive bonding. By the student. Advantages of mechanical fastening over adhesive bonding: (a) disassembly is easier (bolted connections); (b) stronger in tension; (c) preloading is possible; and (d) no need for large areas of contact. Limitations:

often costlier; requires assembly; weaker in shear; and more likely to loosen (bolted connections).

12.5 Comment on your observations regarding Fig. 12.5. 189

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By the student. The students are encouraged 12.10 Explain why the electroslag welding process is to develop their answers considering the signifsuitable for thick plates and heavy structural icance of the layered weld beads and the qualsections. ity of their interfaces. For example, there may Electroslag welding (see Fig. 12.8) can be perbe concerns regarding the weld strength since formed with large plates because the temperathe interfaces between adjacent beads may have tures attainable through electric arcs are very some slag or surface contaminants that have not high. A continuous and stable arc can be been removed. The heat-affected zone and faachieved and held long enough to melt thick tigue implications of such welds are also a sigplates. nificant concern. 12.6 Discuss the need for and role of fixtures in hold- 12.11 What are the similarities and differences between consumable and nonconsumable elecing workpieces in the welding operations detrode arc welding processes? scribed in this chapter. By the student. The reasons for using fixtures are basically to assure proper alignment of the components to be joined, reduce warpage, and help develop good joint strength. The fixtures can also be a part of the electrical circuit in arc welding, where a high clamping force reduces the contact resistance. See also Section 14.11.1.

By the student. Similarities: both require an electric power source, arcing for heating, and an electrically-conductive workpiece. Differences: the electrode is the source of the weld metal in consumable-arc welding, whereas a weld metal must be provided in nonconsumable-arc welding processes.

12.12 In Table 12.2, there is a column on the distortion of welded components, ranging from lowest to highest. Explain why the degree of distortion The reason why electron-beam weld beads are varies among different welding processes. narrower than those obtained by arc welding is By the student. Refer to Table 12.2 on p. 734. that the energy source in the former is much The distortion of parts is mainly due to thermore intense, confined, and controllable, allowmal warping because of temperature gradients ing the heating and the weld bead to be more developed within the component. Note that localized. Other factors that influence the size the lowest distortions are in electron beam and of the weld bead are workpiece thickness, matelaser beam processes, where the heat is highly rial properties, such as melting point and therconcentrated in narrow regions and with deeper mal conductivity. See also pp. 749-751. penetration. This is unlike most other processes 12.8 Why is the quality of welds produced by subwhere the weld zones are large and distortion merged arc welding very good? can be extensive. 12.7 Describe the factors that influence the size of the two weld beads in Fig. 12.13.

Submerged arc welding (see Fig. 12.6) has 12.13 Explain why the grains in Fig. 12.16 grow in very good quality because oxygen in the atmothe particular directions shown. sphere cannot penetrate the weld zone where The grains grow in the directions shown in the shielding flux protects the weld metal. Also, Fig. 12.16 because of the same reasons grains there are no sparks, spatter, or fumes as in grow away from the wall in casting process soshielded metal arc and some other welding prolidification, described in Section 5.2. Heat flux cess. is in the opposite direction as grain growth, 12.9 Explain the factors involved in electrode selecmeaning a temperature gradient exists in that tion in arc welding processes. direction, so only grains oriented in the direction perpendicular from the solid-metal subBy the student. Refer to Section 12.3.8. Elecstrate will grow. trode selection is guided by many factors, including the process used and the metals to be 12.14 Prepare a table listing the processes described welded. in this chapter and providing, for each process, 190

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the range of welding speeds as a function of workpiece material and thickness.

production time and the high costs involved, which may be justified for many aerospace applications. The students are encouraged to find other examples of applications for this important process.

By the student. This is a good assignment for students, although it can be rather demanding because such extensive data is rarely available, except with a wide range or only for a particu- 12.19 Can roll bonding be applied to various part conlar group of materials. Consequently, it can be figurations? Explain. difficult to compare the processes; they nevertheless should be encouraged to develop such a Roll bonding (Fig. 12.28) is mainly used in flat list as best they can. rolling, although other applications may be possible. The important consideration is that the 12.15 Explain what is meant by solid state welding. pressure (normal stress) between the sheets to be joined be sufficiently high and the interfaces As descried briefly on p. 733, in solid state weldare clean and free of oxide layers. To meet this ing, the metals to be joined do not melt; there is condition for shapes other than flat is likely to no liquid state in the interface. Note that there be a difficult task and involve complex tooling. are six processes listed under this category. Also, any significant variation in pressure during rolling can make the bonded structure be12.16 Describe your observations concerning come not uniform and unreliable. The student Figs. 12.19 through 12.21. is encouraged to search the literature and atBy the student. This is a challenging question tempt to find examples of such applications. and students are encouraged to develop and list as many answers as they can. For example, 12.20 Comment on your observations concerning they can consider the crack locations, develop Fig. 12.40. an ability to identify them through inspection, describe the causes of the defects, and the efBy the student. The explosion welding operfects of different workpiece materials and proation results in wavy interfaces (as shown in cessing conditions. the figures) due to the very high interfacial velocities and pressures involved. The ripples 12.17 What advantages does friction welding have observed are actually due to stress waves in over the other joining methods described in this the interface, and help improve joint strength chapter? by mechanical interlocking of the mating surfaces. Some students may wish to investigate By the student. As described in Section 12.9, and elaborate further as to how these waves the main advantages of friction welding are that are developed and how they affect interfacial the entire cross-sectional area can be welded, instrength. stead of a mere bead along the periphery, and is suitable for a wide variety of materials. Also, 12.21 If electrical components are to be attached to with proper process control, the weld zone can both sides of a circuit board, what soldering be very small and thin, so that thermal distorprocess(es) would you use? Explain. tions will be minimal. 12.18 Why is diffusion bonding, when combined with superplastic forming of sheet metals, an attractive fabrication process? Does it have any limitations? By the student. As shown in Fig. 12.41, diffusion bonding combined with superplastic forming can produce lightweight, rigid, and strong aerospace structures with high stiffnessto-weight ratios. The main drawback is the long

A challenging problem arises when a printed circuit board (see Section 13.13) has both surface-mount and in-line circuits on the same board and it is desired to solder all the joints via a reliable automated process. An important point is that all of the in-line circuits should be restricted to insertion from one side of the board. Indeed, there is no performance requirement which would dictate otherwise, but this restriction greatly simplifies manufacturing.

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The basic steps in soldering the connections on 12.24 Inspect the edges of a U.S. quarter, and comsuch a board are as follows: ment on your observations. Is the cross-section, i.e., the thickness of individual layers, symmet(a) Apply solder paste to one side. rical? Explain. (b) Place the surface-mount packages onto the board; also, insert in-line packages through the primary side of the board.

By the student. This is an interesting assignment to demonstrate the significance of cold welding. The side view of a U.S. quarter is shown below. The center of the coin is a copper alloy and the outer layers are a nickel-based alloy. (Note that pennies and nickels are typically made of one material.) The following observations may be made about the coins:

(c) Reflow the solder (see bottom of p. 777). (d) Apply adhesive to the secondary side of the board. (e) Attach the surface mount devices on the secondary side, using the adhesive. (f) Cure the adhesive.

• The core is used to obtain the proper weight and feel, as well as sound.

(g) Perform a wave-soldering operation (p. 778) on the secondary side to produce electrical attachment of the surface mounts and the in-line circuits to the board.

• The strength of roll-bonded joints is very high, as confirmed by the fact that one never encounters coins that have peeled apart (although during their development such separation did occur). • The outer layers, which are made of the more expensive alloy, are thin for cost reduction.

12.22 Discuss the factors that influence the strength of (a) a diffusion bonded component and (b) a cold welded component.

• The thicknesses of the two outer layers is not the same. This is due to the smearing action that occurs around the periphery during blanking of the coins, as can be recalled from Section 7.3.

Diffusion bonded strength (Section 12.12) is influenced by temperature (the higher the temperature, the more the diffusion), pressure, time, and the materials being joined. The cleanliness of the surfaces is also important to make sure no lubricants, oxides, or other contaminants interfere with the diffusion process. For this reason, these joints are commonly prepared by solvent cleaning and/or pickling to remove oxides. Cold welded components (Section 12.7) involve similar considerations except that temperature is not a relevant parameter. 12.23 Describe the difficulties you might encounter in applying explosion welding in a factory environment. By the student. Explosives are very dangerous; after all, they are generally used for destructive purposes. There are safety concerns such as hearing loss, damage resulting from explosions, and fires. The administrative burden is high because there are many federal, state, and municipal regulations regarding the handling and use of explosives and the registration involved in using explosives.

12.25 What advantages do resistance welding processes have over others described in this chapter? By the student. Recall that resistance welding is a cleaner process for which electrodes, flux, or shielding environment are not needed; the metals to be welded provide all of these inherently. The process is easily automated and production rate is high.

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12.26 What does the strength of a weld nugget in re- 12.29 List the joining methods that would be suitable sistance spot welding depend on? for a joint that will encounter high stresses and will need to be disassembled several times durBy the student. The students are encouring the product life, and rank the methods. aged to search the literature and collect phoBy the student. Refer also to Table 12.1 on tographs and more details on weld nuggets (see p. 733. Disassembly can be a difficult feature Fig. 12.33b). This question can be answered to assess when selecting joining methods. If the from different viewpoints. Thus, for exampart has to be disassembled often, bolted conple, one may consider this question as a stressnections are likely to be the best solution, or analysis problem, whereby the joint strength else a quick-disconnect clamp or similar devices depends on the size of the nugget, its relationshould be used. If the number of disassemblies ship to the surrounding bodies, and the types over the lifetime of the part is limited (such as of materials welded and their mechanical and automobile dashboards), integrated snap fasphysical properties. Other factors to be conteners (see Fig. 12.55) and even soldering or sidered are the role of process parameters such brazing can be options. However, soldering and as current, pressure, time, and the nature of brazing are only suitable if the filler metal can the faying surfaces. It would also be interesting be melted without damaging the joint, and if and instructional to find weld nuggets that are the joint can be resoldered. poorly made. 12.27 Explain the significance of the magnitude of the 12.30 Inspect Fig. 12.31, and explain why the particular fusion-zone shapes are developed as a pressure applied through the electrodes during function of pressure and speed. Comment on resistance welding operations. the influence of the properties of the material. As can be seen in Fig. 12.33, the pressure is apBy the student. Inspecting the fusion zones plied after sufficient heat is generated. Pressure in Fig. 12.31, it is obvious that higher forces is maintained until the current is shut off. The and speeds both result in more pronounced fuhigher the pressure, the higher the strength of sion zones. The relevant material properties are the joint (although too high a pressure will exstrength at elevated temperatures and physicessively indent the surfaces and cause damage; cal properties such as thermal conductivity and see Fig. 12.27). Lower pressures produce weak specific heat. Because all materials soften at joints. It should be remembered, however, that elevated temperatures, the hotter the interface, the higher the force the lower the resistance, the more pronounced the fusion zone. Note also hence the lower the resistance heating. Consethat a uniform (optimum) zone can be obtained quently, proper control of pressure is important with proper control of the relevant parameters. in resistance welding. 12.28 Which materials can be friction stir welded, and which cannot? Explain your answer.

12.31 Which applications could be suitable for the roll spot welding process shown in Fig. 12.35c? Give specific examples.

Friction stir welding (p. 764) has been comBy the student. The roll spot-welding operamonly applied to aluminum and copper alloys, tion, shown in Fig. 12.35, is commonly used to and some research is being conducted to extend fabricate all types of containers and sheet-metal the process to others as well as thermoplasproducts. They can be leak proof provided that tics and reinforced thermoplastics. The main the spacing of the weld nuggets are sufficiently requirements are that the workpiece be sufficlose. ciently soft and have a low melting point. The former requirement ensures that the rotating 12.32 Give several examples concerning the bulleted tool (Fig. 12.32) will have appropriate strength items listed at the beginning of Section 12.1. for the operation being performed, and the latter to ensure that the power requirements are By the student. A visit to various stores and reasonable. observing the products displayed, as well as 193

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equipment and appliances found in homes, offices, and factories will give ample opportunity for students to respond comprehensively to this question. 12.33 Could the projection welded parts shown in Fig. 12.36 be made by any of the processes described in other parts of this text? Explain.

