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SPIS TREŚCI 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Słownictwo – Człowiek • Słuchanie – Test wielokrotnego wyboru (trzy teksty) • Czytanie – Test wielokrotnego wyboru • Środki językowe – Słowotwórstwo
Słownictwo – Dom • Słuchanie – Test typu prawda/fałsz • Środki językowe – Tłumaczenie fragmentów zdań
Słownictwo – Szkoła • Słuchanie – Dobieranie zdań do wypowiedzi • Czytanie – Dobieranie (uzupełnianie luk) • Środki językowe – Test wielokrotnego wyboru
Słownictwo – Praca • Słuchanie – Test wielokrotnego wyboru (trzy teksty) • Środki językowe – Parafrazy zdań
ŻYCIE RODZINNE I TOWARZYSKIE
Słownictwo – Życie rodzinne i towarzyskie • Słuchanie – Test wielokrotnego wyboru (jeden tekst) • Czytanie – Dobieranie (trzy teksty) • Środki językowe – Uzupełnianie tekstu wyrazami z ramki
ŻYWIENIE • ZAKUPY I USŁUGI
Słownictwo – Żywienie • Zakupy i usługi • Słuchanie – Test wielokrotnego wyboru (trzy teksty) • Środki językowe – Uzupełnianie tekstu
PODRÓŻOWANIE I TURYSTYKA
Słownictwo – Podróżowanie i turystyka • Słuchanie – Test wielokrotnego wyboru (trzy teksty) • Czytanie – Test wielokrotnego wyboru • Środki językowe – Uzupełnianie zdań
Słownictwo – Kultura • Słuchanie – Test wielokrotnego wyboru (jeden tekst) • Środki językowe – Uzupełnianie tekstu
ZDROWIE • SPORT
Słownictwo – Zdrowie • Sport • Słuchanie – Dobieranie zdań do wypowiedzi • Czytanie – Test wielokrotnego wyboru • Środki językowe – Test wielokrotnego wyboru
NAUKA I TECHNIKA
Słownictwo – Nauka i technika • Słuchanie – Test wielokrotnego wyboru (jeden tekst) • Środki językowe – Słowotwórstwo
Słownictwo – Świat przyrody • Słuchanie – Test wielokrotnego wyboru (trzy teksty) • Czytanie – Test wielokrotnego wyboru • Środki językowe – Parafrazy zdań
PAŃSTWO I SPOŁECZEŃSTWO
Słownictwo – Państwo i społeczeństwo • Słuchanie – Test wielokrotnego wyboru (jeden tekst) • Środki językowe – Uzupełnianie zdań
Artykuł • List formalny: list z zażaleniem • Rozprawka za i przeciw • List formalny: list motywacyjny • Rozprawka wyrażająca opinię • List formalny: list do redakcji
PISANIE Przydatne zwroty
What’s your style this autumn?
Debbie likes ultrafeminine 1_ patterns. She discovered this unique 2_ dress in her Mum’s wardrobe!
Almost every man wastes part of his life in attempts to display qualities which he does not possess, and to gain applause which he cannot keep.
Samuel Johnson (1709–1784), English writer and lexicographer
SPRAWDŹ, ILE JUŻ UMIESZ
1 In pairs, read the headings below. How many words in each category can you think of? • • • •
Clothes and fashion Body language Personality Feelings
trendy fold your arms absent-minded thrilled
Ricky goes for a casual, slightly shabby look with his 3_ old jeans. The shirt may be a bit 4_, but it’s always clean! comments
CLOTHES AND FASHION
2 Complete the descriptions in the blog with the words from the box. There is one extra word. creased floral faded floaty striped tight-fitting vintage
3 Which of the styles from Exercise 2 do you prefer? Baggy with tight is Julia’s favourite combination. Today she’s wearing 5_, stretchy jeans and a 6_ cape cardigan.
BODY LANGUAGE – WAYS OF LOOKING
4 Read the sentences. Match the verbs in bold to the deﬁnitions. 1 She couldn’t concentrate in class. She just stared at the board without understanding anything. 2 He glanced quickly at his watch. It was 2.30 in the morning. 3 They peered into the darkness, trying to distinguish the shape that was approaching them. 4 The headmaster glared at the frightened boys. 5 She peeked at the people in the street from behind the curtain. a b c d
look angrily look quickly look steadily for a long time look quickly and secretly at something you’re not supposed to see e make an effort to see something that is difficult to see
BODY LANGUAGE – WAYS OF SPEAKING
MP3•01 Check the meaning of the verbs below. Then listen to six people talking and match them to the descriptions of how they speak.
He/She a yelled. b stuttered. c whispered.
d hissed. e mumbled. f moaned.
6 In pairs, discuss three situations when you heard someone speaking in some of the ways described by the verbs in Exercise 5.
BODY LANGUAGE – POSTURE AND GESTURES
7 Read the text and label the people in the picture: Andy (A), Vera (V), Claire (C), Nick (N), Sally (S) and Bob (B). As soon as I entered the room, I knew something was wrong. No one was speaking. Andy was leaning back against the wall with his arms folded across his chest. Vera was standing with her feet apart and her hands on her hips, frowning. Claire was tapping her ﬁngers on the table. Nick was shaking his head in disagreement. Sally had her elbows on the table and her face hidden in her hands. ‘I’ve got a bad feeling about this,’ I thought. Bob turned to me and winked. ‘What’s going on here?’ I asked.
MP3•02 Listen to six conversations about people’s personalities. Match the adjectives to the people.
1 2 3 4 5 6
You may shrug You may bang your ﬁst on the table You may tremble You may hug someone You may raise your eyebrows
a b c d e
if you’re frightened or nervous. to show affection. when you’re surprised. when you’re angry. to show that you don’t care.
11 In pairs, answer the questions below, using personality adjectives from Exercises 9 and 10 and the polite paraphrases from Exercise 10 (where appropriate). 1 What kind of people annoy you? 2 Tell me about a person you respect.
SŁOWNICTWO 12 Complete the text with the words formed from the words in brackets by adding negative preﬁxes.
TEENS ARE ALRIGHT : ) It’s not easy being a teenager. People complain about you a lot. Teachers say you’re 1_ (ORGANISED) and never hand in work on time. Aunts and uncles think your opinions are 2_ (REASONABLE). Even your parents sometimes get 3_ (PATIENT) with you and accuse you of being 4_ (RELIABLE) just because you’ve forgotten to take the rubbish out. The good news is, you’ve got the right to be 5_ (MATURE). You haven’t had as much time to grow up as those adult critics; so what do they expect? It’s normal for a young person to be a bit 6_ (RESPONSIBLE) sometimes. There are worse things than not being fully grown up at eighteen. If someone’s 7_ (HONEST) and tells lies, or is 8_ (SENSITIVE) to other people, that’s a more serious problem that may not just go away with age.
bewildered/over the moon, using adjectives and idioms from Exercises 13 and 14. ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS
16 Complete the text with prepositions. Which of the opinions do you agree or disagree with? Discuss in pairs.
Do you take an interest 1_ humans and their problems? Do you believe in the value of dialogue? Join our discussions. Share your thoughts and connect with like-minded people. This week’s topic is …
WHAT CONTRIBUTES TO A HAPPY LIFE? The key to happiness is being content 2_ what you’ve got. 25 mins ago by tr34 4 comments Read more
It’s best to be indifferent 3_ other people’s opinions.
13 In pairs, take turns to read the prompts and respond as in the example, using the extreme equivalents of the adjectives in bold. astonished bewildered devastated exhausted furious terrified thrilled
3 hours ago by cbj 9 comments Read more
My idea of a happy life: ﬁnd something you’re passionate 4_; stay focused 5_ it; take pride 6_ doing your best.
‘Are you tired?’ ‘Tired? I’m absolutely exhausted.’
15 hours ago by xzza 12 comments Read more
1 ‘Were the children excited when you told them about the trip?’ __
I’m convinced 7_ everyone’s right to live the life they choose.
2 ‘Was he unhappy?’ __ 3 ‘Did she get angry?’ __ 4 ‘Were you frightened?’ __ 5 ‘You must have felt confused.’ __ 6 ‘Were they surprised?’ __
14 Cross out the wrong option. Then match the idioms to their deﬁnitions. 1 Millie was over the sun / moon on the day she won the dance competition. 2 I’m worried about Charlie. He’s been down in the dumps / bins all day. I can’t even get him to talk. 3 Do you get butterﬂies / birds in your stomach before an exam? 4 I dreamt I was on a plane and the engines stopped working … I woke up in a cold / hot sweat. a depressed b nervous
1 day ago by evieS 14 comments Read more
If we disapprove 8_ people who are different, we’ll never build a happy society. Live and let live! 1 day ago by nell 20 comments Read more
FEELINGS – IDIOMS
15 In pairs, discuss a situation when you felt
c terrified d very happy
Don’t insist 9_ always having your own way. Learn to adjust to other people. 2 days ago by norah78 16 comments Read more
I regard life 10_ a game. Sometimes you win, sometimes you lose – the important thing is that you don’t get bored. 2 days ago by shark 15 comments Read more
SŁUCHANIE TEST WIELOKROTNEGO WYBORU (TRZY TEKSTY) THE MIND
1 In pairs, think of some stereotypical ideas about the following nationalities. Which of those ideas do you think are true? Which are false? Which are partly true?
17 Complete the sentences with the verbs from the box. distract recall realise imagine perceive 1 When did you first _ you were being followed? 2 Please don’t _ me. I’m trying to concentrate on my essay. 3 We _ the world through our senses. But can we trust what our senses tell us? 4 It’s difficult to _ a world different from the one we know. 5 He had suffered a blow to the head and he couldn’t _ what had happened.
the Germans the French the Italians the Poles the British Zadanie
1 The speaker is A a radio presenter. B a tour guide. C a travel writer.
18 Complete the sentences with the words head and mind. 1 What’s the matter? You look as if you’ve got something on your _. 2 ‘When was Edinburgh castle built?’ ‘I’m afraid I can’t tell you off the top of my _.’ 3 Nigel’s become so conceited and impolite lately. I guess all the praise he gets has gone to his _. 4 ‘Can you think of a word that rhymes with ‘tiger’?’ ‘Sorry … nothing comes to _.’ 5 Ask Zoe to help you with these calculations. She’s got a good _ for figures. 6 Sue can’t make up her _ if she wants to go out with Jeremy or not. 7 I keep having those crazy nightmares … Do you think I’m losing my _, doctor? 8 I don’t know why I ran away. I guess I just lost my _.
19 In pairs, describe the photo and answer the questions.
Usłyszysz dwukrotnie trzy teksty. Z podanych odpowiedzi A–C wybierz właściwą, zgodną z treścią nagrania. MP3•03
2 The radio commercial is advertising A a new business. B beauty products. C relaxing therapies. 3 Julie wants to A persuade Terry to lose weight. B return a compliment to Terry. C encourage Terry to believe in himself.
MP3•04 Listen to the third recording again. In what ways have Julie and Terry changed since they were at school together? Complete the table.
THEN Julie build hair Terry clothes build behaviour
1 What do you think the people might be saying? 2 Do you find it easy to settle disagreements with other people without getting angry? 3 Tell me about a time when you had a disagreement with someone.
4 In pairs, think of a situation when you met someone you hadn’t seen for a long time – for example, a friend or classmate from primary school. Tell each other about ways in which the person had changed (or stayed the same).
C Z Y TA N I E TEST WIELOKROTNEGO WYBORU
Trening Co dwa teksty mają ze sobą wspólnego?
1 Read the two short texts below and discuss
3 Przeczytaj dwa teksty. Z podanych odpowiedzi
the questions in pairs.
A–D wybierz właściwą, zgodną z treścią tekstu.
1 What have the two texts got in common? 2 In what ways are they different?
Text 1 1 What is not true about Mrs Granton? A She keeps an eye on events in her neighbourhood. B She judges people by their appearance. C Her memory is unreliable. D She helps her neighbours.
Text A An elderly farmer opened the door. ‘Excuse me,’ I said apologetically. I didn’t really imagine he would speak English, but what else was I to do? ‘I’ve had a puncture (I pointed to my bike) and it’s getting dark (I indicated the darkening sky). Could I please put up my tent (I swung the tent bag) in your ﬁeld?’ (I gestured in the general direction of the ﬁeld.) The man shook his head, but his warm smile didn’t suggest refusal. He opened the door wider, said something in his exotic, melodious language, and beckoned me in. Fifteen minutes later I was sitting at a wooden table with a bowl of hot, fragrant soup in front of me. The farmer’s wife pushed a plate of bread in my direction. She spoke. I didn’t understand a word, but I knew what she was saying. Her voice sounded just like my grandma’s when she says ‘Come on, Charlie, eat up.’
2 Why didn’t Mrs Granton call the police about the young man? A She decided the young man was no threat. B She was worried about wasting their time. C They were rude to her the last time she called them. D She found it hard to make decisions. 3 The young man A broke into Mr Boyle’s house. B made fun of Mr Boyle. C did Mr Boyle a favour. D scared Mr Boyle’s pet.
Text B You may have heard the claim that body language accounts for 93 percent of the meaning conveyed in any human communication. This is actually a misinterpretation of research ﬁndings by Albert Mehrabian, a pioneer of studies in body language. Mehrabian studied situations where people were communicating their emotions or attitudes. He found that in those communications 7 percent of the message conveyed depended on the words, 38 percent on the way the words were spoken and 55 percent on facial expression. He never intended these ﬁgures to be applied to all situations. Of course it is still true that non-verbal signals are very important in how we understand each other.
Text 2 4 The author of this text A encourages people to put more effort into choosing their clothes. B criticises people who blindly follow fashion trends. C reviews a book about young people and the clothes they wear. D reports on some research into people’s fashion choices. 5 In these texts, the authors express different points of view on A conflicts between different generations. B the link between appearance and personality. C the importance of wearing suitable clothes. D youth fashions.
y: Zwróć uwagę, że teksty należą do różnych gatunków, ale poruszają podobną tematykę. Ostatnie pytanie w zadaniu może dotyczyć tego, co łączy oba teksty, na przykład tematyki lub wyrażonej w nich opinii. Myśl wspólna dla obu tekstów może być w jednym z nich wyrażona wprost, a w drugim zasugerowana pośrednio, poprzez wydarzenia lub działania bohaterów.
SŁOWNICTWO In pairs, without looking back at Text 1, try to list what the two main characters, Mrs Granton and the young man, were wearing. Go back to the text and check.
An idea that is present in both text A and text B is that
SŁOWNICTWO Complete the statements below with the verbs in red from Text 2. Which of the statements do you agree with? Discuss in pairs.
A B C D
1 2 3 4
2 Read Wskazówka and answer the question.
people communicate a lot non-verbally. body language carries 93 percent of the meaning. gestures have different meanings in different cultures. human beings are the same the world over.
My clothes _ my individuality. I like to _ into the crowd. I refuse to _ to the style around me. If you reject conventional clothes, you’re merely _ allegiance from one social group to another.