(if too long, the part may buckle instead of being upset), thermal conductivity (the lower the conductivity, the smaller the upset length), and the rate at which the force is applied (the higher the rate, the greater the force required for upsetting, due to strain-rate sensitivity of the material at elevated temperatures).

12.36 Explain how you would fabricate the structures By the student. The projection-welded parts shown in Fig. 12.41b with methods other than shown could possibly be made through resisdiffusion bonding and superplastic forming. tance spot welding (although it would require By the student. These structures can be made several strokes) and resistance projection weldthrough a combination of sheet-metal forming ing. Various other processes may be able to proprocesses (Chapter 7) and resistance welding, duce the parts shown, but the joint strength debrazing, mechanical joining, or adhesive bondveloped or the economics of the processes may ing. Note, however, that such complex parts not be as favorable. The shape can also be and interfaces may not allow easy implementaachieved through arc or gas welding processes tion of these various operations without exten(followed by finishing such as grinding, if necessive tooling. sary), as well as brazing or soldering (see Section 12.13). With a modified interface, mechan12.37 Make a survey of metal containers used for ical fastening and adhesive bonding also could household products and foods and beverages. be suitable processes. Identify those that have utilized any of the processes described in this chapter. Describe your 12.34 Describe the factors that influence flattening of observations. the interface after resistance projection welding takes place. Review Fig. 12.36 and note that: (a) The projections provide localized areas of heating, so the material in the projection soften and undergo diffusion. (b) The normal force between the parts flattens these softened projections by plastic deformation.

By the student. This is an interesting project for students. It will be noted that some food and beverage containers are three-piece cans, with a welded seam along the length of the can; others may be soldered or seamed (see, for example, Fig. 12.53). These containers are typically used for shaving cream, laundry starch sprays, and various spray cans for paints and other products.

(c) Important factors are the nature of the 12.38 Which process uses a solder paste? What are the advantages to this process? mating surfaces, the materials involved, the shape of the projections, the temperaSolder paste is used in reflow soldering, detures developed, the magnitude of the norscribed in Section 12.13.3, which is also used for mal force, and length of time. soldering integrated circuits onto printed circuit boards (Section 13.13). 12.35 What factors influence the shape of the upset joint in flash welding, as shown in Fig. 12.37b? 12.39 Explain why some joints may have to be preThe important factors are the amount of heat generated (if too little heat, the material will not deform to the required extent), the nature of the contracting surfaces (oxide layers, contaminants, etc.), the force applied (the higher the force, the greater the upset volume), the exposed length between the pieces and the clamps

heated prior to welding. Some joints may have to be preheated prior to welding in order to: (a) control and reduce the cooling rate, especially for metals with high thermal conductivity, such as aluminum and copper,

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(b) control and reduce residual stresses developed in the joint, and (c) for more effective wave soldering (p. 778). 12.40 What are the similarities and differences between casting of metals (Chapter 5) and fusion welding?

the joint. The filler metal is typically an alloy of the same metal, due to the fact that the workpiece and the filler should melt at reasonably close temperatures. To visualize why this is the case, consider a copper filler used with a material with a much higher melting temperature, such as steel. When the copper melts, the steel workpiece is still in a solid state, and the interface will be one of adhesion, with no significant diffusion between the copper and the steel. (See also bottom of p. 743 and p. 773.)

By the student. Casting and fusion welding processes are similar in that they both involve molten metals that are allowed to recrystallize, cool, and solidify. The mechanisms are similar in that solidification begins with the formation 12.44 Describe the factors that contribute to the difference in properties across a welded joint. of columnar grains (Section 5,3). The cooled structure is essentially identical to a cast strucBy the student. An appropriate response will ture with coarse grains. However, the weld joint require the students to carefully review Sec(Fig. 12.15) is different in that selection of fillers tion12.6. and heat treatment (after welding) influence the joint’s properties. 12.45 How does the weldability of steel change as the steel’s carbon content increases? Why? 12.41 Explain the role of the excessive restraint (stiffness) of various components to be welded on By the student. Review Section 12.6.2. As the weld defects. carbon content increases, weldability decreases because of martensite formation, which is hard Refer to Section 12.6.1. The effect of stiffness and brittle (see p. 238). on weld defects is primarily through the stresses developed during heating and cooling of the 12.46 Are there common factors among the weldability, solderability, castability, formability, and weld joint. Note, for example, that not allowing machinability of metals? Explain, with approfor contraction (such as due to a very stiff syspriate examples. tem) will cause cracks in the joint due to high thermal stresses (see Fig. 12.22). By the student. This is an interesting, but very challenging, assignment and appropriate for a 12.42 Discuss the weldability of several metals, and student paper. As to be expected, the relaexplain why some metals are easier to weld than tionships are complex, as can also be seen by others. reviewing Table 3.8 on p. 117. Note that for By the student. This is a challenging assignsome aluminum alloys, for example, machinment and will require considerable effort. Reability and weldability are opposite (i.e., D-C view Section 12.62 and note that, as expected, vs. A ratings). The students should analyze the weldability depends on many factors. See also contents of the following: Weldability - Section Table 3.8 and the Bibliography at the end of 12.6.2; solderability - p. 777; castability - Secthis chapter. tions 5.4.2 and 5.6; formability - Sections 6.2.6 and 7.7; machinability - Section 8.5. 12.43 Must the filler metal be of the same composition as that of the base metal to be welded? 12.47 Assume that you are asked to inspect a weld Explain. for a critical application. Describe the procedure you would follow. If you find a flaw during It is not necessary for the filler metal, rod, or your inspection, how would you go about deterwire to be the same as the base metal to be mining whether or not this flaw is important for welded. Filler metals are generally chosen for the particular application? the favorable alloying properties that they impart to the weld zone. The only function the By the student. This is a challenging task, refiller metal must fulfill is to fill in the gaps in quiring a careful review of Section 12.6.1. Note, 195

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for example, that visual examination can detect some defects, such as undercuts and toe cracks; however, underbead cracks or incomplete fusion cannot be detected visually. There are nondestructive techniques (Section 4.8) for evaluating a weld, acoustic and X-ray techniques being the most common for determining porosity and large inclusions. Proof stressing a weld is a destructive approach, but it certainly can be suitable since defective welds cannot be placed in service safely.

cyclic (fatigue) loading, and rank the methods in order of preference.

Some analysis on flaw behavior and crack propagation in metal structures can be attempted, probably with finite-element methods or by using advanced concepts for crack propagation. An understanding of the loads and the resulting stresses often determines whether or not a flaw is important. For example, if the defect in a weld in a beam is at the neutral axis in bending, the flaw is not likely to be critical. On the other hand, a defect in a highly loaded area or in a stress concentration would raise serious concerns.

(a) Riveting is well-suited for such applications, since the rivet can expand upon heading and apply compression to the hole; this can help arrest fatigue cracks. (b) Bolts can be used for such applications; the use of a preload on a nut can lead to stiff joints with good fatigue resistance. (c) Welding can be suitable, so long as the weld and the members are properly sized; fatigue crack propogation through the heat-affected zone is a concern. (d) Brazing can be suitable for such applications, depending on the materials to be brazed. (e) Adhesive bonding can also be suitable, as long as the joints are properly designed (see Fig. 12.60 on p. 793). The mechanical properties of the adhesive is an important consideration, as well as the strength of bond with the workpiece. (f) Combinations of these methods are also suitable, such as combining adhesion with riveting as shown in Fig. 12..60d on p. 793.

12.48 Do you think it is acceptable to differentiate brazing and soldering arbitrarily by temperature of application? Comment. By the student. The definition is somewhat arbitrary. The temperature classification differentiates between the filler metals that can be used in thhe two processes. Note also that, with soldering, thermal distortions are not as critical because of the lower temperatures involved.

By the student. This is a challenging topic where the answers will depend on the workpiece materials that are being considered (see also Table 12.1 on p. 733). Students should not be limited to the answers given here, but should be encouraged to rely upon their experience and training. However, some of the suitable methods for such loadings are:

R is an adhesive used to keep metal bolts 12.49 Loctite from vibrating loose; it basically glues the bolt 12.51 Why is surface preparation important in adheto the nut once the bolt is inserted in the nut. sive bonding? Explain how this adhesive works. By the student. See Section 12.4.2. Surface R Loctite is an anaerobic adhesive (see Table preparation is important because the adhesive 12.6 on p. 782), meaning that it cures in the strength depends greatly on its ability to propabsence of oxygen, hence it does not solidify in erly bond to a surface (see also Section 4.5). If, air. Such a situation exists in the interfaces befor example, there are lubricant residues on a tween threaded fasteners and their nuts, as well surface, this ability is greatly hindered. As an as pins and sleeves, so that the adhesive can be example, try sticking masking tape on a dusty, applied to the threaded fastener and it does not moist or greasy surface, or to your finger coated cure until assembled. The students are encourwith a very thin layer of oil or grease. aged to also review the company literature. 12.52 Why have mechanical joining and fastening 12.50 List the joining methods that would be suitable methods been developed? Give several specific for a joint that will encounter high stresses and examples of their applications.

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By the student. Mechanical joining methods, described in Section 12.15, date back to 30002000 B.C., as shown in Table 1.1 on p. 3. These methods have been developed mainly because they impart design flexibility to products, they greatly ease assembly (especially disassembly, thus simplifying repair and part replacement), and have economic advantages. 12.53 Explain why hole preparation may be important in mechanical joining.

numerous joints shown in the figures in Section 12.17. By the student. The students may respond to this question in different ways. For example, they can compare and contrast adhesive bonded joints with those of welded and mechanically assembled joints. Note also the projected area of the joints, the type of materials used, their geometric features, and the locations and directions of the forces applied.

By the student. See Section 12.15.1. Note, 12.57 How different is adhesive bonding from other joining methods? What limitations does it for example, that if a hole has large burrs have? (see Fig. 7.5) it can adversely affect joint quality, and also possibly causing crevice corrosion By the student. Review Section 12.14. Adhe(p. 109). If the hole is significantly larger than sive bonding is significantly different from other the rivet, no compressive stress will be develjoining methods in that the workpiece materioped on its cylindrical surface when the rivet is als are of various types, there is no penetration upset. of the workpiece surfaces, and bonding is done at room temperature. Its main limitations are 12.54 What precautions should be taken in mechanithe necessity for clean surfaces, tight clearances, cal joining of dissimilar metals? and the longer times required. By the student. In joining dissimilar metals, 12.58 Soldering is generally applied to thinner comone must be careful about their possible chemiponents. Why? cal interaction. Often, two dissimilar metals react in a cathodic process, causing galvanic corSolders have much lower strength than braze rosion and corrosive wear (see Section 3.9.7). fillers or weld beads. Therefore, in joining memThis is especially a concern in marine applicabers to be subjected to significant loads, which tions, where sea salt can cause major degradais typical of members with large thickness, one tion, as well as in chemical industries. would normally consider brazing or welding, but not soldering. A benefit of soldering when 12.55 What difficulties are involved in joining plasjoining thin components is that it takes place at tics? What about in joining ceramics? Why? much lower temperatures than brazing or welding, so that one does not have to be concerned By the student. See Section 12.16. Plastics can about the workpiece melting due to localized be difficult to join. The thermal conductivity is heating, or significant warping in the joint area. so low that, if melted, plastics will flow before they resolidify; thermosets will not melt, but 12.59 Explain why adhesively bonded joints tend to will degrade as temperature is increased. Therbe weak in peeling. moplastics are generally soft and thus cannot Adhesives are weak in peeling because there is be compressed very much in threaded conneca concentrated, high tensile stress at the tip of tions, so the bonds with these processes will not the joint when being peeled (see Fig. 12.50); be very strong. Thermoplastics are usually asconsequently, their low tensile strength reduces sembled with snap fasteners when strength is the peeling forces. (Recall that this situation not a key concern, or with adhesives. Ceramics is somewhat analogous to crack initiation and can be joined by adhesive bonding, and also by propagation in metals under tensile stresses; see mechanical means in which the brittleness and Fig. 3.30.) Note, however, that tougher adhenotch sensitivity of these materials are imporsives can require considerable force and energy tant concerns. to peel, as can be appreciated when trying to 12.56 Comment on your observations concerning the peel off some adhesive tapes. 197

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12.60 Inspect various household products, and describe how they are joined and assembled. Explain why those particular processes were used.

operation shown in Fig. 12.53, starting with flat sheet. (See also Fig. 7.23.)

By the student. With some search of the technical literature and the Bibliography given at the By the student. Metallic food containers are end of Chapter 7, the students should be able generally seamed from sheet. Knife blades are to describe designs and equipment required for often riveted/bonded to their handles. Some performing this operation. pots and pans have a number of cold-welded layers of sheet, which are then deep drawn and formed to desired shapes. The reason pots have 12.64 What joining methods would be suitable to assemble a thermoplastic cover over a metal a number of layers different materials is to comframe? Assume that the cover has to be rebine their desirable qualities, such as high thermoved periodically. mal conductivity of copper with the strength and ease of cleaning of stainless steel. Handles By the student. Because the cover has to be on pots and pans are typically spot welded, rivremoved periodically, the most feasible joining eted, or assembled with threaded fasteners. All method is simply snapping the lid on, as is done of these processes meet functional, technologion numerous food products (such as polypropycal, economic, or aesthetic requirements. lene lids on shortening or coffee cans) which, after opening, can easily be resealed. The sealing 12.61 Name several products that have been assemis due to the elastic recovery of the lid after it is bled by (a) seaming, (b) stitching, and (c) solstretched over the edge of the container. Note, dering. however, that at low temperatures (even in the refrigerator) the lid may crack due to lack of By the student. Note, for example: sufficient ductility and severe notch sensitivity (a) Products assembled by seaming are food of the plastic. The students are encouraged to containers and tops of beverage cans. elaborate further. (b) Products made through stitching are cardboard and wood boxes, insulation 12.65 Repeat Question 12.64, but for a cover made of (a) a thermosetting plastic, (b) metal, and (c) and other construction materials, and ceramic. Describe the factors involved in your footwear. selection of methods. (c) Soldered parts include electrical components such as diodes attached to circuit By the student. Consider the following suggesboards, pipe fittings, and electrical termitions: nals. (a) For part (a): 12.62 Suggest methods of attaching a round bar made i. A method similar to Answer 12.64 of thermosetting plastic perpendicularly to a above, since thermosetting plastics flat metal plate. also have some small elastic recovery. By the student. Consider, for example, the following methods: (a) Threading the end of the rod, drilling and tapping a hole into the plate, and screwing the rod in, using a sealer if necessary. (b) Press fit. (c) Riveting the rod in place.

ii. Some mechanical means. iii. Methods would include snap fits. iv. Threaded interfaces. (b) For (b): i. Similar to (a) above, especially threaded interfaces, such as screw caps on bottles. (c) For (c):

(d) Fittings can be employed. 12.63 Describe the tooling and equipment that are necessary to perform the double-lock seaming

i. The generally low ductility of ceramics would be a significant concern as the cover may crack under repeated

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tensile hoop stresses involved in their sembly with other components (see also design use. The students are encouraged to for assembly, Section 14.11). respond to the question as to why a ceramic cover may even be necessary 12.69 Give several applications of electrically conducting adhesives. if the container is made of metal. By the student. See also Section 12.14.4 where several examples are given.

12.66 Do you think the strength of an adhesively bonded structure is as high as that obtained by diffusion bonding? Explain. By the student. Because they rely on bond strength, the joint strength in adhesively bonded joints is usually not as high as that achieved through diffusion bonding. Diffusion bonding (Section 12.12) is exceptional in that the two components, typically metals, are diffused into each other, making the joint very strong. Adhesives are generally not as strong as the material they bond (see Table 12.6 on p. 782), unless the materials are inherently weak, such as paper, cardboard, and some plastics. (See also Section 4.4.) 12.67 Comment on workpiece size limitations, if any, for each of the processes described in this chapter.

12.70 Give several applications for fasteners in various household products, and explain why other joining methods have not been used instead. By the student. The students are encouraged to carefully inspect the variety of products available and to review Sections 12.15, 12.17.4, and 14.10. Note that fasteners are commonly used in many household products, such as coffee makers, electric irons, appliances, furniture, which greatly facilitate assembly, as well as disassembly. 12.71 Comment on workpiece shape limitations, if any, for each of the processes described in this chapter.

By the student. This is a good topic for a project. Basically, large parts can be accommodated in these processes by appropriate fixturing. Small parts, on the other hand, may be delicate and thin, hence will require careful handling. Leads for electronic components are generally soldered; the wires are typically much smaller than 1-mm in diameter. (See also Table 12.1 on p. 733.) 12.68 Describe part shapes that cannot be joined by the processes described in this chapter. Gives specific examples.

By the student. See Question 12.67 and note that it pertained to size limitations, whereas this question concerns shapes. Refer also to design variability in Table 12.1 on p. 733 and welding position in Table 12.2. Although there are some limitations, these are often associated with fixturing requirements. Consider the following: Roll bonding is generally used with sheet metals, so parts that do not involve thin layers are difficult to roll bond. Ultrasonic welding is typically restricted to thin foils. Friction welding requires parts be mounted into chucks or similar fixtures in order to be able to rotate one of the comments to be joined. Spot welding operations can handle complex shapes by appropriate design of electrode holders. Diffusion bonding can produce complex shapes, as can brazing and mechanical fastening.

By the student. A review of the various figures and illustrations in this chapter will clearly indicate that part shape is not a significant difficulty in joining processes. The basic reason is that there is such a very wide variety of pro- 12.72 List and explain the rules that must be folcesses and possibilities available. The student lowed to avoid cracks in welded joints, such as is encouraged to think of specific illustrations hot tearing, hydrogen-induced cracking, lamelof parts that may negate this statement. In lar tearing, etc. rare cases, if a part shape, as designed, is not suitable for joining with other components, its By the student. See Section 12.6.1 where all shape could indeed be modified to enable its asrelevant parameters are discussed. 199

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12.73 If a built-up weld is to be constructed (see Fig. 12.5), should all of it be done at once, or should it be done a little at a time, with sufficient time allowed for cooling between beads?

The main advantages of these processes are associated with the very small weld zone, and the localized energy input and small heat-affected zone. Weld failures, especially by fatigue, occur in the heat-affected zone; thus, minimizing this volume reduces the likelihood of large flaws and rapid crack growth. Also, the low energy input means that thermal distortions and warping associated with these processes is much lower than with arc welding.

With proper welding techniques (see also slag inclusions in Section 12.6.1) and care, the weld joint can be built continuously, as this procedure will prevent excessive oxidation between bead interfaces, as well as reducing weld time and thus making the process economical. 12.74 Describe the reasons that fatigue failure generally occurs in the heat-affected zone of welds instead of through the weld bead itself.

12.77 Describe the common types of discontinuities in welds, explain the methods by which they can be avoided.

By the student. Note that discontinuities in Fatigue failure and crack propagation (see Secwelds are discussed in Section 12.6. Some of tions 2.7 and 3.8) are complex phenomena. Rethe common defects are porosity, inclusions, incall that the base metal of the workpiece is ofcomplete fusion/penetration, underfilling, unten a wrought product with varying degrees of dercutting, overlaps, and cracks. The methods cold work. Thus, the base metal usually has by which they can be avoided are discussed in good fatigue resistance. The weld zone itself Section 12.6.1. is highly alloyed, with high strength and also good fatigue resistance. However, the heat af- 12.78 What are the sources of weld spatter? How can spatter be controlled? fected zone adjacent to the weld does not have the advantageous metallurgy of the weld nor Weld spatter arises from a number of sources. the microstructure of the worked base metal; If the filler metal is a powder, errant partiit has a large grained, equiaxed strucure (see cles can strike the surface and loosely adhere Fig. 12.15 on p. 749). In addition, there is a to the surface, similar to the thermal spraystress concentration associated with the weld, ing process (pp. 156-157). Even a continuous and the heat affected zone is generally in a volelectrode will spatter, as a violently evolving ume that is highly stressed. Thus, it is not suror pumped shielding gas can cause the molten prising that the heat affected zone is the usual metal to emit droplets, which then adhere to site of fatigue failure. the workpiece surface near the weld zone. 12.75 If the parts to be welded are preheated, is the 12.79 Describe the functions and characteristics of likelihood that porosity will form increased or electrodes. What functions do coatings have? decreased? Explain. How are electrodes classified? Weld porosity arises from a number of sources, By the student. The functions of electrodes inincluding micropores (similar to those found clude: in castings; see Section 5.12.1), entrained or evolved gases, and bridging and cracking. If (a) Serve as part of the electrical circuit delivthe part is preheated, bridging and cracking are ering the power required for welding. reduced and the cooling rate is lower, there(b) Melt and provide a filler metal. fore large shrinkage pores are less likely. However, since cooling is slower with preheat, sol(c) Have a coating or core that provides a uble gases may be more likely to be entrained shielding gas and flux. unless effective shielding gases are used. (d) Help stabilize the arc and make the process more robust. 12.76 What is the advantage of electron-beam and laser-beam welding, as compared to arc weldThere are many characteristics of electrodes ing? and the student is encouraged to develop an 200

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appropriate list, noting the two classes of electrodes in arc welding processes: Consumable and nonconsumable. Students will need to perform a literature search to determine classification of electrodes. For example, the following is taken from Hamrock, Schmid, and Jacobson, Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 2d ed., McGraw-Hill, 2004.

Electrode number E60XX E70XX E80XX E90XX E100XX E120XX

Ultimate tensile strength, Su , ksi 62 70 80 90 100 120

Yield strength, Sy , ksi 50 57 67 77 87 107

that unique designs can be incorporated and using different materials; the process is economical for relatively few parts. The limitations are the higher production times required, including subsequent finishing operations, as compared to heading operations, which is a common process for making bolt heads. 12.83 Describe wave soldering. What are the advantages and disadvantages to this process?

Elongation, ek , percent 17-25 22 19 14-17 13-16 14

Wave soldering, described on p. 778, involves moving a circuit board with inserted components over a stationary wave of solder, as shown in Fig. 12.48. The basic advantage to this process is that it can simultaneously produce a number of high-quality joints inexpensively. The main drawback is that it places restrictions on the layout of integrated circuit packages on a circuit board.

12.80 Describe the advantages and limitations of ex- 12.84 What are the similarities and differences beplosion welding. tween a bolt and a rivet? Explosion welding is discussed in Section 12.11. The main advantage is that very dissimilar materials can be bonded, producing high joint strength, as well as specialized applications. The basic limitation is that it is a basically very dangerous operation. 12.81 Explain the difference between resistance seam welding and resistance spot welding.

By the student. Bolts and rivets are very similar in that two or more components are joined by a mechanical means. Both preload the components to function in highly stressed joints. The main difference is that a bolt uses a thread and can thus be disassembled; a rivet is upset and disassembly requires destruction of the rivet.