YOU CAN’T JUDGE A BOOK BY ITS COVER
rs Granton had a suspicious nature. She was the perfect neighbour if you were worried about crime in the neighbourhood; but not if you valued your privacy. Whenever someone went by her window, her curtains would twitch. One sunny February morning Mrs Granton was upstairs in her bedroom when she noticed movement on the pavement opposite. She took up her position at the side of the window. The curtain twitched. A young man was hurrying across the street. That was unusual for in this neighbourhood few people hurried. Most of the residents were not young. Mrs Granton was in her late sixties, but her eyesight was sharp and so was her memory. She had never seen that man before. Tall and skinny, with spiky red hair, he was wearing a sleeveless sweatshirt, an ancient jersey with holes in the elbows, motorcycle boots, and ripped jeans. He stopped in front of the house next door. Something on his face glinted in the sunlight. There was a large metal spike protruding from his lower lip! He had several other piercings, too. As he entered
her neighbours’ driveway, he pulled up his sleeves and Mrs Granton saw the young man had a tattoo on each arm and another on his neck! Mrs Granton had always disagreed with the notion that you can’t judge a book by its cover. It was quite obvious that this young man did not belong in her street. What was he doing? He was up to no good, she felt sure. The Giffords were away, on a cruise of the Mediterranean. Mrs Granton was in charge of feeding their pets and watering their plants. She hurried down the stairs, still wearing her dressing gown and slippers, and went outside. The man emerged from behind the hedge a few steps in front of her. He was carrying the Giffords’ ladder under one arm. ‘Excuse me!’ said Mrs Granton in a pleasant but firm voice. The man ignored her! He carried on walking briskly across the road, without turning his head. Mrs Granton tried again, speaking louder this time, but the man had already disappeared behind old Mr Boyle’s house. She stopped in the middle of the street. What should she do? Mr Boyle was a very elderly man. He was in his nineties. He couldn’t defend himself against an intruder. And he had a valuable collection of coins in a velvet-covered case in his living room. She made up her mind. She would call the police. But then she had second thoughts. What if there was a perfectly innocent explanation? She’d called the police out on false alarms twice before. They hadn’t said anything but she’d seen a look in their eyes that she didn’t
appreciate. A look that said she was a nosy busybody who was using up valuable police time. She decided to investigate. Cautiously, she advanced into Mr Boyle’s driveway and round the side of the house. In her imagination, she saw the young man in a darkened room, his piercings glinting fiercely; laughing at Mr Boyle as the poor man feebly waved his walking stick in a futile attempt to save his coins. But when she peeked around the corner of the house into the back garden, Mrs Granton saw something very different. Mr Boyle was leaning on his walking stick underneath a large elm tree. Against the tree was the Giffords’ ladder. And near the top of the ladder was the young man. ‘You’re almost there,’ said Mr Boyle, his voice fluttering in the wind. Almost where, wondered Mrs Granton. And then with a shout of triumph, the young man said ‘Got her!’ And he came down the ladder. In his arms was Layla, Mr Boyle’s six-month-old cat.
YOU ARE WHAT YOU WEAR … OR ARE YOU? Do your clothes reﬂect your personality? Can a quick glance inside someone’s wardrobe reveal what they’re like? Can you tell the cynical from the gullible, the conceited from the humble or the bossy from the shy just by examining the clothes they buy? According to author Dr Clive Woodcock, we can. After carrying out a study investigating the fashion choices of over 3,000 people in seven countries, he concludes that our clothes tell the world all about us. Some people argue that we can hide behind our clothes; that we can blend into the crowd. Dr Woodcock disagrees. ‘Every time you put on a tie or a necklace, jeans or a skirt, trainers or high-heels you are giving yourself away,’ he says. He also claims that we all wear uniforms. ‘Many people think their clothes show they have their own unique style. But when someone refuses to conform to the style around them, they invariably choose a different uniform representing another social group.’ So the teenager that rejects his parents’ choice of sensible clothing and footwear in order to express his individuality by wearing goth style or chav fashions is merely switching allegiance from one social group to another.
ŚRODKI JĘZYKOWE SŁOWOTWÓRSTWO
1 Complete the sentences with the words formed
3 Use appropriate preﬁxes (un-, in-, im-, il-, ir- or dis-)
from the words in brackets.
to form negative adjectives.
1 Even though he is a bit chaotic, you shouldn’t underestimate (ESTIMATE) his ability to teach. 2 Ella decided to follow her _ (ARTIST) talents and become a professional painter. 3 Unfortunately, her parents _ (APPROVE) of the boy she has started dating. 4 John's position in the company has recently started to _ (WEAK). 5 My mum is an animal lover and thinks it is _ (MORAL) to use animals in the circus performance. 6 Ian is the life and soul of the party; in fact, he’s the most _ (ENTERTAIN) person I know.
1 2 3 4 5
2 Match the sentences in Exercise 1 with the preﬁxes or sufﬁxes that you have used to complete the sentences. a b c d e f
4 Which qualities from Exercise 3 would you never put up with in your boyfriend/girlfriend? Why?
5 Complete the text with the words formed from the words in brackets.
SHYNESS workshop with Sheila Shy •
Have you ever found yourself 1_ (CAPABLE) of speaking in front of a group of people?
Do you ever feel 2_ (SECURE) in a group of 3_ (FAMILIAR) faces?
Would you like to learn to speak up when you 4_ (AGREE) with someone’s opinion?
Does the idea of you becoming the life and soul of the party sound totally 5_ (POSSIBLE)?
Do you believe yourself to be 6_ (CREATIVE)?
• przedrostki zmieniające znaczenie wyrazu (przymiotnika
lub czasownika) na przeciwne (un-, dis-, ir-, il-, im-, in-, non-):
_intelligent _loyal _punctual _respectful _modest
Emma’s intelligence, paired with her love for life, makes her a/an irreplaceable (REPLACEABLE) friend. As a child, I was very naughty and used to disobey (OBEY) my parents and teachers all the time. • przedrostki nadające wyrazowi (przymiotnikowi,
czasownikowi lub rzeczownikowi) inne, ściśle określone znaczenie: under- (=not enough) Beth wants to do some voluntary work in underdeveloped (DEVELOPED) countries. re- (=again) The French teacher asked me to rewrite (WRITE) my essay for the third time. mono- (=one) My teenage son grunts all the time, or at best speaks in monosyllables (SYLLABLE).
Come to my workshop and build an unshakeable self-conﬁdence for life!
6 Complete the sentences with the preﬁxes from the box. There are three extra preﬁxes. over- ex- trans- anti- co- bi- pro- post1 My best friend and my _-boyfriend ended up going out together for a year until they broke up. 2 Chloe is very ambitious – she’s about to get her degree and is planning to do _graduate studies. 3 He’s _lingual because he grew up speaking English to his father and Italian to his mother. 4 Matt was later embarrassed by his _reaction to the whole situation. 5 Parents should be held responsible for their children’s _-social behaviour.
11 Complete the sentences with the words formed from
the adjectives in brackets.
Często sprawdzanymi cząstkami słowotwórczymi w zadaniu na słowotwórstwo są też: • przyrostki przekształcające rzeczowniki w przymiotniki
(-y, -ly, -ous, -ic, -ical) lub czasowniki w przymiotniki (-able, -ive, -ed, -ing): My sister’s very ambitious (AMBITION) and will seize every opportunity to achieve her goals. I can rely on Mark in every situation – he’s a very dependable (DEPEND) person. • przyrostki przekształcające przymiotniki w czasowniki (-en, -(i)fy, -ise/-ize): I really hope the course will help me sharpen (SHARP) my writing skills.
7 Add one sufﬁx to a group of nouns and another one to a group of verbs to change them into adjectives. Make all the necessary spelling changes.
VERB 4 create 5 cooperate 6 support
ADJECTIVE _ _ _ ADJECTIVE _ _ _
8 Which of the adjectives from Exercise 7 would you use to describe the following people? Why? • •
Wskazówka 3 Najpierw przeczytaj cały tekst. Zastanów się, jaka część mowy powinna się znaleźć w każdej luce. Zadanie
NOUN 1 adventure 2 courage 3 mystery
1 As Beth got to know Peter a bit better, her attitude towards him began to _ (SOFT). 2 First we need to _ (CLEAR) the difference between an altruist and a charitable person. 3 I believe that travelling can _ (BROAD) the mind more than reading. 4 Tom’s behaviour was inappropriate but it doesn’t _ (JUST) you acting the way you did.
an action film hero a teacher
9 Complete the sentences with the the words formed from the words in brackets. 1 Would your friends describe you as a _ (PREDICT) person? 2 What time of day do you feel most _ (ENERGY)? 3 Are you a _ (PRACTICE) or a romantic person when it comes to buying gifts? Why? 4 When was the last time you got really _ (NERVE) about something? 5 Would you consider yourself a _ (BOSS) person? 6 Do you feel better in the company of _ (TALK) or quiet people? Why?
10 In pairs, ask and answer the questions in Exercise 9. Give more details about each answer.
12 Uzupełnij tekst. Wstaw po jednym wyrazie w luki 1–4, przekształcając wyrazy podane w nawiasach, tak aby otrzymać logiczny i poprawny gramatycznie tekst.
Bethan’s blog New entry: Sleep positions and personality I’ve recently read an article about sleeper types and was amazed at how they match the people in my family! If you sleep on your side with your arms down, you are a Log. Apparently, Logs are sociable and 1_ (TRUST) of people, which is a perfect description of … my Dad! If you sleep on your back with both arms on your side, you are a Soldier. This group of sleepers tend to be reserved perfectionists. That’s Mum – always worried about things being 2_ (PERFECT). As a result, she’s suffering from 3_ (WORK)! If you sleep in a curled-up position, you are the Foetus. This type of sleeper is very sensitive, though may seem tough on the outside. So that would be my sister, who will only 4_ (BRIGHT) up when she gets to know people better. The problem is … I am a Soldier when I fall asleep but a Log when I wake up. Who am I then????
13 Do you believe your sleeping position reveals your personality? Why?/Why not?
Every great architect is – necessarily – a great poet.
Frank Lloyd Wright (1867–1959), American architect
SPRAWDŹ, ILE JUŻ UMIESZ
1 In pairs, read the headings below. How many words in each category can you think of? •
Types of houses and flats studio flat
Furniture and furnishings wardrobe
Adjectives to describe interiors airy
Maintenance and redecoration paper the walls
TYPES OF HOUSES AND FLATS
2 Label the photos on the right with the words from the box. e
bungalow cottage manor semi-detached house terraced house/terrace
MP3•05 Listen to ﬁve people talking about their houses or ﬂats. Match the speakers to the places.
a b c d e
a flat in a converted loft a mansion a penthouse a holiday home a basement flat
OUTSIDE THE HOUSE
4 Match the things below to the letters in the photos in Exercise 2. 1 2 3 4 5
drive railings hedge porch roof tiles
6 7 8 9 10
chimney letter box lawn steps path
5 In pairs, discuss which of the houses or ﬂats in
Exercises 2–3 you would most like to live in. Why? j
FURNITURE AND FURNISHINGS
6 Match the things below to the letters in the photo. Do you like the room? Why?/Why not? 1 2 3 4
box. There is one extra word. Then ask and answer the questions in pairs.
ADJECTIVES TO DESCRIBE INTERIORS
8 Choose the correct option. Then ask and answer the question in pairs. A: How would you furnish your ideal house or flat? B: Well, I really like to have a lot of room and air around me, so I’d like my flat to be 1spacious / impressive. Even if I can’t afford a very large place, I can at least make sure it’s not 2bare / cluttered with too many things. My mother, for example, keeps buying things like cushions and ornaments; she seems to think they make the living room 3cosy / airy and welcoming; but I don’t agree. I think it’s much better to have a few pieces of high-quality, 4shabby / stylish furniture than a lot of stuff. It’s also easier to keep a place 5neat / quaint and tidy if there aren’t too many things in it. I like 6dilapidated / bare white walls too, with no pictures or photos or anything.
Language and Culture Stately homes are a characteristic feature of the English countryside. They are large, impressive, historic houses, often with names ending in Manor, Hall or House – for example, Kelmscott Manor, Speke Hall, Knole House. Some are still private residences; some have been converted into hotels; and many function as museums, where you can see completely furnished antique interiors and learn about everyday life in the past.
blinds bunk drawer framed glass-fronted office plants Venetian 1 Have you ever shared a room with a brother or sister and slept in _ beds? What was it like? 2 Which do you prefer: curtains, roller _ or _ blinds in your room? 3 How important is it to you to have a comfortable _ chair at your desk? 4 Have you or has anyone in your family got _ photographs on the walls? Who’s in the photographs? 5 Do you like potted _? 6 Do you think it’s more practical to keep books on shelves or in _ bookcases?
MP3•06 Listen to four people talking about the areas where they live. Match the statements to the speakers. There is one extra statement.
The speaker lives a on the outskirts of a city. b on a housing estate. c in a leafy residential suburb. d in the countryside. e downtown.
10 In pairs, describe the neighbourhoods where you live. REAL ESTATE
11 Look up the meanings of the words in the box. Complete the text using the words. Change the form of a word if necessary. mortgage rent repayment property landlady tenant estate agent evict repossess
Personal Finance Advice Q by S.W. I’m a twenty-seven-year-old university graduate. I’ve got quite a good job and I live in a rented ﬂat. But I’m tired of being a 1_. The 2_ is really high and I’m fed up with living in a space decorated according to my 3_’s taste! I’d really like a place of my own. I catch myself walking past the windows of 4_ and gazing longingly at their offers. I’ve got some savings, but obviously not enough to buy a 5_ for cash. Is it safe to borrow the money?
A by Anthony Musgrave If you’ve got a reasonably stable job, taking out a 6_ would be the natural choice. The bank will decide how much they can conﬁdently lend you, but you have to do some thinking too. Supposing your ﬁnancial situation doesn’t remain as good as you hope, will you still be able to keep up the 7_? You have to be aware that if you don’t, the bank may 8_ the property. It’s better to choose a smaller ﬂat, which you can comfortably afford, than to spend years worrying that you may be 9_. Make a wise choice and enjoy your new place!
SŁOWNICTWO MAINTENANCE AND REDECORATION
12 Complete the verbs in the captions. Then discuss the question in pairs. Which of these can you do on your own? With a little help? Not at all?
1 p_ _ _ t the ceiling
2 p_ _ _ r the walls
3 r_ _ _ _ _ _ a light bulb
4 m_ _ _ a dripping tap
5 m_w the lawn
6 o_l squeaking door hinges
14 Choose the correct option. 1 The flat is in poor condition. Look, the paint is coming off / on the walls. We have to do it in / up before we can move in / out. 2 My parents took away / out a mortgage to buy a flat for me. Now they’re letting the flat out / off to pay off the loan. 3 We had to clean out / up the mess after the party before our parents came home. We threw out / off three big bags of rubbish. 4 I need to buy something to eat – my friends said they’ll drop in / out later. 5 The house is almost finished. The plumbers are putting in / on the bathroom fittings and the carpenters are putting up / on bookshelves in my mum’s study. 6 The tap in the kitchen is dripping. Can you see after / to it? HOUSE AND HOME – IDIOMS
15 Complete the idioms with the words house and home. 1 Come in and make yourself at _. Would you like anything to eat? 2 Today we no longer expect a woman to spend her whole life keeping _ for her husband. 3 Look, we can talk about this till the cows come _ and never reach a decision. 4 All our plans collapsed like a _ of cards. 5 Both my parents are away – it’s open _ for the next two weeks! 6 I’m glad to be back. There’s no place like _!
16 In pairs, do the task below. Zadanie 7 i_ _ _ _ _ _ a toilet seat
8 t_ _ _ the walls in the bathroom
13 Complete the text with the words formed from the words in brackets.
THE HORRORS OF RENOVATION We’re having our bathroom renovated. The whole ﬂat looks like a 1_ (CONSTRUCT) site, with rubble and dust and building materials everywhere. And there are problems all the time. First of all, we don’t seem to have enough tiles. Yesterday I measured the 2_(LONG) and 3_ (WIDE) of the bathroom again, and it seems I’d made a mistake of 30 centimetres the ﬁrst time. The unusual 4_ (HIGH) of our ceilings is also a problem; it means the new radiator may not be powerful enough to heat the bathroom. In addition, the builder wants to know the 5_ (WEIGH) of the jacuzzi. He’s worried about the 6_ (STRONG) of the ﬂoor. comment on this entry
UCZEŃ A Wraz z kolegą/koleżanką wynajęliście/wynajęłyście mieszkanie, które wymaga odnowienia i umeblowania. Porozmawiajcie o czekających was zadaniach. Poniżej podane są cztery kwestie, które musisz omówić. Rozmowę rozpoczyna uczeń A. Podział pracy przy remoncie Potrzebne meble i sprzęty
Kolorystyka wnętrz Organizacja przeprowadzki
UCZEŃ B Jesteś kolegą/koleżanką ucznia A. Wspólnie wynajęliście mieszkanie, które wymaga odnowienia. W zależności od tego, jak potoczy się rozmowa, wykorzystaj wszystkie lub wybrane zdania: • I can (paint the walls), but I don’t know how to (repair things). • (Orange?) I don’t know … I think (white) is a better colour for walls. • What do you mean? Where can we buy it? • I’d like to have a microwave oven.