By the student. The difference between resis- 12.85 It is common practice to tin plate electrical terminals to facilitate soldering. Why is tin a suittance seam welding and resistance spot welding able material? is in the spacing of the weld nuggets (see Sections 12.10.1 and 12.10.2). If the nuggets overNote in Table 12.5 on p. 777 that solders that lap, it is a seam weld; if they do not overlap, it are suitable for general purpose and for elecis a spot weld. tronics applications are lead-tin alloys. Thus, the surface tension of the molten solder with 12.82 Could you use any of the processes described in the tin plate will be very low, thus allowing this chapter to make a large bolt by welding the good wetting by the solder and resulting in a head to the shank? (See Fig. 6.17.) Explain the good joint. advantages and limitations of this approach By the student. Note that processes such as 12.86 Review Table 12.3 and explain why some materials require more heat than others to melt a arc welding and gas welding, as well as friction given volume. welding, can be used to join the two components. However, the advantage of the latter is Refer to Section 3.9.2. Recall that the melting that the weld is over the entire contact area bepoint of a metal depends on the energy required tween the two joined components, instead of a to separate its atoms, thus it is a characteristic small bead along the periphery of the contact of the individual metal. For an alloy, it depends location. Brazing is another method of joinon the melting points of the individual alloying ing the two components. The advantages are elements. Additional factors are: 201

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Problems 12.87 Two flat copper sheets (each 1.5 mm thick) are being spot welded by the use of a current of 7000 A and a current flow time of 0.3 s. The electrodes are 5 mm in diameter. Estimate the heat generated in the weld zone. Assume that the resistance is 200 µΩ.

provided than is needed for this small volume. Clearly, in practice, very little of the heat is concentrated in this small volume. A more elaborate model of temperature distributions is possible, but beyond the scope of this book. Texts such as Carslaw, H.S., and Jaeger, J.C., Conduction of Heat in Solids, Oxford University Press, 1959, address such problems in detail.

This problem is very similar to Example 12.5 on p. 765. Note in Eq. (12.6) that the quantities now are I = 7000 A and t = 0.3 s. As in the 12.89 Calculate the range of allowable currents for example, the resistance is 200 µΩ. Therefore, Problem 12.87, if the temperature should be between 0.7 and 0.85 times the melting temH = (7000)2 (0.0002)(0.3) = 2940 J perature of copper. Repeat this problem for As in the example, we take the weld nugget carbon steel. volume to be the projected volume below the electrode, or This problem can be interpreted as between 0.7 and 0.85 times the melting temperature on π 2 π 2 V = d t = (5) (3) = 58.9 mm3 an absolute (Kelvin) or a Celsius temperature 4 4 scale. This solution will use a Celsius scale, From Table 12.3 on p. 737, the specific enso that the final target temperature is between ergy needed to melt copper is u = 6.1 J/mm3 . 765 and 925 ◦ C. Using the same approach as in Therefore, the heat needed is Problem 12.87, the allowable energy for these cases is 100 and 121 J, respectively. With a reHmelt = (58.9)(6.1) = 359 J sistance of 200 µΩ, the currents are 1310 and 1420 A, respectively. The solution for carbon The remaining heat (that is, 2940-359 J = 2581 steel is left for the student to supply, but uses J) is dissipated into the volume of metal surthe same approach. rounding the weld nugget. 12.88 Calculate the temperature rise in Problem 12.87, assuming that the heat generated is con- 12.90 In Fig. 12.24, assume that most of the top portion of the top piece is cut horizontally with a fined to the volume of material directly between sharp saw. Thus, the residual stresses will be the two electrodes and that the temperature disturbed, and, as described in Section 2.10, the distribution is uniform. part will undergo shape change. For this case, how will the part distort? Explain. The volume of metal directly under the 5-mm electrodes is Inspecting Fig. 12.24 and recalling Answer 2.25 π π V = d2 t = (5)2 (3) = 58.9 mm3 , regarding Fig. 2.30, we arrive at the following 4 4 observations and conclusions: (1) The top porand this volume has a mass of (58.9)(0.00897) tion of the top piece is subjected to longitudinal = 0.53 g = 0.00053 kg. The specific heat for compressive residual stresses. (2) If we cut this copper is 385 J/kgK. Therefore, the theoretical portion with a sharp saw (so that we do not intemperature rise is duce further residual stresses during cutting), stresses will rearrange themselves and the part 2940 J ∆T = = 14, 400 K will bend downward, i.e., it will hold water, as(385 J/kgK)(0.00053 kg) suming it will not warp in the plane of the page. Note that the melting point of copper is 1082◦ C For details, recall the spring analogy in Prob(1355 K), thus much more energy has been lem 2.25. 202

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12.91 The accompanying figure shows a metal sheave that consists of two matching pieces of hotrolled, low-carbon-steel sheets. These two pieces can be joined either by spot welding or by V-groove welding. Discuss the advantages and limitations of each process for this application.

(a) 0.135 in.

2 167 in.

Spot weld (b)

V-groove weld (c)

By the student. The original method of joining the two sheaves was by resistance spot welding, with 16 welds equally spaced around the periphery, as shown in (b). Although the weld quality was satisfactory, the welding time per sheave was 1 minute. In order to increase production rate, an alternative process was chosen (gas-metal-arc welding, GMAW) with a continuous weld around the periphery of the sheave as shown in (c). With an automated welding process, the welding time per sheave was reduced to 40 s. 12.92 A welding operation takes place on an aluminum-alloy plate. A pipe 50-mm in diameter with a 4-mm wall thickness and a 60-mm length is butt-welded onto a section of 15 x 15 x 5 mm angle iron. The angle iron is of an Lshape and has a length of 0.3 m. If the weld zone in a gas tungsten-arc welding process is approximately 8 mm wide, what would be the temperature increase of the entire structure due to the heat input from welding only? What if the process were an electron-beam welding operation with a bead width of 6 mm? Assume

that the electrode requires 1500 J and the aluminum alloy requires 1200 J to melt one gram. For the first part of the problem, assume that the electrode is placed around the entire pipe, so that the weld length is πD = π(50 mm) = 0.157 m. If the weld cross section is triangular, its volume is approximately 1 1 V = bhL = (0.008 m)2 (0.157 m) 2 2 −6 or V = 5.02 × 10 m3 = 5020 mm3 . The electrode material should be matched to aluminum, so it will likely be an aluminum alloy in order to approximately match melting temperatures and compatibility. The density should therefore be around 2700 kg/m3 (see Table 3.3 on p. 106, where it is also noted that C = 900 J/kg-K). The specific heat to melt aluminum alloys is given by Table 12.3 as 2.9 J/mm3 . Therefore, the energy input is (2.9)(5020) = 14.5 kJ. The total volume of the aluminum is π 2 (d − d2i )L + 2btl V = 4 o π (502 − 422 )(60) + 2(15)(5)(300) = 4 = 79, 683 mm3 or V = 7.968 × 10−5 m3 . The temperature rise is then calculated as: E = ρV C ∆T Solving for ∆T , ∆T

=

E ρV C

=

14, 500 (2700)(7.968 × 10−5 )(900)

Or ∆T = 75◦ C. For the second part of the problem, the change to be made is in the input energy. Using the same approach as above, we have 1 1 V = bhL = (0.006 m)2 (0.157 m) 2 2 −6 or V = 2.826 × 10 m3 =2826 mm3 . The input energy is (2.9)(2826)=8.20 kJ. The temperature rise is therefore E ∆T = ρV C 8200 = (2700)(7.968 × 10−5 )(900) = 42◦ C

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12.93 A shielded metal arc welding operation is taking place on carbon steel to produce a fillet weld (see Fig. 12.21b). The desired welding speed is around 25 mm/sec. If the power supply is 10 V, what current is needed if the weld width is to be 7 mm?

plate as a function of kerf. Assume that onehalf of the energy goes into the plate and onehalf goes into the blank. The volume melted is V = (πD)th = π(80 mm)(12 mm)t = 30106t

Since its width is 7 mm, the cross-sectional area of the weld is A = 12 (7 in2 ) = 24.5 mm2 = 2.45×10−5 m2 . For shielded metal arc welding, we obtain from Section 12.3.1 that C = 75%. From Table 12.3, u is assigned a mean value of 9.7 J/mm3 . From Eq. (12.5), the weld speed is therefore calculated as v=e

where t is the kerf width in mm. The energy input is then E = uV /2 = 1508ut, where u is the specific energy required to melt the workpiece, as given in J/mm3 in Table 12.1. Note that we have divided the energy by two because only one-half of the energy goes into the blank. The volume of the blank is π 2 d h V = 4h i π 2 = (250 mm) − (80 mm)2 (12 mm) 4 = 5.29 × 10−4 m3

VI uA

Solving for the current, I, I=

uvA (9.7)(25)(24.5) = eV (0.75)(10)

The temperature rise in the blank is ∆T = E/ρV Cp ; substituting for the input energy,

or I = 792 A. 12.94 The energy applied in friction welding is given by the formula E = IS 2 /C, where I is the moment of inertia of the flywheel, S is the spindle speed in rpm, and C is a constant of proportionality (5873, when the moment of inertia is given in lb-ft2 ). For a spindle speed of 600 rpm and an operation in which a steel tube (3.5 in. OD, 0.25 in. wall thickness) is welded to a flat frame, what is the required moment of inertia of the flywheel if all of the energy is used to heat the weld zone (approximated as the material 0.25 in. deep and directly below the tube)? Assume that 1.4 ft-lbm is needed to melt the electrode.

∆T

=

EC (1.4)(5873) = = 0.0228 lb-ft2 2 S (600)2

12.95 In oxyacetylene, arc, and laser-beam cutting, the processes basically involve melting of the workpiece. If an 80 mm diameter hole is to be cut from a 250 mm diameter, 12 mm thick plate, plot the mean temperature rise in the

1508ut ρCp (5.29 × 10−4 ) u 6 (2.85 × 10 )t ρCp

Avg. Temp. Increase in blank (°C)

It can be seen that the plot of temperature rise is a linear function of width, t. This is plotted below for selected materials.

The flywheel moment of inertia can be calculated as: IS 2 E= C Solving for I, I=

=

500 400 300 200

Al Cu Steel Ti

100 0

0

10 20 30 Kerf width (mm)

12.96 Refer to the simple butt and lap joints shown in Fig. 12.1. (a) Assuming the area of the butt joint is 3 mm × 20 mm and referring to the adhesive properties given in Table 12.6, estimate the minimum and maximum tensile force that this joint can withstand. (b) Estimate these forces for the lap joint assuming its area is 15 mm × 15 mm.

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Referring to Table 12.6 on p. 782, note that the lowest adhesive strength is for epoxy or polyurethane at 15.4 MPa, and the highest tension-shear strength is for modified acrylic at 25.9 MPa. These values are used in the solution below.

(a) For the magnesium workpiece, Table 12.3 gives u = 2.9 J/mm3 . Therefore, from Eq. (12.5),

(a) For a butt joint, assuming there is strong adhesion between the adhesive and workpiece, the full strength of the adhesive can be developed. In this case, we can calculate the required load-bearing area as

(b) For the copper workpiece, we have u = 6.1 J/mm3 . Therefore, from Eq. (12.5),

v=e

v=e

Consequently, we have v=e Fmin = (15.4 × 106 )(6.0 × 10−5 ) = 924 N and Fmax = (25.9 × 106 )(6.0 × 10−5) = 1554 N (b) For the lap joint, we similarly obtain A = (15)(15) = 225 mm2 = 2.25 × 10−4 m2 . Note that in this case, the joint is loaded in shear, and the shear strength is onehalf the tensile strength, as discussed in courses on mechanics of solids. Therefore,

(20)(200) VI = (0.75) = 10.2 mm/s. uA (9.8)(30)

12.99 A submerged arc welding operation takes place on 10 mm thick stainless steel, producing a butt weld as shown in Fig. 12.20c. The weld geometry can be approximated as a trapezoid with 15 mm and 10 mm as the top and bottom dimensions, respectively. If the voltage provided is 40 V at 400 A, estimate the welding speed if a stainless steel filler wire is used. A sketch of the weld cross section is shown below.

1 15.4 × 106 2.25 × 10−4 2

15

or Fmin = 1730 N. Also, Fmax

VI (20)(200) = (0.75) = 16.4 mm/s. uA (6.1)(30)

(c) For the nickel workpiece, we have u = 9.8 J/mm3 . Therefore, from Eq. (12.5),

A = (3)(20) = 60 mm2 = 6.0 × 10−5 m2

Fmin =

(20)(200) VI = (0.75) = 34.5 mm/s. uA (2.9)(30)

10

1 25.9 × 106 2.25 × 10−4 = 2

10

or Fmax = 2910 N. 12.97 As shown in Fig. 12.61, a rivet can buckle if it is too long. Using information from solid mechanics, determine the length-to-diameter ratio of a rivet that will not buckle during riveting. The riveting process is very similar to heading (see Section 6.2.4). Basically, the design requirement is that the length-to-diameter ratio should be 3 or less. If the heading tool has a controlled geometry, a longer length can be accommodated if the head diameter is not more than 1.5 times the shank diameter. 12.98 Repeat Example 12.2 if the workpiece is (a) magnesium, (b) copper or (c) nickel.