SŁUCHANIE TEST TYPU PRAWDA/FAŁSZ
Trening Przygotowanie do słuchania
1 Look at the mini-task in Exercise 3. Analyse the rubric and the True/False statements in order to ﬁnd out as much as possible about the recording and the task. Complete the sentences below. 1 The recording is a(n) interview / news item / conversation / radio programme. 2 The two speakers are _ (female voice) and _ (male voice). 3 It seems the people will talk about decorating a ﬂat / choosing a place to live in / city planning.
2 Look at statements 1–3 in the mini-task in Exercise 3. Underline those bits of information which may be different in the recording.
Listen to the recording and answer the questions. MP3•07
Usłyszysz dwukrotnie rozmowę Emily i jej ojca. Zdecyduj, które zdania są zgodne z jej treścią (T), a które nie (F). 1 Emily disliked living in the suburbs because it was very quiet there.
Liked or disliked? The reason may have been different. 2 Emily wants to buy a large apartment in the city centre. 3 Emily’s dad thinks the centre is unsafe.
5 Listen again and write down as many words and phrases as you can describing: •
Harry’s new house and neighbourhood
The gated community where Naomi stayed in the USA
6 Match the words to make compound nouns which appeared in the recording. 1 2 3 4 5
housing street phone burglar trailer
a b c d e
box alarm estate park light
7 Look at some arguments for and against gated communities. Which ones do you agree/disagree with? Discuss your opinions in pairs. FOR •
They are attractive and well looked after.
You feel secure inside the gates.
People form bonds with their neighbours.
They break up public space and block pedestrian access to neighbouring streets.
Green areas and playgrounds are fenced off and available to a privileged few.
They create antagonisms between the people ‘inside’ and ‘outside’.
Wskazówka Wykorzystaj czas poprzedzający odtworzenie nagrania! • Przeczytaj uważnie polecenie. Może ono zawierać informacje o rodzaju tekstu, jaki usłyszysz, lub o osobach, które będą mówić. • Przeczytaj pytania, aby zorientować się, o czym będzie mowa i jakiego rodzaju informacje masz wychwycić z nagrania. Zastanów się, na które fragmenty zdań zwrócisz szczególną uwagę, gdyż można się spodziewać, że okażą się sprzeczne z treścią nagrania. Zadanie
MP3•08 Usłyszysz dwukrotnie rozmowę dwojga przyjaciół. Zdecyduj, które zdania 1–5 są zgodne z treścią nagrania (T), a które nie (F).
1 Naomi already knew Harry had moved house. 2 Harry lives in a quiet neighbourhood. 3 Naomi’s cousin’s gated community is located near the city centre. 4 Life in the gated community resembles what you see in some films. 5 Harry and Naomi both dislike the idea of gated communities.
ŚRODKI JĘZYKOWE TŁUMACZENIE FRAGMENTÓW ZDAŃ
1 Translate the parts of sentences given in brackets into English so that the sentences are logical and grammatically correct. 1 We’re on very friendly terms with the Robinsons. No wonder – this coming July we will have been neighbours (będziemy sąsiadami) for ten years. 2 If we __ (nie wydali tyle pieniędzy) on a new hot water cylinder last month, we would have enough to renovate one more bedroom. 3 The estate agent wanted to know when we __ (zamierzamy wyprowadzić się) of our house in London. 4 Would you mind __ (przesłać nam więcej informacji) about this property via email? 5 The window frames have just arrived and __ (zostaną zamontowane do jutra) at the latest.
Gramatyka Strona bierna
3 Form passive sentences using the correct forms of the verbs in brackets.
D R E A M H O M E S PA R K COMPANY
FLATS TO RENT
2 Match the sentences in Exercise 1 with grammar structures that you have used to complete the translations. a b c d e
TENANT RULES AND REGULATIONS 1 Tenants may not keep any dog or cat on the premises at any time. Anyone found with a pet __ (give) a notice to move out. 2 Your vehicles (bicycles, motorcycles, etc.) are your own responsibility. Garage spaces __ (assign) and clearly marked. 3 Loud noise, parties or other conduct which interferes with the rights or comfort of other tenants __ (not/permit) at any time.
Do często sprawdzanych struktur gramatycznych w zadaniu polegającym na tłumaczeniu fragmentów zdań należą:
4 All doors must __ (lock) when the Tenant is absent. Please take this rule seriously. One of our ﬂats __ (burgle) twice recently.
• strona bierna:
5 Plumbing problems resulting from any use other than that for which the plumbing system __ (design) are not the Landlord’s responsibility. If any repairs are needed at any time, their cost __ (charge) to the Tenant.
The Smiths are said (Mówi się, że państwo Smith) to be considering the sale of their house. • mowa zależna:
He asked me if we had already finished (czy skończyliśmy już) renovating our bathroom. • zdania warunkowe:
We wouldn’t have to work so hard now if we hadn’t taken out a mortgage (nie zaciągnęli pożyczki na mieszkanie) last year. • czasy gramatyczne:
When we moved into the neighbourhood last month, the Chandlers had already been living there (mieszkali już tam) for over ten years. • składnia czasowników:
(czasownik + -ing, czasownik + bezokolicznik) I couldn’t afford to rent a room (pozwolić sobie na wynajęcie pokoju) close to my university.
4 Do you ﬁnd these rules and regulations strict? Why?/Why not?
5 Translate the parts of sentences given in brackets into English so that the sentences are logical and grammatically correct. 1 __ (Oczekuje się, że więcej młodych ludzi) to be able to get on the property ladder in the next 10 years. 2 These two houses __ (musiały zostać zbudowane przez) the same company. 3 We moved in while the barn __ (była przekształcana w) a family home. 4 The grass __ (nie była koszona przez) over a month. 5 These people are believed __ (że zostali eksmitowani z) their homes.
Gramatyka Mowa zależna
6 Translate the parts of sentences given in brackets into English so that the sentences are logical and grammatically correct. 1 The estate agent __ (zasugerował, żebyśmy obniżyli) the price to stimulate interest in the property. 2 Eloise explained that she __ (nigdy nie umeblowała mieszkania) herself before. 3 Our next-door neighbours said that __ (myślą o odnowieniu) their home. 4 Sam asked me __ (czy chcę wymienić) the blinds in the dining room. 5 Our lawyer __ (powiedział nam, żebyśmy nie podpisywali) the lease until closer to the move-in date. 6 My mother asked the builder __ (jak długo zajmie) to have the roof replaced. Gramatyka Zdania warunkowe
7 Translate the parts of sentences given in brackets into English so that the sentences are logical and grammatically correct. 1 The letter says they will be in trouble if they __ (nie zdołają zapłacić) their rent within two weeks. 2 __ (Gdybyś nie zapomniała) to lock the door, our valuables wouldn’t have been stolen. 3 __ (Pozmywam naczynia) after dinner provided that she dusts the living room. 4 __ (Być może Matthew wynająłby) a flat on his own last year if he hadn’t lost his job. 5 I wouldn’t nag if you __ (sprzątałabyś swój pokój) once in a while. 6 The new wallpaper __ (wyglądałaby o wiele lepiej) now if you had smoothed the wall before you put it up. Gramatyka Czasy gramatyczne
8 Translate the parts of sentences given in brackets into English so that the sentences are logical and grammatically correct. 1 I will continue to live with my parents __ (dopóki nie znajdę dobrej) job. 2 I __ (dzielę pokój) with my brother/ sister for many years. 3 When I entered the kitchen this morning, my father __ (rozładowywał zmywarkę). 4 My grandparents __ (sprzedadzą swój dom) by the end of this year. 5 Before we bought this house, we __ (wynajmowaliśmy) flats in different parts of the city.
9 In pairs, answer the questions. 1 What are the advantages and disadvantages of sharing a room with your brother or sister? Do you share a room or have your own? 2 How long do you think you will live with your parents? Why? Gramatyka Składnia czasowników
10 Translate the parts of sentences given in brackets into English so that the sentences are logical and grammatically correct. 1 In the middle of the night I heard __ (jak ktoś wybił) the window in the dining room downstairs. 2 If you are looking for a spacious family home then this three-bedroom house __ (zdecydowanie warto obejrzeć). 3 I __ (nie mam nic przeciwko temu, żeby pomalować te) two bedrooms blue. 4 I wish he would __ (przestał narzekać na) the cost of living in the capital city. 5 Robert __ (obiecał naprawić) the kitchen sink a long time ago but hasn’t got round to it yet. 6 I needed __ (podjąć decyzję) fast since there were other people interested in the same property. 7 The landlord __ (zapomniał wspomnieć o kilku) minor details. Wskazówka 2 Po przetłumaczeniu fragmentu zdania sprawdź jeszcze raz swoją odpowiedź. W zadaniu tego typu wymagana jest pełna poprawność gramatyczna i ortograﬁczna. Zadanie
11 Przetłumacz fragmenty podane w nawiasach na język angielski, tak aby otrzymać logiczne i gramatycznie poprawne zdania. W każdą lukę możesz wpisać maksymalnie pięć wyrazów. 1 We __ (nie musielibyśmy) pay an extra £30 on top of last month’s rent if you hadn’t ruined the carpet. 2 We will determine your maximum mortgage __ (jak tylko otrzymamy) your mortgage application form. 3 The bedrooms are quite small and __ (meble nie są) suitable for our children. 4 This castle is __ (uważa się, że był używany) as a prison in the 14th century.
Szkoła The difference between school and life? In school, you’re taught a lesson and then given a test. In life, you’re given a test that teaches you a lesson. Tom Bodett (b. 1955), American writer and radio host
4 Complete the text below with the words from the box. SPRAWDŹ, ILE JUŻ UMIESZ
1 In pairs, read the headings below. How many words in each category can you think of? •
Types of schools
boarding school •
Assessment and examinations
take an exam TYPES OF SCHOOLS
2 Complete the gaps in the table. The ﬁrst letter of each word has been given. England and Wales
k_ p_ school
junior high or m_ school (senior) high school
c_ or university
3 Choose the correct option. 1 In Britain, the term public school means an old and usually expensive state / private school. 2 Schools that are free and are run by the government are called independent / state schools. 3 Another term for a non-state school is vocational / independent school. 4 In the past many children from wealthy families in Britain were sent away to boarding / nursery school and only came home for holidays. 5 You would go to a vocational / boarding school if you wanted to be, for example, a carpenter, gardener or mechanic.
IN THE NEWS
CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE
Going to university in the UK
BA BEd BSc dissertation graduate lectures MA papers PhD postgraduate thesis undergraduates
Students in the ﬁrst three years are called 1_. They have to study quite hard. Apart from attending 2_ and seminars, every year they have to produce several term 3_. At the end of the three-year undergraduate course every student writes a 4_ in order to get his or her degree: 5_ (Bachelor of Arts), 6_ (Bachelor of Science) or 7_ (Bachelor of Education). A 8_ who wishes to continue his or her education may take a 9_ course, write a 10_ and become an 11_ (Master of Arts) or a 12_ (Doctor of Philosophy).
Language and Culture British university degrees The names of British university degrees are relics of the medieval university system and may be confusing to a foreigner. The titles Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts do not mean that a person has studied art, or even ‘the liberal arts’, the humanities. Depending on the university, it is possible to have a BA in history, an MA in geography, a PhD in physics or almost any other subject.
8 Which teachers from Exercise 7 used these words
THE EDUCATION SYSTEM
5 Complete the questions. The ﬁrst letter of each word has been given. Then ask and answer the questions about the Polish educational system. 1 Which subjects are c_ and which are optional? 2 How many t_ are there in a school year? 3 Do schools offer a wide range of e_ -c_ activities? 4 Is there an official s_ for each subject that you have to cover? 5 What e_ exams do students take in the course of their education? Do you receive a c_ with your results after each exam? SCHOOL OBJECTS
and phrases? Write the names of the subjects. 1 2 3 4 5
inflation, unemployment, graphs _ solving quadratic equations _ source texts _ interpretations, scenes, essay _ test tubes, write up the experiment _
9 In pairs, discuss the subjects you like, using some of the words and phrases from Exercises 7–8. LEARNING
10 Complete the text with the words formed from the words in brackets.
Welcome to Six Oaks School
6 Label the pictures.
✒ We are committed to providing the best learning environment for students of all 1_ (ABLE). 2_ (GIFT) and talented students are encouraged to excel. Students with 3_ (LEARN) difﬁculties receive the support they need. ✒ We pride ourselves on our high 4_ (ACADEMY) standards, but we also believe in the value of all-round 5_ (DEVELOP). Six Oaks School encourages artistic 6_ (CREATIVE) and participation in sports.
11 Complete the questions with the words from the box
and match them to the deﬁnitions. Ask and answer the questions in pairs. teamwork homeschooling brainstorming bookworm
1 Do you know anyone who is a real _? 2 Do you think _ is a good way of solving problems? 3 Do you enjoy _ at school? 4 What is your opinion on _?
SCHOOL SUBJECTS AND SCHOOL WORK
a b c d
working in a group a way of generating ideas in a group someone who reads a lot educating children at home
Listen to ﬁve teachers speaking in class. Match the speakers to the subjects they teach. There is one extra subject. MP3•09
a Maths b English Literature c Chemistry
d History e Geography f Economics
SŁOWNICTWO 14 Choose the correct option.
PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
12 Choose the correct option.
NOTICE to students about the January exams
The Headmaster’s Blues
Colin Crawford, Head of Six Oaks school, shares his thoughts Being a school principal isn’t always easy. Two generations ago, things were simple. If a student did 1_ in an exam, he failed. If he cheated, you 2_ him for dishonesty. Today we don’t blame students; we think of ways to help them. If a student gets poor results, you call it special 3_ needs and organise remedial classes. If they misbehave, it’s ADHD. If they 4_ classes, you talk to them about why they feel unhappy and help them 5_ those problems … It’s a hard job! But, having said that, I wouldn’t like to go back to the ‘good old days’. I believe our individual 6_ to each student really is the right way. 1 2 3 4 5 6
A weakly A expelled A school A skip A overdo A effort
B badly B fired B exam B leave B overturn B approach
C well C sacked C educational C finish C overcome C attitude
ASSESSMENT AND EXAMINATIONS
13 Who does what with exams? Complete the spidergrams with the verbs from the box. fail pass flunk mark resit take set sit retake 1__
/ Entrance exams are there to help you prepare for the external examinations you will take in Spring. Please use this opportunity sensibly and do your best.
We use 2new / past papers in the January exams to make sure they are as similar as possible to the real examinations.
Standard examination 3rules / reports apply. You must not bring any notes or electronic devices into the examination room. After you receive your exam 4marks / paper, you must not try to communicate with other students.
Exam 5results / papers will be announced on 1 February. Your parents will be able to see them in your online 6report / certificate.
If your result in any subject is lower than fifty-one 7grades / marks, please talk to your form teacher.
15 Choose the correct option. Ask and answer the questions in pairs. 1 When was the last time you were out / off school? Why was it? 2 Do you usually hand in / out homework on time? 3 Do you sometimes find it difficult to get up / down to work? What do you do then? 4 Do you feel stressed out when you fall behind / off with school work? 5 What do you think is an effective method of catching out / up on school work after you’ve been ill? 6 Do you sometimes find it difficult to take in / on information in a lesson? 7 When was the last time you turned up / on late for school? Why was it? 8 Do you know anyone who has dropped off / out of school? What is he/she doing now?
16 Complete the idioms with the words from the box.
cake midnight colours depth inside
Well-prepared students usually
Weaker students may sometimes
1 Last year I missed three weeks of school when I was ill, and then I felt totally out of my _ in Maths. I couldn’t understand what Mr Hendon was saying at all. (in a situation that’s too difﬁcult for me) 2 Darren’s a star student. He’s passed every exam with flying _. (with excellent results) 3 This exam is a piece of _. (very easy) 4 You look very tired. Have you been burning the _ oil? (working long into the night) 5 This topic is something you must know _ out for the final exams. (know extremely well)
SŁUCHANIE DOBIERANIE ZDAŃ DO WYPOWIEDZI
17 In pairs, discuss three experiences which you could describe using the idioms from Exercise 16.
18 In pairs, do the task below and answer the questions. Zadanie Popatrz na zdjęcia 1, 2 i 3. Jedna z sal w twojej szkole ma być przeznaczona specjalnie do nauki języków. Zdjęcia przedstawiają możliwe sposoby urządzenia tej sali. • Wybierz sposób urządzenia sali, który uważasz za najodpowiedniejszy do prowadzenia lekcji języków obcych, i uzasadnij swój wybór. • Wyjaśnij, dlaczego odrzucasz pozostałe propozycje. 1
1 In pairs, describe the photo and answer the questions. 1 Of all the schools you’ve attended, which one did you like best and why? 2 Tell me about your most memorable day at school. Zadanie 2
MP3•10 Usłyszysz dwukrotnie cztery wypowiedzi na temat pamiętnego dnia w szkole. Dopasuj zdania A–E do wypowiedzi 1–4. Jedno zdanie zostało podane dodatkowo i nie pasuje do żadnej wypowiedzi.
The speaker A caused an incident which resulted in great damage. B suffered an accident due to not paying attention. C was falsely accused of doing something wrong. D was thrown out of school for doing something bad. E regrets not having done something when younger.
3 Which of the experiences described by the speakers do you ﬁnd the most interesting? Why?
4 Choose one of the following topics and prepare to talk about it for one minute. Deliver your talks in small groups. 1 What are the advantages of learning a language in a small class? 2 What do classrooms in Poland usually look like?
1 Talk about a situation when you or someone else caused some damage at school. (What happened? What were the consequences?) 2 Talk about a situation when you or someone you know was treated unfairly or unjustly at school. 3 Do you think the graduation ceremony at secondary school is an important occasion? Why?/Why not? What should it look like? 4 In your opinion, what offences should students be expelled from school for? Why?
C Z Y TA N I E
Trening Dobieranie zdań do luk
1 Match the sentences to their continuations. 1 We believe academic achievement isn’t everything. 2 At the beginning I didn’t like the new Geography teacher very much. 3 In 1906 Maria Montessori was invited to run a small school for the children of working parents in Rome. 4 Patrick phoned as I was packing my school bag for the next day. A But after a while I started enjoying the lessons. B As usual, he wanted to know what our Maths homework was. C That’s why we’ve introduced dance and drama lessons in our school. D It was there that the Italian educator developed the fundamental ideas of the system that is now used all over the world.
2 Read Wskazówka. Match sentences A–D from Exercise 1 to the four kinds of textual links described in Wskazówka. Wskazówka Między zdaniami, które sąsiadują ze sobą w tekście, istnieją powiązania treściowe i gramatyczne. Mogą one być pomocne przy dopasowywaniu zdań do miejsc, z których zostały usunięte. Oto najbardziej typowe powiązania: 1 Zaimki – np. she, him, their, this – odnoszą się do osób lub rzeczy wspomnianych wcześniej w tekście. 2 Sąsiadujące zdania mogą odnosić się do tej samej rzeczy, osoby, zjawiska itp. i określać je różnymi słowami. 3 Słowa i zwroty określające relacje czasowe, takie jak at first, after that, in the end, finally, eventually, wskazują na kolejność zdarzeń. 4 Między dwoma kolejnymi zdaniami może istnieć związek przyczynowo-skutkowy. Drugie zdanie może wtedy zaczynać się od zwrotu takiego jak that’s why, as a result, consequently.
3 Read the text on the right. Four sentences have been removed from it. Match the sentences to the gaps. Underline the words which helped you identify the position of the sentences. A But then I started playing football with some other boys at break. B Energised by the food, we played table tennis for two hours. C I invited them all to come round after school. D That’s how in the first days of September I found myself in a new school in a city I didn’t know.
DOBIERANIE (UZUPEŁNIANIE LUK)
My first day at an international school I was eleven when my father’s company decided to send him to Budapest. 1_ It was an international school and there were students from all over the world. I heard a lot of different languages. I didn’t know anyone and at first I felt lonely and uncertain. 2_ Before the day was over, I had friends from Austria, Italy, Korea and Mexico. 3_ My Mum was a bit surprised when she saw those unexpected visitors, but she did bring us sandwiches and a big bowl of fruit. 4_ The next day, I was quite at home in my new school. comment on this entry
4 Przeczytaj tekst, z którego usunięto cztery zdania. Wstaw zdania A–E w luki 1–4, tak aby otrzymać logiczny i spójny tekst. Jedno zdanie zostało podane dodatkowo i nie pasuje do żadnej luki. A It allowed the teaching staff to design lessons to match their pupils’ abilities and it led to better behaviour and less bullying. B I just don’t think it’s right to split children up according to their exam results. C As a result, I had a green tie and a green badge on my blazer. Less gifted pupils wore the orange of ‘Holyrood’ or the red of ‘Windsor’. D Many students, however, said they thought the system was better than any they had ever experienced before. E But another kid disagreed. He pointed out that everyone came together for sports and music events.
5 Go through the text again and ﬁnd sentences describing the advantages and disadvantages of the system used at St. Matthew’s College.
mum smiled and said “It’s just like a public school*!” But to me, it was just like attending any other school. Student behaviour certainly didn’t seem that great. Kids were shouting and messing about in the classrooms and corridors. And like anywhere, some students turned up late. I had lunch with some new classmates. I asked them if Buckingham students looked down on the others. Laughing, one boy said, “Yeah, they’re our enemies.” 3_ “Just because we wear different colours, doesn’t mean we can’t be friends.”
You’re clever. Put on a green tie!
n my first day at my new secondary school, I kept my tie in my pocket until I got through the school gates. My parents had proudly announced the week before that thanks to my academic results I’d been assigned to ‘Buckingham’ school, home of the brightest schoolchildren at St. Matthew’s College, Sussex. 1_
As soon as I entered the greenpainted Buckingham building,
I put on my tie. There was no risk of students from the other schools seeing me now. They had separate buildings, painted orange or blue, and separate playgrounds; we ate lunch in the school canteen at different times; and we didn’t share any lessons in any subjects. The head teacher had explained to my parents that separating children into different levels was better than mixed-ability classes. 2_ My
6 In pairs discuss your opinions of the St. Matthew’s system. Use the words and expressions from the box. fair/ unfair more/less effective teaching academic results gifted/weaker students mixed-ability classes
SŁOWNICTWO Complete the questions with verbs in red from the text. Ask and answer in pairs.
1 Which school would you like to _ if you were to change schools? Why? 2 What would you like to _ a degree in? Why? 3 Do you think it will be easy for you to _ into university? Why?/Why not?
I asked them if they disliked anything about the school. At first, they seemed reluctant to offer any criticisms. But eventually they admitted that not everything was perfect. “The timetables are too restricted and it’s almost impossible to move from one school to another,” said one girl. “My sister wants to do a degree in neuropsychology but she’s in Windsor and they don’t do enough science subjects so she can’t get into university. It’s not fair!” That wasn’t the only thing about St. Matthew’s that seemed unfair to me. 4_ On the way home, my tie was in my pocket again.
* In the UK ‘public schools’ are private and ‘state schools’ are public.
Language and Culture Public schools Why are private schools called ‘public’ in Britain? The term ‘public school’ was coined in the 18th century to describe schools which were open to anyone who was prepared to pay the fees – as opposed to schools reserved for local residents or for the members of a particular church or organisation. Those old feepaying schools are now among the most expensive in Britain, but the name remains. Traditionally, public schools were boarding schools for boys. Today many are coeducational and accept day students. Probably the best-known public school is Eton College. In 2011, ten percent of British government ministers were ‘Old Etonians’ – former Eton pupils.
ŚRODKI JĘZYKOWE TEST WIELOKROTNEGO WYBORU
1 Read the text and choose the correct option. 1 A incapable B unfit
C useless D inappropriate
2 A will have increased B is increasing
C would increase D has increased
3 A despite B due to
C in contrast D unless
4 A took B called
C turned D spoke
Do często sprawdzanych struktur gramatycznoleksykalnych w zadaniu polegającym na teście wielokrotnego wyboru należą: • formy czasowników (czasy gramatyczne, użycie
czasów w mowie zależnej, stronie biernej, po różnych wyrażeniach): He claimed that he C any exam before but I found that difficult to believe. A has never failed B never used to fail
C had never failed D never failed
• zdania okolicznikowe:
D we still need to do a lot of revision, the teacher has postponed the test until next Friday. A Due to C Owing to B Because of D Since • wyrazy/wyrażenia bliskoznaczne:
British teenagers ‘WORSE AT MATHS THAN IN 1970S’
eenagers’ Maths skills have declined sharply over the last thirty years, research by King’s College London shows, leaving a generation of school leavers 1_ for the demands of university and the workplace. The number of fourteen-year-olds with a poor understanding of Maths has doubled since the mid 70s, with many children failing to understand key concepts such as the equation and ratio. Research shows that the proportion of pupils with the very worst skills 2_ from seven to fifteen per cent over the period. At the same time, fewer children have an advanced knowledge of the subject. The drop in Maths standards comes 3_ sharp year-on-year rises in Maths GCSE grades. This suggests that many children are being drilled to pass exams at the expense of a proper understanding of the subject. To address widespread concerns over declining skill levels, a Conservative MP 4_ for all pupils to study Maths up to the age of eighteen.
2 Match the gaps in Exercise 1 with lexical or grammatical structures that you have used to complete the text. a czasownik będący częścią czasownika frazowego (phrasal verb) b jeden z przymiotników bliskoznacznych c spójnik wprowadzający zdanie okolicznikowe d czasownik w odpowiednim czasie
Is it true that in England parents can be fined up to £2,500 if their child doesn’t C school regularly? A visit C attend B appear D frequent • czasowniki frazowe (phrasal verbs):
The fire alarm B during my History class so we all had to leave the school building. A switched on C broke out B went off D turned up Gramatyka Formy czasowników
3 Choose the correct option. 1 I’m afraid it’s too late. By the time we get there, the lecture _. A will start C starts B has started D will have started 2 When we failed to hand in our homework, the teacher _ us extra work to do for the next day. A was to give C was giving B would give D would have given 3 Jessica’s parents found out to their surprise that she _ school for the past three months. A skipped C had been skipping B has been skipping D was skipping 4 I’d rather you _ the revision for your A-levels until the last minute. A don’t leave C didn’t leave B haven’t left D won’t leave
8 In pairs, ask and answer questions in Exercise 7.
Gramatyka Zdania okolicznikowe
Give more details about each answer.
4 Underline the correct linking words. 1 Despite / Since / Although I don’t spend much time revising for exams, I pass most of them with flying colours. 2 I won’t move out of my parents’ house as soon as / unless / in case I secure a place at university in some other city. 3 In spite of / While / Apart from my parents can see many benefits of a boarding school, I would never want to go to one. 4 I will carry on learning English after school because / due to / on account of it can prove to be a huge benefit while looking for a job.
5 Which of the sentences in Exercise 4 are true for you? Talk to your partner. WYRAZY/WYRAŻENIA BLISKOZNACZNE
6 Choose the correct option. 1 Mrs Perkins was called to school after her son was _ cheating during the exam. A stopped C captured B caught D noticed
Wskazówka 2 Po wybraniu wszystkich odpowiedzi przeczytaj cały tekst jeszcze raz i sprawdź, czy wraz z wybranymi odpowiedziami stanowi on logiczną i poprawną pod względem gramatycznym i leksykalnym całość. Zadanie
9 Uzupełnij tekst. Z podanych odpowiedzi A–D wybierz właściwą, tak aby otrzymać logiczny i gramatycznie poprawny tekst. 1 A to be considering B to have considered 2 A for B of 3 A Unless B If 4 A pays B costs
C to be considered D to have been considered C on D with C Until D When C charges D spends
10 In pairs, answer the questions.
2 The Ministry of Education _ that over fifty per cent of schools are in need of serious repair. A points C estimates B approximates D counts 3 The _ of school violence is a growing concern for teachers and parents. A event C occurrence B phenomenon D incident 4 The students were given the opportunity to show how they can apply both their organisational _ and knowledge. A skills C talents B capabilities D abilities CZASOWNIKI FRAZOWE (PHRASAL VERBS)
7 Complete the questions with the correct forms of the phrasal verbs in the box. take up
1 When was the last time you _ doing your homework until the very last minute? (= POSTPONE) 2 Do teachers sometimes _ you because they think you’re not listening? (= CRITICISE) 3 Would you like to _ a musical instrument? (= START) 4 Have you ever _ in class? (= FALL ASLEEP) 5 What do you usually do if you _ an English word you don’t understand? (= MEET/FIND BY CHANCE)
FULL MARKS IMPOSSIBLE IN TEST A leading girls’ school is planning to introduce tests in which it is impossible to get 100% so that pupils know it is OK ‘not to get everything right’. Oxford High School for Girls is said 1_ using such tests in Maths. The idea is to prevent students becoming obsessed 2_ being ‘Little Miss Perfect’. Pupils aged 11 will take the online test in which the questions become harder and harder. 3_ the girl reaches the top of her ability, she then faces questions that she is unable to answer to show that it is ‘fine not to get everything right’. The day school, which 4_ fees of almost £4,000 a term and last year had an eighty-nine per cent A–A pass rate at A Level, will be the first to run the initiative which could then be rolled out to other girls’ schools across the country. 1 Would you like to take a test like the one described in the text in Exercise 9? 2 Do you think such tests would be popular among secondary school students? Why?/Why not?
Not everyone works in an office, including those who work in an office.
Jim Davidson (born 1953), English comedian
SPRAWDŹ, ILE JUŻ UMIESZ
1 In pairs, read the headings below. How many words in each category can you think of? •
Adjectives to describe jobs
Work and money
2 Complete the names of jobs and match them to the photos. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
MP3•11 Listen to ﬁve people talking. Match the speakers to the jobs they do.
a stockbroker b counsellor c beautician
d plumber e barrister
ADJECTIVES TO DESCRIBE JOBS
4 Put the jobs from the box in the categories. truck driver nurse interior designer refuse collector bank cashier accountant composer babysitter White-collar jobs: _ , _ Blue-collar jobs: _ , _ Caring jobs: _ , _ Creative jobs: _ , _
5 Match the adjectives to their explanations. 1 A lucrative job 2 If a job is rewarding, 3 A menial job a b c d e f
4 A challenging job 5 A job is repetitive 6 A high-powered job
is difficult but also interesting. if you keep doing the same thing. is very well paid. it gives you satisfaction. is important and gives you a lot of influence. requires no qualifications and is usually badly paid.
6 In pairs, discuss what your ideal jobs would be like using as many adjectives from Exercises 4–5 as you can. DEPARTMENTS IN A COMPANY
MP3•12 Listen to someone showing a new employee around the ofﬁce. Match the recordings to the names of the departments.
a b c d
SALES CUSTOMER SERVICE HUMAN RESOURCES MARKETING
e ACCOUNTS f PUBLIC RELATIONS g RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
Language and Culture Abbreviations Here are some common abbreviations used at work. People: CEO – Chief Executive Officer
PA – Personal Assistant
Phrases used in messages: ASAP, asap – as soon as possible FYEO – for your eyes only (= confidential) FYI – for your information (= the aim of the message is only to give information, not to ask the receiver to do anything with it) PEOPLE AT WORK
10 In pairs, answer the questions. Do you think it’s useful to make a plan like the one in Exercise 9 for yourself? Would you make one? Why?/Why not? EMPLOYMENT AND THE JOB MARKET
11 Read an extract from David’s letter of application written a few years later. Choose the correct option.
As you can see from the attached CV, I’ve got two years’ experience 1in / on this ﬁeld. My work at Bullinger&Trent involved dealing directly 2with / to important international customers. We often had to work 3on / to tight deadlines; as a result, I have learned to work well 4under / in pressure. Flexibility was also essential; in particular, I feel equally comfortable working 5on / with my own and 6at / in a team. I have chosen a career 7in / of advertising because of my interest in all forms of communication, especially innovative ones. I would like to work 8in / for your company because I am impressed by your achievements in new media.