The area of the trapezoid is 1 A = (10)(10) + 2 (2.5)(10) = 125 mm2 2 For submerged arc welding, it is stated in Section 12.3.1 that e = 0.90. For a stainless steel workpiece, the unit specific energy is obtained from Table 12.3 as u = 9.4 J/mm3 . Therefore, from Eq. (12.5), v

VI uA (40)(400) = 0.9 (9.4)(125) = 12.2 mm/s

= e

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12.100 Assume that you are asked to give a quiz to students on the contents of this chapter. Prepare three quantitative problems and three qualitative questions, and supply the answers.

By the student. This is a challenging, openended question that requires considerable focus and understanding on the part of the students, and has been found to be a very valuable homework problem.

Design 12.101 Design a machine that can perform friction welding of two cylindrical pieces, as well as remove the flash from the welded joint. (See Fig. 12.30.) By the student. Note that this machine can be very similar to a lathe, where one-half of the workpiece is held in a fixture attached to the tailstock, the other half is in the rotating chuck, and a cutting tool is used as in turning. 12.102 How would you modify your design in Problem 12.101 if one of the pieces to be welded is noncircular? By the student. The machine is more complicated, machining can become more difficult, with essentially a milling operation taking place after welding.

the right is capable of supporting a larger moment, as shown.

The problem statement assumes that the failure in the part on the left will be in the weld itself; if the material strength determines the moment that can be supported, then the weld design is irrelevant. Assuming that the weld zone is roughly square, it is better to place the welds as shown on the right because the strength arises from the cube of the distance from the neutral axis. In the design on the left, only the extreme ends are fully loaded, and some material (at the neutral axis) is subjected to very little stress.

12.103 Describe product designs that cannot be joined by friction welding processes. By the student. Consider, for example, that if one of the components is a very thin tube, it will 12.106 In the building of large ships, there is a need not be able to support the large axial loads into weld large sections of steel together to form volved in friction welding; likewise, if the other a hull. For this application, consider each of component is very think and slender. the welding operations described in this chapter, and list the benefits and drawbacks of that 12.104 Make a comprehensive outline of joint designs operation for this product. Which welding prorelating to the processes described in this chapcess would you select? Why? ter. Give specific examples of engineering applications for each type of joint. By the student. Refer to Section 12.17. This is a challenging problem, and would be suitable for a project or a paper. 12.105 Review the two weld designs in Fig. 12.58a, and, based on the topics covered in courses on the strength of materials, show that the design on

By the student. This specialized topic is very suitable for a student paper, requiring a search of the technical literature in shipbuilding technologies. For example, the following may be suggested:

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Process Oxyfuel

Advantages Inexpensive; portable.

SMAW

Inexpensive; portable.

SAW

Good weld strength; can be automated

ESW

Good weld strength, wellsuited for vertical welds.

Disadvantages Significant joint distortion; welding of thick sections is difficult. Thick sections need a builtup weld (see Fig. 12.5 on p. 738), possibly compromising joint strength. Limited workspace; workpiece must be horizontal, a difficult restriction for boat hulls More complicated equipment required.

12.109 Using two strips of steel 1 in. wide and 8 in. long, design and fabricate a joint that gives the highest strength in a tension test in the longitudinal direction. By the student. This is a challenging problem and an experimental project, as well; it could also be made into a contest among students in class. It must be noted, however, that the thickness of the strips is not given in the statement of the problem (although the word strip generally indicates a thin material). The thickness is a factor that students should recognize and comment on, and supply their answers accordingly. It can also be seen that most of the processes described in Chapter 12 can be used for such a joint. Consequently, a wide variety of processes and designs should be considered, making the response to this question extensive.

12.107 Examine various household products, and describe how they are joined and assembled. Explain why those particular processes are used for these applications.

In using a single bolt through the two strips, for example, it should be apparent that if the bolt diameter is too large, the stresses in the rest of the cross section may be too high, causing the strips to fail prematurely. If, on the other hand, the bolt diameter is too small, it will easily shear off under the applied tensile force. Thus, there has to be an optimum to bolt size. The students are encouraged to consider multiple-bolt designs, as well as a host of other processes either singly or in combination.

By the student. Consider the following: Metallic food containers that are seamed from sheet. Knife blades that are riveted/bonded to their handles. Pots with a number of cold-welded layers of sheet, which are then deep drawn and formed to desired shapes. All of these pro12.110 Make an outline of the general guidelines for cesses are used because other processes which safety in welding operations. For each of the are technologically feasible may lack economic, operations described in this chapter, prepare a functional, or aesthetic advantages. poster which effectively and concisely gives specific instructions for safe practices in welding 12.108 A major cause of erratic behavior (hardware (or cutting). Review the various publications bugs) and failure of computer equipment is faof the National Safety Council and other simitigue failure of the soldered joints, especially in lar organizations. surface-mount devices and devices with bond wires. (See Fig. 12.48.) Design a test fixture By the student. This is a valuable study by the for cyclic loading of a surface-mount joint for students, and the preparation of a poster or a fatigue testing. flyer is a good opportunity for students. Safety in Welding is a standard published by the By the student. This is a very demanding American National Standards Institute (ANSI project, and can be expanded into a group Z49.1) and describes in detail the safety predesign project. Students can consider if the cautions that must be taken. Most of the stantest should duplicate the geometry of a surface dards are process-specific. As an example, some mount or if an equivalent geometry can be anasafety guidelines for shielded metal-arc welding lyzed. They can determine loading cycle duraare: tions and amplitudes, as well as various other test parameters. • The operator must wear eye and skin pro207

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tection against radiation.

strength, while the outside layers of pure aluminum provide good corrosion resistance, because of their stable oxide film. Alclad is commonly used in aerospace structural applications for these reasons. Investigate other common roll bonded materials and their uses, and prepare a summary table.

• Leather gloves and clothing should be worn to prevent burns from arc spatter. • Welding should be done in properly ventilated areas, where fresh air is available to workers and the work area is not flooded by shielding gases.

By the student. This topic could be a challenging project for students. Examples include coinage (see also Question 12.24) and a thin coating of metals on workpieces where the coating serves as a solid lubricant in metalworking (see p. 152).

• To prevent electric shock, the welder should not weld while standing on a wet surface. • The workpiece should be positioned to minimize trauma to the back and arms. 12.111 A common practice for repairing expensive broken or worn parts, such as may occur when, for example, a fragment is broken from a forging, is to fill the area with layers of weld bead and then to machine the part back to its original dimensions. Make a list of the precautions that you would suggest to someone who uses this approach.

12.114 Obtain a soldering iron and attempt to solder two wires together. First, try to apply the solder at the same time as you first put the soldering iron tip to the wires. Second, preheat the wires before applying the solder. Repeat the same procedure for a cool surface and a heated surface. Record your results and explain your findings. By the student. This is a valuable and inexpensive laboratory experience, showing the importance of surface tension. With cold wires, molten solder has high surface tension against the wires, and thus the solder does not wet the surface. At elevated temperatures, the solder has low surface tension and the solder coats the wire surfaces very effectively. Students can be asked to examine this phenomenon further by placing a small piece of solder of known volume (which can be measured with a precision scale) on a steel plate section. When heated, the solder spreads according to the surface temperature of the steel. It will be noted that above a threshold value, the solder will flow freely and coat the surface.

By the student. Considerations are that the interface between the forging and the filling may not have sufficient strength. The weld bead will have different properties than the substrate (the forging) and have an uneven surface, thus machining may result in vibration and chatter. The weld material may cause the cutting tools to wear more rapidly. The weld may fracture during machining and compromise part integrity. The weld material may have insufficient ductility and toughness for the application. 12.112 In the roll bonding process shown in Fig. 12.28, how would you go about ensuring that the interfaces are clean and free of contaminants, so that a good bond is developed? Explain. By the student. The students are encouraged to perform a literature search for particular approaches. The basic procedure has been (a) wire brushing the surfaces, which removes oxide from the surfaces, and (b) solvent cleaning, which removes residues and organic films from the surface. (See also Section 4.5.2.)

12.115 Perform a literature search to determine the properties and types of adhesives used to affix artificial hips onto the human femur.

12.113 Alclad stock is made from 5182 aluminum alloy, and has both sides coated with a thin layer of pure aluminum. The 5182 provides high

By the student. Sometimes an adhesive is used, but with some designs this is not necessary, as they rely upon osteointegration or bone-ingrowth to affix the implant. Usually the cement is polymethylmethacrylate, an acrylic polymer often referred to as bone cement, or else a hydroxyapetite polymer is used. New materials are constantly being developed and

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a number of variations can be found in the literature and through an Internet search. A common trend is to develop cements from calcium phosphates, as these are closer matches to the mineral content of bone. 12.116 Using the Internet, investigate the geometry of the heads of screws that are permanent fasteners (that is, ones that can be screwed in but not out). By the student. These heads usually present a straight vertical surface for the screwdriver in one direction, but a curved surface in the opposite direction, so that a screwdriver simply slips when turned counterclockwise and is not effective for unscrewing. The sketch on the left was obtained from www.k-mac-fasteners.com, while the photo on the right was obtained from www.storesonline.com.

12.117 Obtain an expression similar to Eq. (12.6), but for electron beam and laser welding. By the student. The heat input is generally given by H = cIA where c is a constant that indicates the portion of laser energy absorbed by the material, and I is the intensity of light over the area A.

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Chapter 13

Fabrication of Microelectronic, Micromechanical, and Microelectromechanical Devices; Nanomanufacturing Questions 13.1 Define the terms wafer, chip, device, integrated circuit, and surface mount.

13.4 How do n-type and p-type dopants differ? Explain.

A wafer is a slice of a thin cylinder of silicon. A chip is a fragment of a wafer. A device is either a (1) micromechanical arrangement without any integrated electronic circuitry or a (2) simple electronic element such as a transistor. An integrated circuit is a semiconductorbased design, incorporating large amounts of electronic devices.

The difference is whether or not they donate or take an electron from the (usually) silicon into which they are doped. 13.5 How is epitaxy different than other forms of film deposition? Epitaxial layers are grown from the substrate, as described in Section 13.5. Other films are externally applied without consuming the substrate.

13.2 Why is silicon the most commonly used semiconductor in IC technology? Explain. The reason is its unique capabilities regarding the growth of oxides and deposition of metal coatings onto the oxides, so that metal on oxide semiconductors can be easily fabricated.

13.6 Comment on the differences between wet and dry etching.

13.3 What do the terms VLSI, IC, CVD, CMP, and DIP stand for? VLSI - Very large scale integration; IC - integrated circuit; CVD - chemical vapor deposition; CMP - chemical mechanical planarization or chemical mechanical polishing; DIP - dual in-line package.

Wet etching involves liquid-based solutions into which the workpiece is immersed. The process is usually associated with high etch rates and isotropic etch patterns, and is relatively easy to mask. Dry etching usually involves placing the workpiece into a chamber with gas or plasma, and the plasma drives the etching process. The process is usually associated with low etch rates and anisotropic etching, and is more difficult to mask.

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13.7 How is silicon nitride used in oxidation?

13.12 What is the difference between evaporation and sputtering?

As described on in Section 13.6, silicon nitride is used for selective oxidation, since silicon nitride inhibits the passage of oxygen and water vapor. Thus, the silicon nitride acts as a mask in oxidation. 13.8 What are the purposes of prebaking and postbaking in lithography?

In evaporation, the coating is heated until it is a vapor, which then deposits from vapor phase onto the cooler workpiece surface. In sputtering, ions impact the coating material and cause atoms to be ejected or sputtered. These atoms then condense on the workpiece. A further description is in Section 4.5.1.