8 Match the words to the deﬁnitions. 1 superior 2 subordinate 3 co-worker
4 trainee 5 intern
a someone for whom you are the boss b a student or young graduate working in order to get practical experience c someone who has a higher position in a job; boss d a person learning how to do a job e someone you work together with WORK AND MONEY
9 Complete the text with the words from the box. bonus dole income interest pension profit rise salary tips
DAVID’S CAREER PLAN NOW: any part-time job that pays the minimum wage – but preferably somewhere where customers give 1_! IN THREE YEARS: first job after graduating – a starting 2_ that’s enough to pay the rent and maybe go somewhere on holiday. IN FIVE YEARS: a big pay 3_ plus a generous end-of-year 4_. IN TEN YEARS: set up my own company. Begin making a 5_ in one to two years. IN TWENTY YEARS: total annual 6_ at least ten times what it is now. IN FIFTY YEARS: retire. If my state 7_ is low, live off the 8_ on my savings. This is Plan A. Of course, it’s also possible that I’ll lose my job and end up on the 9_ at some point. But this just means the goals will take a little longer to achieve!
12 Complete the spidergram with words formed from the verb employ. joblessness (n.): _
jobless (adj.): _
EMPLOY a person or a company that employs people (n.): _
someone who is employed (n.): _
work or a situation when people have work (n.): _
13 Complete the text about a Human Resouces manager with words formed from the words in brackets. As an HR manager I have a wide range of 1__ (RESPONSIBLE). I’m in charge of the recruitment process when new 2__ (EMPLOY) need to be hired. I organise 3__ (PROFESSION) development for our staff, things like training courses and workshops. I review performance and recommend people for 4__ (PROMOTE). I handle all the paperwork connected with salaries, sick leave and so on. And in hard times, when the company is forced to lay off some of its staff, it is my job to negotiate with workers and offer them voluntary 5__ (REDUNDANT) or early 6__ (RETIRE).
SŁOWNICTWO 14 Choose the correct option.
15 In pairs, discuss what is the most important in a job, using the words and phrases from Exercise 14.
important in a job?
We asked four students who will be entering the job market soon about the factors that affect their career choices. Steve Isn’t it obvious? The most important thing is a high salary, and after that, the 1_ of promotion, leading to an even higher salary. I mean, the purpose of work is to make money, isn’t it? Then there are the fringe 2_, things like a company car and so on, which also have a speciﬁc money value.
Kate Stability and safety are important to me. My ﬁrst priority is job security – knowing I won’t be given the 3_ from one day to the next. After that, 4_ pay, holiday pay, a reliable pension plan. These are worth more to me than a huge income.
Darren Do you know the term ‘work-life balance’? I don’t want to spend my life in an ofﬁce. Holidays are important to me, and so is paternity 5_. I’d also like to be able to ask for 6_ working hours when I need them.
16 Cross out the wrong option. Match the highlighted idioms to their meanings. 1 Hey, it’s six o’clock and we’ve been here since 9 a.m. Let’s call it a day / an evening, shall we? 2 Don’t argue with Preston. He’s the big / fat fish here. 3 Do you think his father pulled a few cables / strings to get him that job? 4 It took me two months to learn the ropes / ways in my new job. 5 I hate filling in all this paperwork; it’s just a lot of pink / red tape. 6 I hate it when someone doesn’t pull their weight / height. Why should I do their work for them? 7 My brother’s an artist and a free spirit, but personally, I’m happy to be climbing the corporate ladder / stairs. 8 A good barrister has to be able to think on her legs / feet. a b c d e f g h
do their fair share of work decide to finish work for the day learn all the things you need to know to do a job use informal connections an important person unnecessary rules or bureaucratic procedures react quickly to changing situations the series of career steps up which people are promoted in a company
17 In pairs, describe the photo and answer the questions. Zadanie
Julia To me, the ﬁrst thing is the work itself. What does it 7_? Is it useful to people? Will I enjoy it? Will I believe in what I do? You could say job 8_ is my ﬁrst priority.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
A perspective A benefits A bag A sick A break A elastic A do A security
B prospects B perks B basket B ill B time B flexible B involve B happiness
C opportunity C wages C sack C illness C holiday C changeable C contain C satisfaction
D ability D fees D box D sickness D leave D changing D achieve D enjoyment
1 What do you think the people are talking about? 2 Do you enjoy doing things in a team? Why?/Why not? 3 Tell me about a meeting you’ve attended.
SŁUCHANIE TEST WIELOKROTNEGO WYBORU (TRZY TEKSTY)
Trening Pytania o całość nagrania
1 Read the questions in Exercise 2 and decide what each question is about. Match the questions to the question types. Then do the task in Exercise 2. A main idea of the recording B speaker’s intention C situational context
MP3•13 Listen to three short recordings. For each one, choose the correct answer.
1 The woman is speaking to A her boss. B her colleague. C a trade union leader. 2 Which headline best summarises this new item? A FASHION COMPANY FORCES STAFF TO BUY ITS PRODUCTS B SCANDAL OVER UNPAID OVERTIME WORK C EMPLOYERS PAY UP AFTER GOVERNMENT INVESTIGATION 3 The speaker wants to A provide some medical information. B recommend a documentary. C persuade someone to change their career plans.
3 In pairs, compare your answers to questions in Exercise 2. Explain why the answers you rejected are wrong. Use the tapescript if you need to.
4 Read Wskazówka and complete the headings with question types below. • • •
Pytanie o kontekst sytuacyjny Pytanie o intencję mówiącego Pytanie o główną myśl
Wskazówka Oto typowe pytania pojawiające się w zadaniu z trzema nagraniami: 1 __ Uwaga: błędne odpowiedzi będą dotyczyły tematów, które również są wspomniane w nagraniu, ale nie stanowią jego istoty. 2 __ Pytanie może dotyczyć sytuacji, miejsca lub czasu wydarzenia bądź nadawcy lub adresata komunikatu. Na poprawną odpowiedź mogą wskazywać nie tylko zwroty charakterystyczne dla danej sytuacji, lecz także cała treść wypowiedzi.
MP3•14 Usłyszysz dwukrotnie trzy teksty. Z podanych odpowiedzi A–C wybierz właściwą, zgodną z treścią nagrania.
1 This is an advertisement for A an employment agency. B a government job centre. C an academic institution. 2 Frances is trying to A discourage Brian from working during the summer. B find out where Brian is going to work this summer. C persuade Brian to apply for a summer job abroad. 3 How should the piece of news be headlined? A BREAKTHROUGH IN WIND ENERGY TECHNOLOGY B GOOD NEWS FOR SCOTTISH JOBS C GOVERNMENT SETS NEW ENVIRONMENTAL TARGETS
6 In pairs, do the task below. Zadanie UCZEŃ A Wraz z kolegą/koleżanką chcecie podjąć pracę w czasie wakacji. Porozmawiajcie o szczegółach tego planu. Poniżej podane są cztery kwestie, które musisz omówić. Rozmowę rozpoczyna uczeń A. Rodzaj pracy Wasze umiejętności
Miejsce (kraj, region) Jak wykorzystacie zarobione pieniądze
UCZEŃ B Jesteś kolegą/koleżanką ucznia A. Rozmawiacie o podjęciu pracy w czasie wakacji. W zależności od tego, jak potoczy się rozmowa, wykorzystaj wszystkie lub wybrane zdania: • What (exactly) do you mean? • I don’t think (working in a factory) is the best idea. It might (be very unhealthy). • I’m not sure … Do you really think this job will give us useful experience? • Have you got a driving licence? • I’d like to save my part of the money for the next holiday.
3 __ Zastanów się, co mówiący chce osiągnąć? Czemu służą podawane przez niego treści i stosowane środki językowe?
ŚRODKI JĘZYKOWE PARAFRAZY ZDAŃ
1 Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the original sentences. You can use a maximum of ﬁve words in each gap. 1 I will start looking for another job if they don’t offer me a substantial pay rise. Unless they offer me a substantial pay rise, I will start looking for another job. 2 ‘I’m sorry I failed to meet the deadline,’ Tom told his boss. Tom told his boss he __ to meet the deadline. 3 The meeting about the merger came to a close before I arrived at work. By the time I arrived at work, the meeting about the merger __ a close. 4 It’s expected that all employees will perform their duties competently and efficiently. All employees __ their duties competently and efficiently.
2 Match the sentences in Exercise 1 with the grammar structures that you have used to complete the paraphrases. a b c d
mowa zależna strona bierna zdanie warunkowe czas gramatyczny
Wskazówka 1 Do często sprawdzanych struktur gramatycznych w zadaniu polegającym na parafrazach zdań należą: • mowa zależna:
‘Why did you resign from your previous job?’ asked the interviewer. The interviewer asked me why I had resigned from my previous job. • strona bierna i konstrukcja have/get something done:
The managing director is showing the visitors around the factory. The visitors are being shown around the factory by the managing director. • zdania warunkowe:
Paul didn’t get a promotion at work because he doesn’t have a college degree. Paul would have got a promotion at work if he had a college degree. • czasy gramatyczne:
We last had a department meeting three weeks ago. We haven’t had a department meeting for three weeks.
Gramatyka Mowa zależna
3 Describe the photo and answer the questions.
1 What questions do you think the recruiter is asking the candidate? 2 How can you prepare well for a job interview?
4 Read what Chris is saying about his job interview. Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the original sentences. 1 ‘Please don’t be afraid,‘ the interviewer told me. The interviewer told __ afraid. 2 ‘How much time did you spend working on your last project?’ the interviewer asked me. The interviewer asked me how much __ working on my last project. 3 ‘You haven’t led a team before,’ the interviewer reminded me. The interviewer reminded me __ a team before. 4 ‘I can turn down the job offer from the rival company,’ I told the interviewer. I told the interviewer __ down the job offer from the rival company. Gramatyka
Strona bierna i konstrukcja have/get something done
5 Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the original sentences. 1 They thought that the Managing Director had resigned from his post. The Managing Director __ from his post. 2 Several builders are extending our office space to include a conference room. We __ extended to include a conference room. 3 Nobody introduced me to other members of staff. I __ to other members of staff. 4 The management will award the employee of the month with a bonus. The employee of the month __ a bonus by the management.
Gramatyka Zdania warunkowe
6 Rewrite these sentences using conditionals. 1 Hannah is on the dole now because she was laid off from her previous job. 2 I don’t have a teaching degree, so I can’t work as a state school teacher. 3 Mark is not very conscientious, so the quality of his last project didn’t meet our expectations.
Wskazówka 2 Przeczytaj pary zdań. Zastanów się, które fragmenty pierwszego zdania należy sparafrazować oraz jakich struktur użyć, aby właściwie uzupełnić drugie zdanie w każdej parze. Po uzupełnieniu zdań sprawdź, czy liczba wpisanych słów nie przekracza limitu podanego w poleceniu. Gramatyka Czasy gramatyczne
9 Complete the second sentence in each pair so that it means the same as the ﬁrst sentence.
4 The company is not making profit, so we won’t get an annual bonus. 5 I was late for the meeting because I got stuck in a traffic jam on the way to work. 6 Airport staff might go on strike tomorrow. If so, we probably won’t make it to the conference on time.
7 Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the original sentences. Use the words in brackets but do not change their form. 1 You can’t enter the factory without a pass if you don’t work here. (UNLESS) You can’t enter the factory without a pass __ here. 2 Bob will not become a translator because he is not fluent in Spanish. (WOULD) Bob __ he was fluent in Spanish. 3 My advice for you is to apply to at least five different companies. (WERE) If I __ to at least five different companies. 4 You will make a good impression at a job interview unless you wear this scruffy shirt. (LONG) You will make a good impression at a job interview __ this scruffy shirt. 5 Alan modernised his business years ago, and now he’s rich. (IF) Alan wouldn’t be rich now __ his business years ago.
8 In pairs, answer the questions. 1 Do you know any successful business people? 2 Why are they successful? 3 How can you make a good impression in a job interview?
1 The last time our boss asked us to do overtime was two weeks ago. Our boss __ overtime for two weeks. 2 I finished giving my presentation before the Managing Director arrived. By the time the Managing Director arrived, __ my presentation. 3 When did you start working as a flight attendant? How long __ as a flight attendant? 4 Having introduced myself to the panel of interviewers, I started talking about my professional experience. After I __ to the panel of interviewers, I started talking about my professional experience. 5 When I started secondary school I thought about becoming a doctor. I am still thinking about it! I __ of becoming a doctor since the beginning of secondary school.
10 In pairs, answer the questions. 1 Do you like making presentations for school projects? Why?/Why not? 2 What in your view makes a presentation successful with the audience? Zadanie
11 Uzupełnij zdania tak, aby zachować znaczenie zdania wyjściowego. Nie zmieniaj podanych fragmentów. W każdą lukę możesz wstawić maksymalnie pięć wyrazów. 1 People think our finance director is a very intelligent and skilful professional. Our finance director __ be a very intelligent and skilful professional. 2 We last discussed the project during the meeting on Friday. We __ since the meeting on Friday. 3 ‘You haven’t followed your line manager’s instructions,’ the managing director told me. The managing director blamed __ my line manager’s instructions. 4 I prefer taking work home to staying in the office longer. I’d rather _______________ stay in the office longer.
SŁOWNICTWO FAMILY CELEBRATIONS – BIRTH
3 The words in grey in the text below are in the wrong places. Rearrange them so the text makes sense.
Życie rodzinne i towarzyskie Friendship is unnecessary, like philosophy, like art ... It has no survival value; rather it is one of those things that give value to survival. C.S. Lewis (1898–1963), English writer
SPRAWDŹ, ILE JUŻ UMIESZ
1 In pairs, read the headings below. How many words in each category can you think of? • • •
Relatives stepbrother Family celebrations wedding Friends and acquaintances buddy
2 Complete the sentences with the words from the box. Use the plural where necessary. ancestor godmother great-uncle half-sister husband-to-be in-laws offspring sibling spouse stepmother 1 My father’s company held a party for employees and their _, but my Mum didn’t want to go and I went instead of her. 2 A new medical study suggests there is a link between obesity in parents and various health problems in their _. 3 When Saskia and her brother were younger, they fought so much that their Mum bought a book on conflicts between _. 4 Uncle Larry is really my _, my grandma’s brother. 5 Emily’s getting married soon. Last weekend we met her _ for the first time. 6 Margaret and Alice are _; they’ve got the same mum but different fathers. 7 I actually like my _. My husband’s mum is very open-minded and his father’s a real darling. 8 Do you remember the tale of Cinderella? She had an evil _, her father’s second wife, and a fairy _ who helped her. 9 The people in these paintings are my _ who lived in the 18th and 19th century.
Tips and discussions on everything that may interest expectant mothers (and fathers) • • •
Choosing your 1nappies: look trendy throughout pregnancy. Worried about what 2baptism will be like? Chat online to an experienced 3cot! Shopping: how to buy everything your baby will need, from a lovely comfortable 4midwife down to the right size 5maternity clothes. For religious parents: read all you need to know about 6labour.
FAMILY CELEBRATIONS – WEDDINGS
4 Choose the correct option. Last Friday I attended my friend Daniel’s wedding 1reception / ceremony at the city hall. (Daniel and his fiancée are not religious and it was a 2church / civil wedding.) In fact, I didn’t just attend it; as Daniel’s oldest friend, I was his 3best man / groom. I had to hand the 4wedding bands / bouquets to the 5registrar / priest at the right moment for the couple to exchange them. The 6groom / bride didn’t wear a white veil, but she had a very pretty dress. There were even three of her friends acting as 7newlyweds / bridesmaids.
Życie rodzinne i towarzyskie
FAMILY CELEBRATIONS – FUNERALS
5 Complete the text with the words from the box. Use the plural where necessary. coffin cremation funeral parlour grave hearse mourning
New on blu-ray: Six Feet Under ***** Six Feet Under, from award-winning director Alan Ball, tells the story of the Fisher family, who run a 1_ in California. While following the complicated personal lives of Nate, David, Ruth and Claire Fisher, we repeatedly see them talking to customers dressed in 2_, discussing things like the location of the 3_ or the choice between burial and 4_, presenting different models of 5_ and urns, or offering funeral wreaths and ﬂower arrangements. All the family members drive 6_ as their everyday means of transport. The quirky black humour combined with outstanding acting make this one of the best TV series of all time. Now all ﬁve seasons in a new blu-ray edition. OTHER CELEBRATIONS
MP3•15 Listen to ﬁve conversations. Match the conversations with the celebrations the people are talking about.
a b c d e
Hen party Stag party Housewarming party Wedding anniversary First Communion
7 Complete the text, using the wordlist to help you. The ﬁrst and last letters of the missing words have been given.
Europe’s changing families
ifty years ago everyone knew the meaning of ‘family’: a family was a 1n_r family, a mother, a father and their children. Many people still enjoyed the support of 2e_d families, with three generations sometimes living under one roof. On the other hand, a child raised by a 3s_e parent was a rarity and was sometimes stigmatised. And what is a family today? In some EU countries more than half of the children are born outside wedlock: either to lone parents or to 4c_g couples. Others live with one parent as a result of 5d_e. In addition, parenting by same-sex 6c_s, in particular their right to 7a_t children, is a hotly debated issue. But whatever form our families take in the 21st century, the important thing is that they provide a safe environment for children to grow up in.
8 In pairs, describe your families to each other, using words from Exercise 2 or their male/female equivalents. FAMILY AND MONEY
9 Complete the text with the words from the box. alimony breadwinner budget child maintenance insurance pocket support will
FAMILY FINANCES Introduction One aspect of adult life is thinking about money. Whether you and your spouse 1_ the family together or one of you is the main 2_, you have to learn to balance the family 3_. You have to think about how your income is going to cover all your expenses, from the bills to the children’s 4_ money. As a way of protecting your family in the long term, you may also consider taking out life 5_. And at some point, not necessarily when you’re old, you’ll think of making a 6_. In the event of a divorce, the husband may have to pay 7_ to his ex-wife; and the parent who hasn’t got custody of the children has to pay 8_ to help support them. In this chapter we’ll look at all these aspects of family ﬁnances. FRIENDS AND ACQUAINTANCES
10 Complete the sentences with the names of people you know. In pairs, read your sentences to each other, adding more information about each person.
Fiona is just an acquaintance. We met at a party in someone’s house. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
_ and I are close friends. _ is just an acquaintance. _ is my Dad’s (or Mum’s) colleague from work. _ is a friend of the family. _ is a good mate. _ is our mutual friend, isn’t he/she? _ is my ex-schoolmate from … school. _ is one of my favourite classmates.
11 Complete the questions with prepositions. Then ask
14 Complete the idioms with the words from the box.
and answer in pairs.
crush heart sight spot throats wavelength
1 Are you fond _ little children? 2 Who among your family and friends can you confide _? 3 Who in your family have you got most _ common with? 4 Why do you think young people sometimes find it difficult to relate _ older people? 5 Do you believe in love _ first sight? 6 Do you think it’s true we take our parents _ granted? 7 Do you think everyone occasionally feels sick to death _ their family? 8 Have you ever felt intrigued by someone you only knew _ sight?
1 What’s the matter with the children? They’ve been at each other’s _ all morning. 2 I get on so well with Tim. He and I are on the same _. 3 Charlotte hates the _ of her ex-husband. People avoid inviting them to the same parties. 4 When I was in primary school I had a _ on my best friend’s older brother. I thought he looked like a prince! 5 Phoebe can be quite annoying at times, but I have a soft _ for her. I can forgive her a lot. 6 I don’t have the _ to tell the children that the dog has died. What shall I say to them?
15 In pairs, choose three of the following to tell each
12 Choose the correct option. Working from home may sound as if you have nothing but leisure time … But a freelancer can be very demanding of himself (or herself). Suddenly hanging 1_ with friends seems an unacceptable waste of time. Your mates are 2_ a party and you tell them you can’t come because you must work. Or you do come, but leave at ten o’clock: you mustn’t 3_ up late as you have to start work early in the morning. Self-discipline is all very good, but we all need to relax from time to time and to keep in touch with other human beings. Since you have to eat anyway, why not eat 4_ with a friend now and then? It’s also a good idea to 5_ up a sport or hobby. Not only does it give you much-needed exercise, it gets you out of the house regularly at a specified time. 1 2 3 4 5
A up A throwing A come A up A take
B on B getting B stay B in B start
C out C inviting C keep C off C get
D off D offering D turn D out D set
13 Cross out the wrong option.
other about. • a person you look up to • a situation when someone told you off (what for?) • a situation when you fell out with someone and then made up • someone who’s on the same wavelength as you • a time when you had a crush on someone • a person you have a soft spot for • a situation when you didn’t have the heart to tell someone bad news
16 In pairs, do the task below and answer the questions. Zadanie Popatrz na karty 1, 2 i 3. Kolega lub koleżanka prosi cię o pomoc w wyborze kartki z okazji walentynek. Oto trzy propozycje kartek. • Wybierz kartkę, którą uważasz za najlepszą, i uzasadnij swój wybór. • Wyjaśnij, dlaczego odrzucasz pozostałe propozycje. 1
2 Happy e’s tin Valen y Da
HOW TO MAKE RELATIONSHIPS WORK Falling 1for / on someone is a wonderful feeling (if it’s mutual), but building a relationship requires some effort. Here are a few tips. • Be affectionate and appreciative. Let your partner know you care for
him (her) and look up 2at / to him (her). • Sort 3out / away problems by talking. But don’t tell your partner 4off /
out as if you’re their parent. Instead, explain how you feel. • You don’t have to get 5on / up with all his or her friends or relatives.
But don’t make comments that suggest you look down 6at / on them. • If you disagree or fall 7off / out, control your behaviour. Don’t say
offensive or cruel things – they can’t be unsaid later. After a quarrel, don’t let foolish pride stop you from making it 8up / over quickly. If you treat each other with kindness and respect, then even if you split 9away / up eventually, you’ll be able to look back 10on / at the relationship with pleasure and not with distaste.
Życie rodzinne i towarzyskie
SŁUCHANIE TEST WIELOKROTNEGO WYBORU (JEDEN TEKST)
1 In pairs, discuss the questions. 1 Why do parents sometimes find teenagers difficult? 2 Why do teenagers sometimes find their parents difficult? Zadanie
Usłyszysz dwukrotnie rozmowę na temat relacji w rodzinie. Z podanych odpowiedzi A–D wybierz właściwą, zgodną z treścią nagrania. MP3•16
1 The teenager from Manchester A is happy, sociable and easy to talk to. B is closer to his father than his mother. C has changed a lot recently. D has stopped seeing his friends. 2 Which of these opinions does the psychologist not express? A Teenagers want more freedom. B Teenagers have changeable moods. C Parents find it difficult to deal with teenagers. D Teenagers like different things from their parents. 3 Why did the teenager run away from home? A He didn’t get any birthday presents. B His parents made him eat the birthday cake. C His father humiliated him at the party. D His father said that he hated him. 4 The psychologist advises the parents to A negotiate with their son. B be stricter with their son. C let their son enjoy life more. D tell their son their problems. 5 The aim of this interview is to A let listeners describe their personal problems. B analyse the typical problems of teenagers. C give teenagers advice on how to become independent. D give parents advice on dealing with teenagers.
SŁOWNICTWO MP3•17 Listen to six extracts from the recording and write down the missing words.
1 He’s always been cheerful and _ to get on with. 2 His parents are worried that he’s _ with the wrong kind of friends. 3 Teens believe they’ve grown up and they want their parents to stop treating them like _. 4 It’s not easy to bring up teenagers. One moment they can be very mature, and the next they behave _. 5 The father lost his _ and told the boy off in front of all the guests! 6 It should be clear that with more freedom comes more _.
4 In pairs, read the following role descriptions and decide who’s going to play which role. Student A: You’re the teenage son/daughter of Student B. It’s your birthday soon. You don’t want a traditional party with relatives and a birthday cake; you think it’s boring. You’d like to celebrate by going to a concert in another city with a group of friends. You can organise the trip and the accommodation. You’re happy to promise to stay in touch with your parents. Student B: You are Student A’s mother/father. You think it’s fair that your son/daughter should be able to celebrate his/her birthday in a way he/she enjoys, but you know some of your relatives will be hurt if they’re not invited. You’re also worried about some practical aspects of the trip, about safety, and about some of the friends your son/daughter is mixing with.
5 Prepare to play your part. Think of what you’re going to say. Choose a few phrases from the list below. Please don’t treat me like an infant. I know you can be very mature, but sometimes you still behave a bit childishly.
I’m not sure about some of the people you mix with. There’s nothing to worry about.
Don’t get me wrong, but … (I’d really prefer to celebrate in my own way.) I see your point, but have you thought about … (how grandma and granddad will feel)
6 In pairs or groups of three, act out the situation described in Exercise 4.
C Z Y TA N I E DOBIERANIE (TRZY TEKSTY)
1 Look at the following pairs of sentences. In the second sentence in each pair underline the equivalents of the numbered words and phrases from the ﬁrst sentence. A The singer’s 1husband–to-be bought her 2a fourteen-carat gold necklace with a sapphire pendant. The singer’s fiancé bought her an item of jewellery. B The wedding ceremony was 3completely different from anything you might have seen. The wedding ceremony was unconventional. C The reception was 4very modest. The reception was not at all lavish. D The 5couple 6left for their honeymoon. The newlyweds departed for their honeymoon.
2 Put the examples of rephrasing from Exercise 1 into the following categories. • • •
using a synonym or near-synonym: using an antonym + negation: a longer phrase replaced with a word or short phrase which summarises its meaning:
3 Read the following two texts. Match two of
L OVE & MARRIAG E
the sentences to each text.
Betty Porter was married in 1945, two weeks after her fiancé Sid got back from the war. It was a time of post-war shortages. Betty wore a dress borrowed from a friend. There was no big party, just dinner at home for close relatives and friends. Sixty-five years later, on their anniversary, Betty and Sid still recalled how happy they were on that day and on so many days that followed.
Betty’s granddaughter Karen was married in 2009. The wedding cost twenty thousand pounds, the UK average for that year. Karen spent a year planning and budgeting: £1500 for the dress, £7000 for the reception … even the invitations cost £300. She and her fiancé, Paul, took out a bank loan to cover the expenses. They’re still paying it off today, two years after their divorce. The wedding in this story 1 took place after a homecoming. 2 was financed by borrowing. 3 took a long time to organise. 4 was the beginning of a successful marriage.
Wskazówka Informacje, które masz wyszukać w tekście, będą w nim wyrażone innymi słowami niż w pytaniu. Parafraza może polegać na użyciu słowa bliskoznacznego lub antonimu bądź na streszczeniu dłuższego fragmentu tekstu.
4 Przeczytaj trzy teksty na temat ślubów. Do każdego zdania 1–4 dopasuj właściwy tekst A–C. Jeden tekst pasuje do dwóch zdań. This text 1 describes some preparations for a wedding. 2 gives some information about the male guests’ appearance. 3 refers to a gift the bride received before the wedding. 4 mentions a trick played by some of the guests.
5 Which of the weddings described in the texts would you like to see? Why?
6 Write one question about each of the three texts. Ask and answer your questions in pairs. Who had Kate Middleton’s engagement ring belonged to?
7 In pairs, do the task below. Zadanie UCZEŃ A Kolega/koleżanka z zagranicy został/została zaproszony/ zaproszona na ślub i wesele w Polsce i chce zasięgnąć twojej rady. Poniżej podano cztery kwestie, które musisz omówić. Rozmowę rozpoczyna uczeń A. Obrzędy i zwyczaje ślubne w Polsce Prezent
Odpowiedni strój Transport
UCZEŃ B Jesteś zagranicznym kolegą / zagraniczną koleżanką ucznia A. Zostałeś/Zostałaś zaproszony/zaproszona na ślub i wesele w Polsce. W zależności od tego, jak potoczy się rozmowa, wykorzystaj wszystkie lub wybrane zdania: • What’s a Polish wedding like? • Could you tell me more about that? What exactly happens? • What should I wear? • I haven’t got (a suit) and I never wear one anyway. • It’s in a small village I don’t know. How can I get there?
Życie rodzinne i towarzyskie
BRITISH WEDDINGS A ROYAL WEDDINGS
British Royal weddings generate enormous popular interest. Thousands lined the streets when Queen Victoria married Prince Albert in 1840 in what is often said to be the ﬁrst ‘white wedding’. Nowadays, the media report every detail. When Prince William and Kate Middleton got engaged in 2010 the engagement ring attracted special attention. It had belonged to William’s mother, the late Princess Diana. The wedding day, 29 April 2011, was a public holiday. Thousands of guests attended the ceremony in Westminster Abbey, and viewers around the world watched on TV as the couple walked down the aisle. B KILTS AND BAGPIPES
Weddings in Scotland are quite similar to those in England: the bride usually wears white; the best man makes a funny speech during the reception; and the newlyweds are eager to leave for their honeymoon. But there is one obvious difference: you can see the bridegroom’s legs! In many Scottish weddings, men wear traditional Highland dress including a kilt instead of trousers. Another difference is the music. Often, a piper plays the bagpipes as the bride and groom leave the church or registry ofﬁce and after the meal, there is a traditional dance called a ceilidh. C KEEPING TRADITIONS ALIVE
A day or two before a British Pakistani wedding, female relatives and friends draw beautiful elaborate patterns on the bride’s hands in a ceremony called Mehndi. At the same time, the two families tease each other in songs. Pakistani weddings take place at the bride’s home, often in large tents in the garden. The bride wears bright colours, usually red, pink or purple, but not white. After the wedding, the couple see each other in a mirror and the bride removes her veil. Then female guests steal the groom’s shoes and he has to pay to get them back!
ŚRODKI JĘZYKOWE UZUPEŁNIANIE TEKSTU WYRAZAMI Z RAMKI
1 Read the text below and complete each gap with one word from the box in the correct form. The answer must be grammatically and lexically correct. There are two more words in the box than you need. lonely lose sympathy gain incredible exist
What does friendship stand for nowadays?
Wskazówka 1 Do często sprawdzanych struktur w zadaniu polegającym na uzupełnianiu tekstu wyrazami z ramki należą: • formy czasowników (często sprawdzane w połączeniu z kolokacjami): take Everybody was exhausted because it took us six hours to reach our holiday destination. • przedrostki i przyrostki: advantage For me, the main disadvantage of being an only child is that others think I am spoiled. child My childhood was very happy as I had a strong and loving family. • przysłówki: grace My little sister danced so gracefully that everybody clapped and sang along. • stopień wyższy i najwyższy przymiotników: good For me, the best thing about being an only child is not having to share anything. Gramatyka Formy czasowników
Do people nowadays have more friends than before? What does friendship stand for in the era of social media? On the one hand, social networking sites make it 1_ easy to meet new people and stay in touch. They promote bonding and increased communication. At the same time, we live in a society where the word ‘friend’ 2_ its true meaning over the years – friendship does not mean the same as it used to. You can have thousands of virtual friends and still feel the 3_ person in the world. Relationship experts claim that our capacity for maintaining emotionally close relationships is finite. At any point, individuals are able to keep up close relationships with only a small number of people, so that new friendships come at the expense of loosening contact with 4_ friends. Whatever your definition of friendship, the bottom line is, we all need friends in our lives. 2 Match the gaps in Exercise 1 with lexical or grammatical structures that you have used to complete the text. a b c d
forma czasownika przymiotnik utworzony za pomocą przyrostka -ing przysłówek przymiotnik w stopniu najwyższym
3 Complete each sentence with one word from the box in the correct form. There are two more words in the box than you need. go feel share fall propose keep meet agree 1 The first time I _ in love was in primary school. 2 My grandfather is believed _ to my grandmother on their first date. 3 I didn’t mind _ a room with my sister when I was a child. 4 If my parents _, I would invite thirty friends to my birthday party. 5 I wish I _ in touch with my classmates from primary school – it would be great to know what’s happened to them. 6 My parents _ out with each other for a long time before they got married.