As described on p. 817, prebaking of wafers is 13.13 What is the definition of yield? How important done (prior to lithography) to remove solvent is yield? Comment on its economic significance. from the photoresist, and to harden the photoresist. After lithography, the wafer is postYield is the ratio of functional chips to the numbaked to improve the adhesion of the remaining ber of chips produced. Obviously, yield is exphotoresist. tremely important because of its major influence on the economics of chip manufacture. 13.9 Define selectivity and isotropy and their importance in relation to etching. 13.14 What is accelerated life testing? Why is it practiced? Selectivity describes the preferential etching of some materials over others with a given In accelerated life testing, the test subject is exetchant. Isotropy describes the rate of etching posed to a harsher environment than its workin different directions relative to the surface. ing environment. For example, the test subject These are important with respect to etching may be exposed to higher temperatures, higher because to obtain high-quality integrated cirstresses, or higher temperature variations. The cuits, good definition and closely packed devices time until failure is then measured, and inferare needed. This requires and understanding of ences are made as to its expected life in the both selectivity and isotropy in etching. working environment. Accelerated life testing is essential because many products last a very 13.10 What do the terms linewidth and registration long time, and thus it would not be practical to refer to? test under normal conditions. Linewidth (p. 818) is the width of the small13.15 What do BJT and MOSFET stand for? est feature obtainable on the silicon surface. Current minimum linewidths are around 0.13 BJT: Bipolar junction transistor, and MOSµm. Registration refers to alignment of wafers FET: Metal on oxide field effect transistor. in lithography. Both of these are interrelated, since highly resolved integrated circuits cannot 13.16 Explain the basic processes of (a) surface micromachining and (b) bulk micromachining. be obtained unless the linewidth is sufficiently small and the registration is performed propIn surface micromachining, the selectivity of erly. wet etching is exploited to produce small me13.11 Compare diffusion and ion implantation. chanical features on silicon or on other surfaces. As shown in Fig. 13.34, surface micromachining Diffusion and ion implantation are similar. Difinvolves production of a desired feature through fusion refers to the process of atom migration, film deposition and etching; a spacer layer is and is closely related to temperature. Ion imthen removed through wet etching, where the plantation involves accelerating ions and directspacer layer is easily etched while the structural ing them to a surface where they are incorpomaterial is not etched. rated. Thus, both diffusion and ion implantation can be used to drive dopants into semicon- 13.17 What is LIGA? What are its advantages over ductor materials. other processes? 212

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LIGA is an acronym from the German terms but in practice, it is very difficult because of X ray Lithographie, Galvanoformung und Abthe presence of surface residual stresses and the formung, or x-ray lithography, electroforming lack of high selectivity in etchants. and molding, as shown in Fig. 13.44 on p. 852. LIGA has the capability of producing MEMS 13.22 What is a PCB? and micromechanical devices with very large PCB is a printed circuit board (see Section aspect ratios. The operation also allows the 13.13). production of polymer MEMS devices and the mass production of MEMS devices, since the 13.23 With an appropriate sketch, describe the therLIGA-produced structure is a mold for further mosonic stitching process. processing. As shown in Fig 13.28 on p. 836, in thermosonic 13.18 What is the difference between isotropic and stitching, a gold wire is welded to a bond pad anisotropic etching? on a printed circuit board. The wire is then fed from a spool through a nozzle, so that a In isotropic etching, material is chemically mawire thread’ is stretched to a lead on the intechined in all directions at the same rate, as grated circuit package. The gold wire is then shown in Fig. 13.17a on p. 824. Anisotropic thermosonically welded to the package, similar etching involves chemical machining where one to ultrasonic welding described in Section 12.7. direction etches faster than another, with the extreme being vertical etching (Fig. 13.23f on 13.24 Explain the difference between a die, a chip, p. 831) where material is only removed in one and a wafer. direction. A die is a completed integrated circuit. A chip 13.19 What is a mask? What is its composition? is the portion of the wafer used to construct integrated circuits. A wafer is a slice of a single A mask is a protective layer that contains all of crystal silicon cylinder. It should be noted that the geometric information desired for an etchthere are many dice on a chip, and a chip is ing or ion implantation step; it can be considpart of a wafer. ered to be a protective coating. Masking prevents machining where the mask is present. A mask can be produced from a variety of mate- 13.25 Why are flats or notches machined onto silicon wafers? Explain. rials, although typically they are polymers. 13.20 What is the difference between chemically assisted ion etching and dry plasma etching?

The flats are machined to assist in registration, and to also indicate the crystallographic orientation of the silicon in the wafer. Anisotropic etching processes require that designers account for the crystallographic orientation.

As described in Section 13.8.2, chemically assisted ion etching is one type of dry etching. Dry etching involves etching in a plasma, and chemically assisted ion etching uses chemical re- 13.26 What is a via? What is its function? active species in the plasma to remove material, A via is an electrical connections between layers and the ion bombardment is used to help reof a printed circuit board, as depicted in Fig. move the chemical species attached to the sur13.31 on p. 840. With a large number of cirface. cuits on a board, it is clear that the required electrical connections are very difficult to make 13.21 Which process(es) in this chapter allow(s) fabif all of the connections must lie within a single rication of products from polymers? (See also plane. A via allows the designer to make elecChapter 10.) trical connections on a number of planes, thus By the student. It will be noted that polygreatly simplifying layout on a board. mers are most easily produced from LIGA and solid freeform fabrication processes. They can 13.27 What is a flip chip? Describe its advantages be produced through surface micromachining, over a surface-mount device. 213

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A flip chip, shown in Fig. 13.30 on p. 838, has a large number of solid metal balls that mate to bond pads on the printed circuit board. It gets its name from the process used to remove the chip from its supply tape and assembling it to the circuit board. The main advantage of a flip chip over a surface mount device is that a larger number of connections can be made on a smaller area, allowing a greater density of integrated circuits on a printed circuit board.

13.28 Explain how IC packages are attached to a printed circuit board if both sides will contain ICs. If both sides are to contain ICs, the designer must first make sure that all through-hole mount packages are placed on one side of the board. This same side will then have all remaining components attached through reflow (paste) soldering. The opposite side of the board will have components glued in place and then a wave soldering operation takes place.

Effects of manufacturing changes Number of Wafer functional Change yield chips Increase wafer diameter Reduce chip size Increase process complexity The completed table is shown below: Effects of manufacturing changes Number of Wafer functional Change yield chips Increase wafer No change Increase diameter Reduce chip Increase Increase size Increase Decrease Decrease process complexity

13.29 In a horizontal epitaxial reactor (see the accompanying figure), the wafers are placed on a stage 13.31 The speed of a transistor is directly proportional to the width of its polysilicon gate, with (susceptor) that is tilted by a small amount, ◦ ◦ a narrower gate resulting in a faster transistor usually 1 -3 . Why is this procedure done? and a wider gate resulting in a slower transistor. Knowing that the manufacturing process has a The stage in the horizontal epitaxial reactor is certain variation for the gate width, say ±0.1 usually tilted by a small amount to provide µm, how might a designer alter the gate size of equal amounts of reactant gases in both the a critical circuit in order to minimize its speed front and back of the chamber. If the stage variation? Are there any penalties for making is not tilted, the reactant gases would be parthis change? Explain. tially used up (on the wafers in the front of the chamber) before they reach the wafers at the In order to minimize the speed variation of critback end of the chamber, causing nonuniformiical circuits, gate widths are typically designed ties in the film deposited. at larger than the minimum allowable size. As an example, if a gate width is 0.5 µm and the process variation is ±0.1 µm, a ±20% variation 13.30 The accompanying table describes three in speed would be expected. However, if the changes in the manufacture of a wafer: ingate width is increased to 0.8 µm, the speed crease of the wafer diameter, reduction of the variation reduces to ±12.5%. The penalty for chip size, and increase of the process complexthis technique is a larger transistor size (and, in ity. Complete the table by filling in the words turn, a larger die area) and also a slower tranincrease, decrease, or no change to indicate the sistor. effect that each change would have on wafer yield and on the overall number of functional 13.32 A common problem in ion implantation is channeling, in which the high-velocity ions travel chips. 214

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deep into the material through channels along the crystallographic planes before finally being stopped. What is one simple way to stop this effect?

{111} plane

{100} plane 54.74°

A simple and common method of stopping ion channeling during implantation is to tilt the crystal material by a few degrees (4-7◦ ) so that the incident ion beam is not coincident with the crystallographic planes of the material.

Primary flat

13.33 The MEMS devices described in this chapter 13.35 Referring to Fig. 13.23, sketch the holes generuse macroscale machine elements, such as spur ated from a circular mask. gears, hinges, and beams. Which of the followThe challenge to this problem is that conical ing machine elements can or cannot be applied sections are difficult to sketch. Note, however, to MEMS, and why? that some etching processes will expose crystallographic planes, resulting in an undercut of (a) ball bearing; the circular mask in places. The sketches are given below: (b) helical springs; (c) bevel gears;

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) rivets; (e) worm gears; (f) bolts; (g) cams. All of the devices can be manufactured, but ball bearings, helical springs, worm gears, and bolts are extremely difficult to manufacture, as well as use, in micromechanical systems. The main reason these components cannot be easily manufactured is that they are three dimensional, whereas the MEMS manufacturing processes, as currently developed, are best suited for 2D, or at most, 2 12 D devices. 13.34 Figure 13.7b shows the Miller indices on a wafer of (100) silicon. Referring to Fig. 13.5, identify the important planes for the other wafer types illustrated in Fig. 13.7a.

(hemispherical shape) (d)

Note: undercuts! (e)

(f)

Scalloping

The crystal orientation doesn’t depend on whether the silicon is n- or p-type, so that what 13.36 Explain how you would produce a spur gear if is shown in part (b) fits equally well for either its thickness were one tenth its diameter and its diameter were (a) 10 µm, (b) 100 µm, (c) 1 {100} wafer. The proper structure for a {111} type is as follows: mm, (d) 10 mm, and (e) 100 mm. 215

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The answer depends on the material, but lets assume the material is silicon.

widely because the manufacturing strategies for silicon have been extensively investigated and developed, and silicon has a unique capability to grow epitaxial layers.

(a) 10-µm spur gear could be produced through surface micromachining. (b) 100 µm spur gear could be produced through micromachining; if silicon is not the desired material, LIGA is also an option.

13.40 Explain the purpose of a spacer layer in surface micromachining.

(c) 1-mm gear can be produced through LIGA, chemical blanking, or chemical etching from foil. (d) 10 mm gear can be blanked or chemically blanked.

Recall that a spacer layer is a layer of an easyto-wet etch material. It can separate mechanical devices as they are being built in a layerby-layer approach, and then removed in a wet etching step that leaves the structural material unchanged. Borophosphosilicate glasses are the most common spacer layer materials.

(e) 100 mm gear could best be machined (see 13.41 What do the terms SIMPLE and SCREAM stand for? Section 8.10.7). 13.37 Which clean room is cleaner, a Class-10 or a Class-1?

As described in Section 13.14.2 on p. 847, SIMPLE stands for silicon micromachining by single-step plasma etching and SCREAM stands for single-crystal silicon reactive etching and metallization. These are shown in Figs. 13.39 and 13.40 on p. 848.