4 Which of the sentences in Exercise 3 are true for you? Talk to your partner.
Życie rodzinne i towarzyskie
PRZEDROSTKI I PRZYROSTKI, PRZYSŁÓWKI
5 Complete the gaps with the correct forms of the words in brackets. 1 An extraordinarily _ (COURAGE) boy rescued his little sister from the fire. 2 You don’t need a lot of _ (IMAGINE) to predict sibling rivalry with the arrival of a new baby. 3 Although the queue was awfully long, I waited _ (PATIENT) to buy tickets for my friends. 4 The article argues quite _ (CONVINCE) that children who play video games do not develop the same way as those who do not. 5 I didn’t know what to do, but my sister was more _ (DECIDE) and jumped into water to rescue the dog. 6 While my brother is very fluent in Spanish, he sometimes lacks grammatical _ (ACCURATE).
8 Uzupełnij tekst. Wstaw w luki 1–4 wyrazy z ramki, przekształcając je, tak aby otrzymać logiczny i poprawny gramatycznie tekst. Dwa wyrazy zostały podane dodatkowo. surround care understand humiliate struggle bad
Gramatyka Stopniowanie przymiotników
6 Complete each sentence with one word from the box in the correct form. There is one more word in the box than you need. The answer must be grammatically and lexically correct. addicted important strict big intelligent good 1 It is much _ to be an only child than to have a lot of siblings. 2 Teenagers need a father figure in their lives. In fact, the older children get, _ their father’s involvement is to their development. 3 Children with _ parents, who control them all the time, are the ones who rebel the most once they leave school or home. 4 Teenage boys spend a lot of time glued to computer screens and are considerably _ to social media than teenage girls. 5 It’s not good when the age difference between siblings is _ than 7 years.
7 In pairs, discuss which sentences from Exercise 6 you agree and disagree with. Wskazówka 2 Najpierw przeczytaj cały tekst. Przed wpisaniem wyrazu w każdą lukę zastanów się, jaka część mowy powinna się w niej znaleźć. Pamiętaj, że aby wstawić wybrany wyraz we właściwej formie, czasem będziesz musiał/musiała dodać inne wyrazy, np. czasownik posiłkowy.
REF! LET’S BLOW THE WHISTLE ON OVERPROTECTIVE PARENTS Now that my son is playing county level rugby I often come into contact with the type of mother I hate, in fact 1_ parent imaginable – The Over-Protective Mum. A few minutes into the last game, my son performed a bold tackle on one lady’s son. You could probably hear her cries in the 2_ counties as she screamed, ‘Ref! Help! That’s my son!’ Her son looked absolutely mortiﬁed. The last thing he wanted was his Mum shouting at the sidelines after he 3_ by the opposition. Several minutes later my son tackled again. This was too much for the lady, who ran on to the pitch screaming that it wasn’t fair. At that point my son 4_ lost his temper and was sent to the sidelines for ﬁve minutes. The game was ruined for both boys. Dear Overprotective Mum, Please, don’t disturb sporting events or embarrass your children!
9 In pairs, discuss what impact you think overprotective parents have on their children.
Żywienie • Zakupy i usługi
People who say money can’t buy you happiness just don’t know where to shop.
Tara Palmer-Tomkinson (b.1971), English celebrity
SPRAWDŹ, ILE JUŻ UMIESZ
1 In pairs, read the headings below. How many words in each category can you think of? NUTRIENTS
Food salmon Nutrients carbohydrates Types of shops fishmonger’s Bargains 40 per cent off
• • • •
4 Complete the leaﬂet with the words from the box. unsaturated fats saturated fats protein fiber carbohydrates calcium
2 Put the names of foods from the box in the categories below. Underline the foods which are shown in the photos at the top of the page. veal trout aubergine apricot asparagus pork sole broccoli turkey cod lamb blackcurrant raspberry lettuce flounder watermelon Vegetables: _, _, _, _ Fruit: _, _, _, _ Fish: _, _, _, _ Meat: _, _, _, _
is necessary for growth and repair, but most adults in wealthy countries eat too much of it. For most of us it would be a good idea to cut down on meat and ﬁsh. are a source of energy. Get them from cereal products and fresh fruit rather than from sweet foods.
3 Match the words to make correct phrases. a packet of decaffeinated two bottles of still two lean a loaf of wholemeal sugar-free six free-range a jar of pickled
your body needs
ADJECTIVES TO DESCRIBE FOOD
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
a b c d e f g
cucumbers beef steaks coffee eggs bread chewing gum water
There are two kinds of fats. Avoid 3_, which are found in animal products (butter, cheese, meat) and can raise blood cholesterol. 4_, found in vegetable oils, nuts and seeds, are much better for you. 5_
is essential to healthy bones. Dairy products and eggs are the best-known sources; if you’re a vegan or allergic to milk, eat soy beans, nuts or seaweed instead.
is not exactly a nutrient, as we don’t digest it, but it aids digestion. It comes from plants; the best sources are vegetables, fruit, wholemeal bread, brown rice.
Żywienie • Zakupy i usługi
5 Read the recipe. Match the illustrations to
The secret of a great ratatouille is that the vegetables are not cooked together. Ingredients: 1 courgette, 1 red pepper, 1 yellow pepper, 1 green pepper; 2 onions, 3 large tomatoes, 10–15 large green olives (sliced), 2 cloves of garlic, olive oil, some fresh thyme 1 Slice the courgettes thinly. 2 Cut the peppers into wide strips. 3 Mix the courgette and the peppers with a spoonful of olive oil in a casserole dish. 4 Put in a pre-heated oven (about 160°C) and roast for about 15–20 minutes. 5 Peel the onion and tomatoes. 6 Chop the onions, tomatoes and garlic. 7 In a large saucepan, cook the onions with a little olive oil for five minutes. Stir all the time. Add the garlic and cook for two minutes. 8 Add the tomatoes and the thyme and stew under a lid for five minutes. Add the roast peppers and courgettes, the green olives (cut in halves) to the saucepan and mix. Stew for two more minutes. 9 Serve with rice or bread.
6 Cross out the wrong option. Then match the idioms to their meanings. 1 Go to the opera? No, thanks, it’s not really my cup of tea / coffee. 2 The new fantasy novel is selling like hot buns / cakes. 3 The picnic was supposed to be a surprise, but Tom’s younger brother spilled the beans / peas. 4 Of course Mrs Granton is involved in the charity bazaar. She likes to have a finger in every pie / pudding. 5 I’ve dented my brother’s car. He’ll go oranges / bananas when I tell him. 6 Well, we can’t do anything about it now, can we? It’s no use crying over spilt milk / sauce. a b c d e f
be involved in many activities get very angry achieve very good sales not the kind of thing I like regret something that cannot be changed or reversed reveal a secret
7 Write your own sentences with two of the idioms from Exercise 6. TYPES OF SHOPS
8 List three things you could buy in each of the shops below. Compare your lists in pairs. a b c d e f
MP3•18 Listen to six dialogues in shops. Where are the people? Match the dialogues to the shops in Exercise 8.
SŁOWNICTWO HIGH PRICES
12 Match each sentence beginning to two endings. 1 The film projector cost 2 It’s a nice shop, but the prices are 3 Three pounds for an orange juice? That’s a astronomical. b an arm and a leg. c a small fortune.
d daylight robbery. e exorbitant. f a rip-off.
13 Complete the questions with prepositions. Then ask and answer the questions in pairs.
AT THE CHECKOUT
10 Label the things in the photo. Then describe the photo and answer the questions in pairs. a b c d e
basket conveyor belt cashier till queue
1 What sort of things do people usually pay for _ cash? 2 When is it especially convenient to pay _ credit card? 3 Have you or your family paid for anything _ bank transfer recently? What was it? 4 Have you or your family paid for anything _ instalments recently? What was it? 5 When did you last splash out _ something? What was it? COMPLAINING
14 Complete the letter with the words formed from
1 Do you think the customers like this shop? 2 What kinds of shops do you like? Why? 3 Tell me about the last time you went shopping.
the words in brackets. To: jessashton Subject: Customer service problem
11 Complete the text with the words from the box. discount half offer off price reduced retail sales value « previous
It’s the end of December: the time of post-Christmas 1_ in the shops. Yesterday I went shopping with my friend Laura. I bought a cardigan that was 60 per cent 2_ and two tops for the 3_ of one. At the big shoe shop there was a forty per cent 4_ on everything. Laura bought a pair of boots that were 5_ from £100 to £60. (They didn’t seem cheap to me, but she thought they were good 6_ for money.) In the food hall chocolates with Christmas motifs were 7_ price and sparkling wine was on special 8_. Hardly anything was being sold at its normal 9_ price. A happy time for shopaholics!
Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing to complain about the poor customer service I received at your Arundel Street branch shop in Worthing. On 22 March I bought an mp5 player at the shop in question. Within a week I discovered it was 1_ (FAULT). I took it back to the shop on March 28 and asked for a 2_ (REPLACE). The assistant explained my 3_ (COMPLAIN) would be considered within two weeks. After a month the same mp5 player was ﬁnally returned to me. It had been repaired, but there were scratches on it which had not been there before. I complained to the shop manager, but no 4_ (SOLVE) was offered. The mp5 player I returned to the shop was almost new, so I think my request to have it exchanged for a new one is justiﬁed. I enclose the receipt as 5_ (PROVE) of purchase. I look forward to hearing from you. Yours faithfully, XYZ
Żywienie • Zakupy i usługi
SŁUCHANIE TEST WIELOKROTNEGO WYBORU (TRZY TEKSTY)
15 Complete the ﬁrst column of the table with the
1 In pairs, answer the questions.
words formed from the verb satisfy and the second column with their opposites.
a _ customer
a _ customer
to express _
to express _
1 Do you ever have conversations with shop assistants or cashiers? Why?/Why not? 2 Describe a situation when you or someone you know complained about something you/they bought. Zadanie
MP3•19 Usłyszysz dwukrotnie trzy teksty. Z podanych odpowiedzi A–C wybierz właściwą, zgodną z treścią nagrania.
1 The shopper A explains why the supermarket is a good place to shop. B suggests some special offers the shop could introduce. C complains that he can’t afford to buy luxuries.
16 Complete the text with the words from the box. withdraw transfers rates order loan interest debit cashpoint account The once common phrase ‘I must go to the bank’ is seldom heard these days. Most people still go to the bank in person to open or close an 1_. But after that, we don’t often visit our local branch, for example to deposit or 2_ money. Large payments are made by online 3_ and if you need some cash for everyday expenses you get it out of a ‘hole in the wall’ – a 4_. Your bills are paid by standing 5_ or direct 6_. You can check exchange 7_ online. You might still visit the bank if you’re taking out a 8_, but you might be able to discuss the 9_ on it over the phone.
2 Aidan is A making a complaint. B talking to a client service advisor. C arguing with his girlfriend. 3 Which of the following is stated in the text as a fact and not an opinion? A The bank’s debit cards don’t have pin numbers. B The bank’s cashpoints offer more than one service. C The bank pays the highest interest on student accounts.
17 In pairs, do the task below. 3
Zadanie UCZEŃ A Twój gość z zagranicy chce pójść na zakupy. Poniżej podane są cztery kwestie, które musisz omówić. Rozmowę rozpoczyna uczeń B. Sklepy Ceny
Wybór pamiątek z Polski Posiłek w przerwie zakupów
UCZEŃ B Jesteś zagranicznym gościem ucznia A. W zależności od tego, jak potoczy się rozmowa, wykorzystaj wszystkie lub wybrane zdania: • I’d like to go shopping one of these days, you know, buy some gifts for my family and friends. Could you recommend anywhere? • Sorry, what was that thing you said? (‘‘Krówki”?) • I’m not sure … (my family would like that / that’s a very practical thing to buy). • I’d like to buy … (an original handbag). • And can we have something to eat while we’re out? It would be nice to eat outside.
SŁOWNICTWO Match these phrases from the recording to the explanations.
1 2 3 4
24/7 mobile and Internet banking a contactless debit card free withdrawals at all our cash machines an interest-free overdraft
a For small transactions you just wave this card over a card reader; you don’t have to insert it or enter a PIN number. b You can access your bank account via the Internet at any hour, seven days a week. c It’s a form of credit; you can take some money out of your account even though you haven’t got any, and you don’t have to pay interest on it. d You can take money out of ATMs (Automatic Teller Machines) without paying a charge for this operation.
4 Answer the questions. Do you have your own bank account? If yes, which of the services in Exercise 3 have you used? Why? If not, which of the services do you think are useful? Why?
ŚRODKI JĘZYKOWE UZUPEŁNIANIE TEKSTU
1 Complete the text with one word in each gap. VEG AND LITTLE MEAT ‘A RECIPE FOR LONG LIFE’ It has long been announced as the perfect recipe for a long life but a new study suggests that not all the foods that 1_ up the Mediterranean diet carry the same beneﬁts. Researchers found that eating large amounts of ﬁsh and seafood or the low levels of dairy traditionally associated with the diet did little to lengthen life span. 2_, eating large amounts of fruit, vegetables and using olive oil while keeping red meat consumption to a minimum did add up to a recipe for a longer life. The scientists claim that it is the ﬁrst study to identify which individual parts of the diet might contribute the most 3_ a long life. Previous research 4_ found that sticking to the diet can protect the brain against developing Alzheimer’s, cut the chances of developing heart disease and even reduce the risk of being diagnosed with cancer.
2 Match the gaps in Exercise 1 with the lexical or grammatical structures that you have used to complete the text. a spójnik b czasownik posiłkowy c czasownik będący częścią czasownika frazowego (phrasal verb) d przyimek Wskazówka 1 Do często sprawdzanych struktur gramatycznych i leksykalnych w zadaniu polegającym na uzupełnianiu tekstu należą: • przyimki:
Have you ever wasted money on something completely useless? • czasowniki frazowe (phrasal verbs):
These studies looked into the eating habits of adults with a healthy body mass index. • czasowniki posiłkowe i modalne:
I have bought jeans in this shop several times now, so I know what size I am. He must have been embarrassed when he noticed he didn’t have enough money to pay for the meal. • zdania okolicznikowe:
Although we have distinctly different styles and taste, I love shopping with my mum.
3 Choose the correct option. 1 Our shop assistants are trained to deal _ customers in a polite and effective manner. A of B with C for D from 2 Many shoppers complained _ the limited range of goods. A on B about C to D for 3 This is an upmarket shopping centre famous _ its interior design and decoration. A of B from C with D for 4 We were really pleased _ the food, which was great value for money and nicely presented. A of B over C with D for 5 Shopping while in a bad mood is more likely to be harmful _ you than beneficial. A to B against C on D with
4 In pairs, answer the questions. 1 Do you sometimes buy things to cheer yourself up? Why?/Why not? If so, what do you usually buy? 2 Do you ever buy things to reward yourself? Why?/Why not? If so, what do you reward yourself for?
5 Complete the sentences with one word in each gap. 1 Bananas, potatoes, beans and nuts are all rich _ potassium. 2 Scientifically speaking, pumpkins are a fruit but when it comes _ cooking, they are often referred to as vegetables. 3 The world’s largest carrot producer is China, which in 2011 accounted _ over forty-five per cent of global output. 4 Although it shares the same name, the sweet potato is a root vegetable and only loosely related _ the potato. 5 The vitamin content of the mango depends _ the variety and maturity of the fruit.
6 Which of the facts from Exercise 5 surprised you the most? Why? CZASOWNIKI FRAZOWE (PHRASAL VERBS)
7 Complete the sentences with one word in each gap. 1 It’s easier to _ up eating sweets than salt. 2 If you want to learn to cook, the best way is to _ up some simple recipes on the Internet. 3 The job of a shop assistant is really hard because they have to _ up with troublesome customers. 4 The best way to save money is to _ down on buying things you don’t need.