Recall that the class of a clean room is defined as the number of 0.5 µm or larger particles within a cubic foot of air (see Section 13.2). Thus, a Class-1 room is cleaner than a Class-10 13.42 Which process(es) in this chapter allow the fabroom. rication of products from ceramics? (See also Chapter 11.) 13.38 Describe the difference between a microelectronic device, a micromechanical device and By the student. Note that ceramic products are MEMS. difficult to manufacture on a microscale. The only processes that would work are slip castBy the student. A microelectronic device is any ing from a LIGA-produced mold or equivalent integrated circuit. Literally, the device is micromold from microstereolithography. scale, so that a microscope is needed to see this device, but practically, it refers to a device pro13.43 What is HEXSIL? duced through the processes described in this chapter. A micromechanical device is a conHEXSIL, shown in Fig. 13.49 on p. 856, comstruct that is mechanical, and not electronic, bines hexagonal honeycomb structures, silicon in nature; it uses gears, mirrors, actuators, and micromachining, and thin-film deposition. This other mechanical systems in their operation. It process produces high aspect-ratio structures could be argued that a micromechanical device such as the microtweezers shown in Fig. 13.50 is a microelectronic device that has at least one on p. 857. moving part. MEMS is a special class, containing a micromechanical device and integrated mi- 13.44 Describe the differences between stereolithography and microstereolithography. croelectronic control circuitry, thus it is an integrated microelectronic and micromechanical Microstereolithography uses the same mechadevice. nisms as stereolithography, but the laser is focused on a much smaller area. As described 13.39 Why is silicon often used with MEMS and in Section 13.16, microstereolithography uses MEMS devices? a laser focused onto a diameter as small as See also the answer to Problem 13.2. For 1 µm, whereas conventional stereolithography MEMS and MEMS devices, silicon is used typically uses laser diameters of 250 µm. 216

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13.45 Lithography produces projected shapes; conse• Wet etchants can result in structures that quently, true three-dimensional shapes are more fail to separate from surfaces, as shown in difficult to produce. Which of the processes deFig. 13.36 on p. 845. scribed in this chapter are best able to produce 13.47 What are the main limitations to the LIGA prothree-dimensional shapes, such as lenses? cess? Making three dimensional shapes is very difLIGA has the capability of producing MEMS ficult. A shape with a smooth surface is esand micromechanical devices with very large pecially challenging, since a stepped surface aspect ratios. It also allows the production of results from multilayer lithography. Threepolymer MEMS devices and the mass producdimensional objects can be produced by tion of these devices (since the LIGA-produced isotropic etching, but the surface will not necstructure is a mold for further processing). The essarily have the desired contour. The best main limitations of LIGA are economic, as collithography-based process for producing threelimated x-rays are obtained only with special dimensional surfaces is stereolithography or miequipment, currently available only at selected crostereolithography, which can be combined U.S. National Laboratories. Thus, the cost of with electroforming or other processes, such as parts produced is very high. LIGA. 13.46 List and explain the advantages and limitations 13.48 Describe the process(es) that can be used to of surface micromachining as compared to bulk make the microtweezers shown in Fig. 13.49 micromachining. other than HEXSIL. By the student. Review Section 13.14.2 and consider the following partial list: Advantages of surface micromachining: • • • • •

Not restricted to single-crystal materials. Multilayer objects can be produced. Very good dimensional tolerances. Complex shapes in multiple layers. A mature technology which is fairly robust.

Disadvantages of surface micromachining: • Additional manufacturing steps are required to deposit and remove spacer layers. • The process is effectively limited to silicon as the substrate material.

The HEXSIL tweezers shown in Fig. 13.49 on p. 856 are difficult, although not impossible, to produce through other processes. The important features to be noted in these tweezers are the high aspect ratios and the presence of lightening holes in the structure, resulting in a compliant and lightweight structure. Although processes such as SCREAM (pp. 855-857) can be used, the required aspect ratio will be difficult to achieve. LIGA also can be used, but it is expensive. For each of these processes, the tweezers shown would require redesign of the microtweezers. For example, in LIGA, it would be desirable to have a draft in the vertical members to aid in molding. However, a structure that serves the same function can be produced, even though vertical sidewalls cannot be produced.

Problems 13.49 A certain wafer manufacturer produces two equal-sized wafers, one containing 500 chips and the other containing 300 chips. After testing, it is observed that 50 chips on each type of wafer

are defective. What are the yields of the two wafers? Can any relationship be established between chip size and yield?

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The yield for the 500 chip wafer is (500-50)/500 dry-etch process displays no undercutting and, = 90.0%, and for the 300 chip wafer, it is (300therefore, requires a photoresist width of only 50)/300 = 83.3%. Thus, given the same num2 µ. ber of defects per wafer, the wafer with smaller 13.53 Using Fig. 13.18, obtain mathematical expreschips (i.e., more chips per wafer) will have a sions for the etch rate as a function of temperhigher yield. This is because the same amount ature. of defects are spread out over a larger number of chips, thus making the number of defective The following data points are obtained from chips a smaller percentage. Fig. 13.18: 13.50 A chlorine-based polysilicon etch process displays a polysilicon:resist selectivity of 4:1 and a polysilicon:oxide selectivity of 50:1. How much resist and exposed oxide will be consumed in etching 350 nm of polysilicon? What should the polysilicon:oxide selectivity be in order to remove only 4 nm of exposed oxide? The etch rate of the resist is 1/4 that of polysilicon. Therefore, etching 350 nm of polysilicon will result in (350)(1/4) = 87.5 nm of resist being etched. Similarly, the amount of exposed oxide etched away will be (350)(1/50) = 7 nm. To remove only 4 nm of exposed oxide, the polysilicon:oxide selectivity would be 350/4 = 88:1. 13.51 During a processing sequence, four silicondioxide layers are grown by oxidation: 400 nm, 150 nm, 40 nm, and 15 nm. How much of the silicon substrate is consumed? The total oxide thickness is 400 nm + 150 nm + 40 nm + 15 nm = 605 nm. From Section 13.6, the ratio of oxide to the amount of silicon consumed is 1:0.44. Hence, to grow 605 nm of oxide, approximately (0.44)(605 nm) = 266 nm of silicon will be consumed. 13.52 A certain design rule calls for metal lines to be no less than 2 µm wide. If a 1 µm-thick metal layer is to be wet etched, what is the minimum photoresist width allowed? (Assume that the wet etch is perfectly isotropic.) What would be the minimum photoresist width if a perfectly anisotropic dry-etch process were used?

Direction h110i h100i h111i

1/T (×10−3 K −1 ) 2.55 3.3 2.55 3.3 2.55 3.3

Etch rate (µ/hr) 70 4 70 2 2 0.015

ln(Etch rate) 4.248 1.386 4.248 0.6931 0.6931 -4.200

Figure 13.18 suggests that a plot of ln(Etch rate) vs. 1/T will be linear. Therefore, we expect a relationship of the form 1 ln(y) = a +b T or y = ea(1/T )+b = eb eα/T where y is the etch rate, a is the slope of the ln(y) vs. 1/T curve, and b is the y-intercept. From the data in the table above, we can obtain the following Direction h110i h100i h111i

a -3.816 -4.74 -6.524

b 13.98 16.33 17.33

Therefore, the equation in the h110i direction is: y = 1.179 × 106 e−3.816/T in the h100i direction: y = 1.236 × 107 e−4.74/T in the h111i direction: y = 3.3 × 107 e−6.524/T

A perfectly isotropic wet-etch process will etch 13.54 If a square mask of side length 100 µm is placed on a {100} plane and oriented with a equally in the vertical and horizontal directions. side in the h110i direction, how long will it Therefore, the wet-etch process requires a mintake to etch a hole 4 µm deep at 80◦ C using imum photoresist width of 2 µm, plus 1 µm per ethylene-diamine/pyrocatechol? Sketch the reside, to allow for the undercutting, hence a tosulting profile. tal width of 4 µm. The perfectly anisotropic 218

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Etching will take place in the h100i direction, but it should be noted that there will be angled etch fronts at the sides of the square. However, since the width is much larger than the depth, we can ignore these fronts. From Fig. 13.18 on p. 825, the etch rate at 80◦ C is around 22 µm/hr, so the time required to etch 4 µm is (4/22)(60)=10.91 min. The resulting profile will look like Fig. 13.23c on p. 831, but the angles of the side walls will be different on the opposite sides of the square.

or W = 3.154 × 10−23 g/atom. Therefore, the wave speed in silicon is s s E 190 GPa co = = 3 = 9030 m/s ρ 2330 kg/m The time of contact is, from Eq. (9.11), to

13.55 Obtain an expression for the width of the trench bottom as a function of time for the mask shown in Fig. 13.17b.

=

5r co 1/5 co v

=

5 0.119 × 10−9 9030

=

1.62 × 10−12 s

9030 0.001

1/5

The contact force is given by Eq. (9.13) as If L is the original trench width and l is the width at the bottom of the trench, then the relationship between l and L is L = l + 2x tan 54.7◦

F

2mv to 2 3.54 × 10−26 kg (0.001 m/s) = 1.62 × 10−12 s = 4.37 × 10−17 N =

where x is the depth of the trench. The depth of the trench is related to time by the etch rate, or 13.57 Calculate the undercut in etching a 10-µm-deep x = ht trench if the anisotropy ratio is (a) 200, (b) 2, and (c) 0.5. Calculate the sidewall slope for where h is the etch rate, as given in Tables these three cases. 13.2 and 13.3 on p. 824 for various etchants and workpiece materials. Therefore, For a trench depth is 10 µm, then from Eq. (13.4) on p. 807, we obtain the undercut L = l + 2h tan 54.7◦ x as or E1 10 µm 10 µm/t AR = = = ◦ l = L − 2ht tan 54.7 = L − 2.824ht E2 x/t x 13.56 Estimate the time of contact and average force when a fluorine atom strikes a silicon surface with a velocity of 1 mm/s. Hint: See Eqs. (9.11) and (9.13).

The sidewall slope, θ, is given by tan θ =

x 10 µm

The following table can now be constructed: It should be noted that, at this scale, continuum approaches are no longer valid, and the appliAnisotropy Undercut, Side wall slope, cation of Eqs. (9.11) and (9.13) on p. 553 are ratio x, (µm) θ (◦ ) useful only for illustrative purposes. However, 200 0.05 0.28 if we use the properties for silicon (ρ = 2330 2 5 26.6 kg/m3 , E = 190 GPa) and we note that flu0.5 20 63.4 orine has an atomic radius of 0.119 nm, and an atomic weight of 18.998, so that one atom 13.58 Calculate the undercut in etching a 10-µm-deep weighs trench for the wet etchants listed in Table 13.3. What would the undercut be if the mask were 18.998g/mole W = made of silicon oxide? 6.023 × 1023 atoms/mole 219

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The same approach as in Problem 13.57 is used. 13.59 Estimate the time required to etch a spur-gear Note that the dry etchants do not have an unblank from a 75-mm-thick slug of silicon. dercut, but they also etch through silicon dioxNote that the answer will depend on the ide very quickly. While, in theory, a thick mask etchant used and the ability to replenish the could be used, in practice it will be difficult to etchant. Using the highest etch rate for silimask a dry etchant with silicon dioxide because con in Table 13.2 on p. 823, of 310 nm/min for the silicon dioxide mask will be removed. The 126HNO3 :60H2 O:5NH4 F, the time required is undercut for a perfect mask is: 75 mm = 2.42 × 105 s t= Undercut 310 nm/s Etchant HF:HNO3 : CH3 COOH KOH EDP N(CH3 )4 OH SF6

Selectivity —

x (µm) 10

100:1 35:1 50:1 —

0.1 0.28 0.02 0

or almost three days. This problem demonstrates that etching processes are useful only for thin parts or for shallow (micron-sized) features.

Observed undercut (nm) 9985

50 277 19.3 0 100 280 20 0

Note that the only variable which changes is ω. Therefore, t1 t2

5 13.33 6.67 20

Etch rate (µm/min) 20

2 0.75 1.5 0.5

50 2.66 0.667 0

Time to etch 10 µm trench (min) 0.5

SiO2 removed (nm) 15

Ref. (nm) 10000

13.60 A resist is applied in a resist spinner spun operating at 2000 rpm, using a polymer resist with viscosity of 0.05 N-s/m. The measured resist If the mask material is silicon dioxide, it will be thickness is 1.5 µm. What is the expected resist etched at a rate as given in Table 13.3 on p. 824. thickness at 6000 rpm? Let α=1.0 in Eq. (13.3). While the undercut can be defined based on the original mask dimensions, and therefore yield Equation (13.3) on p. 816 gives the resist thickthe same answers as above, we can also calness as culate the undercut that would be observed in kC β η γ t= etching a 10m-deep hole. The results are as ωα follows: We can now compare the two conditions and write t1 k1 C1β η1γ ω2α = t2 k2 C2β η2γ ω1α

= =

k1 C1β η1γ ω2α k2 C2β η2γ ω1α (6000)1.0 ω2α = =3 ω1α (2000)1.0

Hence, the final thickness will be 1/3 the reference film thickness of 1.5 µm, or 0.5 µm.

Etchant HF:HNO3 : CH3 COOH KOH EDP N(CH3 )4 OH SF6

13.61 Examine the hole profiles in the accompanying figure and explain how they might be produced.

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It will be helpful to refer to Example 13.2 and Fig. 13.23 on p. 831 to understand this solution below. We can state the following:

or, solving for t, 1000 Nm t= h = 150 s 1000 W

• For the top left profile, there is undercut beneath the mask. It is difficult to tell 13.63 How many levels are required to produce the from the dimensions given, but there is eimicromotor shown in Fig. 13.22d? ther isotropic etching or preferential etching in the horizontal direction compared to At a minimum, the following layers are needed: the vertical direction. This situation could • Base for rotor. occur if: (a) An isotropic wet etchant is used (see Fig. 13.17a on p. 824). (b) The crystal workpiece is aligned so that there is preferential wet etching in the horizontal direction (c) An etch-stop has been used. • The top right figure shows a profile that matches Fig. 13.23d, which is caused by orientation-dependant etching.

• Rotor. • Pin or bearing (it must protrude past the rotor). • Lip on bearing to retain rotor. This list assumes that the electrical connections can be made on the same layers as the MEMS features, as otherwise an additional layer is required.

• The bottom left figure shows a material 13.64 It is desired to produce a 500µm by 500 µm that has undercut the mask. Compared diaphragm, 25 µm thick, in a silicon wafer 250 to the top right figure, this figure suggests µm thick. Given that you will use a wet etching either isotropic etching or etching that is technique with KOH in water and with an etch preferential in the thickness direction. rate of 1 µm/min, calculate the etching time • The bottom right cross section has a verand the dimensions of the mask opening that tical wall and a pointed trench. This proyou would use on a (100) silicon wafer. file could be produced by a deep reactive Diaphragms can be produced in a number of ion etching operation or a chemically reacways. This problem and solution merely adtive ion etching operation, followed by an dress the wet etching portion of the process, orientation-dependent etching operation. and assumes a diaphragm can be placed over 13.62 A polyimide photoresist requires 100 mJ/cm2 a proper opening with a diffusion bonding step per µm of thickness in order to develop propsuch as shown in part 3 of Fig. 13.41a on p. 849. erly. How long does a 150 µm film need to Using a wet etchant, a cavity as shown in part develop when exposed by a 1000 W/m2 light 2 of Fig. 13.41a will be produced, with an insource? clined sidewall. From Table 13.3 on p. 824, note that KOH has a {111} / {100} selectivity It is useful to convert units to avoid confusion of 100:1. Thus, there will be a slight underin making the calculations. Note that the polycut of the mask, and the sidewalls will have a imide photoresist requires the following power slope of tan−1 0.01 = 0.57◦ from the vertical as density: shown. 1000 Nm h mJ A 25 µm hole needs 25 min at the prescribed h= P = 100 3 cm (µm)t t m2 (µm) etch rate of 1 µ/min. The undercut of the sidewalls will be 0.25 µm at a selectivity of 100:1. where t is the exposure time and h is the film Thus, if the top dimensions of the diaphragm thickness. Since the power available is 1000 are critical, a mask that is 450 × 450 µm will 2 W/m , we can calculate the time from produce a 500 × 500 µm dimension. If the mean dimension of the diaphragm is critical, then a W 1000 Nm h 1000 2 = 475 × 475 µm mask is needed. m t m2 (µm) 221

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13.65 If the Reynolds number for water flow through a pipe is 2000, calculate the water velocity if the pipe diameter is (a) 10 mm; (b) 100 µm. Do you expect the flow in MEMS devices to be turbulent or laminar? Explain. As given by Eq. (5.10) on p. 202, the Reynolds number is vDρ Re = η where v is the velocity, D is the channel diameter, ρ is the density of water (1000 kg/m3 ), and η is the viscosity of water (8.90 × 10−4 Ns/m2 ). Solving for the velocity, v=

(Re)η Dρ

If the channel diameter is 10 mm, then (2000)(8.9 × 10−4 ) = 0.178 m/s (0.01)(1000)

v=

If the diameter is 100 µm, then v=

(2000)(8.9 × 10−4 ) = 17.8 m/s (0.0001)(1000)

This is a very high velocity, and probably would never be achieved in a MEMS device. As discussed in Section 5.4.1, laminar flow takes place for Reynolds numbers below 2000. Clearly, MEMS devices will most likely be laminar.

Design 13.66 The accompanying figure shows the cross section of a simple npn bipolar transistor. Develop a process flow chart to fabricate this device.

n

p

n

p

5. p region implant p

Al

SiO2

p

n

n+

p

n

11. Oxidation

The steps in the production of a simple bipolar transistor are as follows:

n+

p

n

13. Oxide etch n+

1. Oxidation n 3 Oxide etch

p

n

8. Oxide etch n+

p

n

9. Resist removal 10. n+ region implant n

n

n

6. Oxidation

n

7. Lithography p

n+

p

n

p

n

n

15. Al deposition

2. Lithography

n+

n 4. Resist removal

p

n

n+

p

n

12. Lithography n+

p

n

14. Resist removal n+

p

n

16. Lithography n+

p

n

17. Aluminum etch 18. Resist removal

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13.67 Referring to the MOS transistor cross section in the accompanying figure and the given table of design rules, what is the smallest transistor size W obtainable? Which design rules, if any, have no impact on the magnitude of W ? Explain.

W R4

R6

R5

R1

R3

Rule No. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6

The device shown in the problem was produced at the University of California at Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center. As can be noted, the layer below the mirror is very deep and has near-vertical sidewalls; hence, this device was clearly produced through a dry (plasma) etching approach. Also note that it was machined from the top since the sidewall slope is slightly inclined. However, a high-quality mirror could not be produced in this manner. The only means of producing this micromirror is (a) to perform deep reactive ion etching on the lower portion, (a) traditional surface micromachining on the top layer, and (c) then joining the two layers through silicon fusion bonding. (See Fig. 13.48 on p. 856 for further examples of this approach.)

R2

Rule name Minimum polysilicon width Minimum poly-tocontact spacing Minimum enclosure of contact by diffusion Minimum contact width Minimum enclosure of contact by metal Minimum metal-tometal spacing

Value (µm) 0.50 0.15 0.10 0.60 0.10 0.80

The smallest transistor size, W , that can be obtained using the given design rule is:

13.69 Referring to Fig. 13.36, design an experiment to find the critical dimensions of an overhanging cantilever that will not stick to the substrate.

W = R3 + R 4 + R 5 + R6 + R 5 + R4 + R3 or W = 0.10 + 0.60 + 0.10 + 0.80 + 0.10 + 0.60 + 0.10 = 2.40 µm. Design rules R1 and R2 have no impact on the smallest obtainable W .

13.68 The accompanying figure shows a mirror that is suspended on a torsional beam; it can be inclined through electrostatic attraction by applying a voltage on either side of the mirror at the bottom of the trench. Make a flow chart of the manufacturing operations required to produce this device.

By the student. There are several possible solutions and approaches to this problem. An experimental investigation by K. Komvopolous, Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of California at Berkeley, involves producing a series of cantilevers of different aspect ratios on a wafer. After production through surface micromachining, followed by rinsing, some of the cantilevers attach themselves to the substrate while others remain suspended. The figure below shows the transition. Based on beam theory from the mechanics of solids, a prediction of the adhesive forces can be determined.

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are similar to the polishing and grinding processes, described in Chapter 9. Producing silicon wafers involves the Czochralski (CZ) process (see Fig. 5.30 on p. 235). Printed circuit boards are stamped and the holes are drilled, as described in previous chapters. Packaging involves potting and encapsulation of polymers (p. 636). The students are encouraged to comment further. 13.73 Describe your understanding of the important features of clean rooms, and how they are maintained. 13.70 Explain how you would manufacture the device shown in Fig. 13.32. By the student. This device would involve a very elaborate series of surface micromachining operations. The solution for Problem 13.66 should be studied and understood before attempting this more complicated problem.

Clean rooms are described in Section 13.2. Students are encouraged to search for additional information, such as the design features of HEPA filters, the so-called bunny suits, and humidity controls. It should also be noted that any discussion of clean rooms has to recognize the sources of contaminants (mostly people and their clothing) and the strategies used to control them.

13.71 Inspect various electronic and computer equipment, take them apart as much as you can, and 13.74 Describe products that would not exist without identify components that may have been manthe knowledge and techniques described in this ufactured by the techniques described in this chapter. Explain. chapter. By the student. This topic would be a good This is a good assignment that can be inexpenproject. Clearly, a wide variety of modern prodsively performed, as most schools and individucts could not exist without using the processes uals have obsolete electronic devices that can described in this chapter. Certainly, the presbe harvested for their components. Some inence of the integrated circuit has had a proteresting projects also can arise from this exfound impact on our lives, and any product periment. One project, for example, would that contains an integrated circuit would eibe to microscopically examine the chips to ther not exist or it would be more expensive observe the manufacturers logos, as graphiand less reliable. Personal computers, televical icons are often imprinted on chip sursion sets, and cellular phones are other major faces. See http://www.microscopy.fsu.edu/miexamples of products that could not exist, or cro/gallery.html. exist in a vastly different form, without integrated circuits are televisions, automobiles, and 13.72 Do any aspects of this chapter’s contents and music players. The students are encouraged to the processes described bear any similarity to comment further, with numerous examples of the processes described throughout previous their own. chapters in this book? Explain and describe what they are. 13.75 Review the technical literature and give more details regarding the type and shape of the By the student. There are, as to be expected, abrasive wheel used in the wafer-cutting opersome similarities. For example, the principles of ation shown in Step 2 in Fig. 13.6 on p. 810. etching processes are the same as in chemical machining (see Section 9.10). Also, there are By the student. The main source for such inpolishing and grinding applications (as in finformation would be manufacturers and distribishing the wafers and grinding the sides) that utors of abrasive wheels. It should be noted 224

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that the wheel is contoured, hence the wafer µm. does not have a vertical wall. This means that the wafer will have a barrel shape, which is ben- 13.78 Design an accelerometer similar to the one shown in Fig. 13.32 using the (a) SCREAM proeficial for avoiding chipping. cess and (b) HEXSIL process, respectively. 13.76 It is well known that microelectronic devices By the student. The students should draw upon may be subjected to hostile environments (such the manufacturing sequence shown in Fig. 13.54 as high temperature, humidity, and vibration) on p. 862, and consider the capability of the as well as physical abuse (such as being dropped SCREAM and HEXSIL processes to produce on a hard surface). Describe your thoughts on large, overhanging structures. how you would go about testing these devices for their endurance under these conditions. 13.79 Conduct a literature search and write a oneBy the student. This is a good topic for students to investigate and develop testing methods for electronic devices. It will be helpful to have students refer to various ASTM standards and other sources to find standardized test procedures, and evaluate if they are sufficient for the difficulties encountered.

page summary of applications in biomems. By the student. This is an interesting topic for a literature search, and it can be easily expanded into an assignment for a paper. There are many more proposed applications for biomems than realized in commercial products, but sensors used in medicine are widespread, including lab on a chip devices for rapid and simultaneous screening for many conditions. In-vivo applications of MEMS are relatively few in number as of today.

13.77 Conduct a literature search and determine the smallest diameter hole that can be produced by (a) drilling; (b) punching; (c) water-jet cutting; (d) laser machining; (e) chemical etching and (f) EDM. 13.80 Describe the crystal structure of silicon. How does it differ from the structure of FCC? What By the student. This is an interesting topic for is the atomic packing factor? a web-based research project. Specific dimensions depend on the desired depth of the hole. This topic is described in Section 13.3. CalAs examples of solutions for thin foils, there are culating the atomic packing factor of silicon is complex. It can be shown that the structure is 10 µm diameter drills available commercially. Laser machining is limited to the focus diamsurprisingly very open, with a packing density eter of the laser, and is usually as small as 1 of 34% as compared to 74% for fcc crystals.

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