Żywienie • Zakupy i usługi
Gramatyka Czasowniki posiłkowe i modalne
8 Find and correct mistakes in the auxiliary or modal verbs in the sentences below. 1 A luxury watch worth £30,000 has being stolen from a jeweller’s shop in London. 2 I wish I won’t have to do the weekly shopping all by myself tomorrow. 3 I’m afraid your cake is inedible. You must have followed the recipe from start to finish. 4 If I have remembered about his birthday, I would have bought him a present yesterday. 5 We would better not indulge in any more desserts and cakes. 6 You mustn’t eat broccoli if you don’t like it – just leave it on the plate.
Wskazówka 2 Przed wpisaniem wyrazu w każdą lukę zastanów się, jaka część mowy powinna się w niej znaleźć. Zadanie
11 Uzupełnij tekst. Wstaw po jednym wyrazie w luki 1–4, tak aby otrzymać logiczny i poprawny gramatycznie tekst.
Gramatyka Zdania okolicznikowe
9 Match each sentence beginning to its ending using the correct linking words from the box. despite
as soon as
1 I won’t buy him any more toys _ 2 Supermarket chains are making a lot of profit _
3 Bob didn’t receive a refund _ 4 He got £300 from his grandparents _ 5 I’ll serve the main course _ a b c d e
he made a complaint about a faulty mobile. everyone has finished their starters. he promises to look after them. the recession. he splashed out on designer clothes.
10 Complete the sentences with one word in each gap. 1 I had to smile and pretend that everything tasted great _ as not to offend the host. 2 _ the fact that shopping online can be very convenient, it also has its drawbacks. 3 According to this diet, you can eat anything you want _ that you eat in moderation. 4 Shopping is not my cup of tea. _, my sister could easily be classified as a shopaholic.
MEET THE 21ST-CENTURY SAVVY SAVER Not long ago people used to walk into a restaurant and pay the prices that were printed on the menu. The past ten years though have seen the rise of the savvy moneysaver, who knows how to pay 1_ for more, and delights in doing so. He’s been created by a combination of circumstances – the recession, of course, 2_ also the rise of the Internet and clever marketing tricks from companies that desperately need the extra sales. The rise of the discount has changed our shopping habits. Recent research showed that more than a third of us always search online before making a purchase. Partly in response 3_ the credit crisis, every day in Britain we use 2.4 million discount vouchers, of which the most popular are for restaurants and other leisure purchases. A clear trend emerges: 4_ careful about money is now fashionable and socially acceptable. It has become part of our culture, more than just a fad.
12 Some people believe saving money is very important, especially in today’s economy. Do you agree? Why?/Why not?
Podróżowanie i turystyka
Have you ever noticed that anybody driving slower than you is an idiot, and anyone going faster than you is a maniac? George Carlin (1937–2008), American comedian
SPRAWDŹ, ILE JUŻ UMIESZ
1 In pairs, read the headings below. How many words in each category can you think of? • • • •
Road travel motorway Rail travel sleeping car Air travel runway Sea travel quay
**** all-inclusive 6 nights, 12 meals 2 excursions to places of interest
TYPES OF HOLIDAYS
2 Match the types of holidays to the photos. a b c d
Listen to six people talking about accommodation. Match the recordings to the accommodation that the people are going to use. There is one extra type of accommodation. MP3•20
a b c d e f g
caravan holiday home hostel suite tent single room twin room
4 In pairs, answer the questions. Which of the types of accommodation in Exercise 3 do you like? Which ones would you like to try? Why?
JOURNEYS AND TRIPS
5 Complete the sentences with the words from the box. There is one extra word. cruise excursion expedition journey trip tour voyage 1 I’m not on holiday, this is just a short business _. 2 The aim of John Speke and Richard Burton’s 1856 _ was to find the source of the Nile. 3 On his first _ to the Pacific, James Cook reached New Zealand and Australia. 4 Helen bought her parents a Mediterranean _ for their anniversary. 5 It was a long and tiring _: ten hours on a train! 6 A one-day _ to Venice is included in the price of the holiday.
Podróżowanie i turystyka
MEANS OF TRAVEL
MP3•21 Listen to four recordings and match them to the four means of travel.
a road travel b rail travel
11 Complete Lucy’s text messages to her boyfriend with the words from the box. There is one extra word.
c air travel d sea travel
Listen again and write down the words that helped you choose the answers in Exercise 6. MP3•21
board cabin crossing deck ferry lifeboats port quayside seasickness Hi Tom, I’m taking the 1_ from Santander this evening, arriving in Portsmouth in the morning.
8 In pairs, discuss what means of traveling you like
On my way to the 2_ now.
best and why.
On the 3_, getting ready to board. The ferry looks huge!
9 The words in grey in the text below are in the wrong places. Rearrange them so the text makes sense.
Already on 4_. Just found my It looks quite comfortable.
Murder on the Orient Express One of the best-known detective novels of all time, Murder on the Orient Express,, is set almost entirely on a train. The first chapter begins on a railway 1 compartment in Syria as the detective Hercule Poirot prepares to board his train and observes some of his fellow 2 tracks. We meet the remaining characters as they enjoy a luxury meal in the 3 sleeping car of the Orient Express. At night, while the train is stopped by heavy snowfall in Yugoslavia, a man is murdered in his 4 dining car. There were twelve passengers and a 5 platform in the locked 6 conductor and one of them must be the murderer. While railway authorities struggle to clear the snow off the 7 passengers and get the train going, Hercule Poirot solves the mystery … AIR TRAVEL
10 Complete the text with the words formed from
The captain’s announcement: he says the weather’s fine and we can expect a good 6_. On the sun 7_, looking at the sea. I think I can see dolphins! Checked where the 8_ are, just in case, and now I’m going to sleep. See you tomorrow! ROAD TRAVEL AND DRIVING
12 Match the car parts 1–13 to their names a–m. a b c d e f g
Lancaster Williamson Airport Tips for Passengers ∎ For international ﬂights, we recommend that you arrive at the airport two hours before the scheduled 1_ (DEPART) of your ﬂight. ∎ For security reasons, never leave your luggage 2_ (ATTEND). ∎ Whether you prefer a quick snack or a three-course meal in 3_ (LUXURY) surroundings, you will ﬁnd plenty of options for pre-ﬂight dining at the airport. ∎ If your ﬂight is 4_ (DELAY) by more than two hours, you may be entitled to compensation and a free meal at the airport. ∎ On 5_ (ARRIVE) at your destination, follow the signs for passport control, baggage reclaim and customs.
1 3 4
9 2 13 11
MP3•22 Complete the story with the words from the box. There is one extra word. Then listen and check.
accelerator clutch gear handbrake rearview mirror seat seat belt A disastrous driving lesson A: How did your driving lesson go? B: It was a total disaster! At the very beginning I forgot to fasten my 1_. Then I was changing 2_ and I put the car in fifth instead of third. I didn’t put the 3_ on when parking on a hill. At the lights I released the 4_ too quickly and stalled the engine. Finally, I didn’t look in the 5_ before overtaking and nearly caused an accident. At that point the instructor told me to stop and move over into the passenger 6_!
17 Match the American English words from the box to their British English equivalents in the table. filling station gasoline highway hood one-way ticket parking lot railroad sidewalk subway trailer truck trunk
Language and Culture British and American travel words British
1 lorry 2 bonnet (of a car) 3 boot (of a car) 4 motorway 5 car park
14 Match the words to make compound nouns. 1 2 3 4 5
petrol traffic main / minor pedestrian road
a b c d e
road crossing jam sign station
7 caravan 8 underground or the tube 9 railway 10 single ticket 11 petrol
15 Label the parts of a bicycle with the words from
12 petrol station
the box. frame handlebar saddle brake tyre valve pedal chain shock gears light pump water bottle lock
18 Complete the text with the correct prepositions.
Paul and Millie’s trip to the USA
1 2 3 4 5
_ _ _ _ _
6 7 8 9 10
_ _ _ _ _
11 12 13 14
_ _ _ _
16 Match each sentence beginning to its ending. Five things every cyclist should know how to do 1 Pump up … a the chain. 2 Clean and oil … b the tyres. 3 Patch … c and replace a wheel. 4 Adjust … d a punctured inner tube. 5 Remove … e the brakes and gears.
Our ﬂight was in the morning, and my parents decided to see us 1 off . They drove us to the airport, which should have been quicker than taking a bus, but we were held 2_ in a trafﬁc jam on the way. We checked 3_ at the last moment! But as the plane sped 4_ on the runway, I forgot all my earlier worries and thought only of the fun we were going to have in America. We took 5_ from Heathrow at 9.30, and after a seven-hour ﬂight landed in New York … at 11.30. Our friends Brad and Carol picked us 6_ at the airport and took us to the hotel. Then we all went to look 7_ the city. (It’s as amazing as everything you’ve read about it!) In the evening Brad and Carol dropped us 8_ at the hotel again. Tomorrow we’re checking 9_ after breakfast and setting 10_ on our grand tour of America. I can’t wait! Watch this space!
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Podróżowanie i turystyka
SŁUCHANIE TEST WIELOKROTNEGO WYBORU (TRZY TEKSTY)
1 Discuss the questions in pairs.
19 Complete the idioms with the words from the box.
1 What are the advantages and disadvantages of travelling by car? 2 What are the advantages and disadvantages of travelling by air? 3 Do you prefer travelling by car or by air? Why?
Then match them to their deﬁnitions. lift light road throw track 1 We have to hit the _ early tomorrow if we want to arrive before dark. 2 The cafe was off the beaten _; except for us there were only local people in it. 3 I missed the last bus into town but I managed to thumb a _ with a lorry driver. 4 I pack only what’s necessary. I prefer to travel _. 5 We were lucky; the hostel was a stone’s _ from the beach. a b c d e
1 Which heading best summarises the report? A TYPICAL PROBLEMS WITH LONDON RUSH HOUR TRAFFIC B WEEKEND TRAVEL DISRUPTION FOR LONDONERS C ROAD WORKS AND ACCIDENTS CAUSE DELAYS IN LONDON
very near take very little luggage away from places which are popular with tourists get a free ride in a vehicle set off on a journey
2 At which point of the flight is the speaker talking? A Before the plane leaves the ground. B Once the plane has taken off. C Just before the plane lands.
20 In pairs, do the task below and answer the questions.
3 Omar wants to A invite Magda to go on holiday to Poland with him. B give Magda his impressions of visiting Poland. C ask Magda for advice about travelling in Poland.
Zadanie Wygrałeś/Wygrałaś w konkursie wycieczkę do Wielkiej Brytanii. Możesz pojechać w jedno z trzech miejsc przedstawionych na zdjęciach. • Wybierz miejsce, które najbardziej chciałbyś/chciałabyś odwiedzić, i uzasadnij swój wybór. • Wyjaśnij, dlaczego odrzucasz pozostałe propozycje. 1
MP3•23 Usłyszysz dwukrotnie trzy teksty. Z podanych odpowiedzi A–C wybierz właściwą, zgodną z treścią nagrania.
SŁOWNICTWO MP3•24 Listen again to the ﬁrst
recording and complete the gaps. Monday’s a bank holiday so it’s no surprise that traffic is 1_ than usual heading out of London this Friday afternoon. Traffic is at a complete 2_ on the M4 westbound between junctions 3 and 4 due to a multivehicle accident. The A21 is closed southbound just past Tonbridge due to road works so there’s 3_ there, too. And public transport is no better. The torrential rain has led to 4_ of many rail services. And the baggage handlers’ strike means there are long 5_ for air passengers at all London airports.
4 In pairs, talk about a difﬁcult journey. Use as many 3
words and phrases from Exercise 3 as you can.
5 In pairs, answer the questions.
THE ENGLISH COAST
1 How can you pass the time when stuck in a traffic jam? 2 What is the most and least enjoyable aspect of air travel? 3 What advice would you give to a foreigner visiting Poland for the first time?
1 When you are learning a language, how important is it to visit the country where it is spoken? 2 What are the disadvantages of travelling abroad?
C Z Y TA N I E TEST WIELOKROTNEGO WYBORU
Trening Nieznane słowa
1 Read the text and Wskazówka. Try to answer the
3 Przeczytaj dwa teksty. Z podanych odpowiedzi A–D wybierz właściwą, zgodną z treścią tekstu.
questions. Is it possible despite the obscured words?
1 Which of the following is stated in Text 1 as a fact and not an opinion? A The first person to circle the globe using a variety of vehicles was an entrepreneur from Canada. B In the 19th century railways made travel from Asia to Europe easier. C George Simpson chose to travel west as it was the quickest route around the world. D ‘Around the World in 80 Days’ was the best book Jules Verne wrote.
THE DEATH OF CAPTAIN JAMES COOK During his third roundthe-world voyage the explorer Captain James Cook (1728– 1779) was killed on Hawaii, in circumstances which still historians. Cook and his crew, the first Europeans to land on Hawaii, were at first greeted with hospitality and . Cook was given a magnificent cloak and helmet made of feathers – a chief ’s garments. The sailors were able to fill their ships with . But soon after they left, a storm forced them to return. This time the Hawaiians were much less friendly. When a boat from his ship was stolen, Cook tried to take a local chief hostage to demand its return. A fight broke out in which Cook was killed. Did the Hawaiians initially consider Cook to be , and then turn against him after realising he was human? Or did their behaviour change because the Europeans arrived at first during a religious festival of peace, but returned at a time of war? We don’t have their side of the story, so we’ll probably never find out what really happened. 1 The Hawaiians at first treated Cook with A respect. B suspicion. C hostility. D gratitude. 2 According to the writer, why did the Hawaiians turn against Cook? A They had thought he was a god at first. B He came at the wrong time. C He offended their religious feelings. D We don’t know.
MP3•25 Now listen to the text and ﬁll in the missing words. Are your answers still the same?
Wskazówka : Jeśli w tekście pojawia się nieznane ci słowo, ale jego znajomość nie jest konieczna do zrozumienia całości tekstu lub wybrania prawidłowej odpowiedzi na pytanie, możesz je zignorować i czytać dalej.
2 How did Nelly Bly’s journey differ from Phileas Fogg’s? A She took different forms of transport. B She travelled in the opposite direction. C She travelled on her own. D She did it as a result of a bet. 3 The main point of Text 1 is to A analyse the impact of technological advances on travel. B argue that women and men are equally good at travelling. C provide a summary of a fictitious travel story. D describe the history of round-the-world travel. 4 The narrator in Text 2 A made a spontaneous decision to travel west. B intended to travel only as far as Ely, Nevada. C was looking forward to visiting Bear Mountain. D was keen to get to Chicago. 5 Why did the narrator feel annoyed? A It wasn’t easy to get to the Hudson Valley. B Nobody stopped to give him a ride. C He chose a bad place to start hitchhiking west. D He wasn’t dressed for bad weather.
SŁOWNICTWO Match the words in colour in Text 1 to their explanations. Use the basic form of each word.
1 _, n. (In the past) an older woman who accompanies a younger woman on a trip or social occasion to ensure her safety and good behaviour 2 _, prep. – through, by way of 3 _, v. sail around, travel around 4 _, adv. towards the west 5 _, n. a large, open area of grassland especially in North America
5 In pairs, answer the questions. If you could travel around the world, 1 Who would you travel with? 2 What route would you choose? 3 What means of transport would you use? 4 What would be most important to you on this trip?
Podróżowanie i turystyka
CIRCLING THE GLOBE BY LAND AND SEA
n October 1842, a Scottish-born Canadian businessman, George Simpson became the first man we know of to travel around the world by land and sea. Travelling westwards from London, Simpson employed steamships, canoes, horses and carriages to circle the globe. It took him 1 year and 7 months. The following decades were a time of great technological change in transportation. By the end of the 1860s transcontinental railways had been built crossing both the United States and India. The Suez Canal had also brought Asia much closer to Europe. In 1870, an eccentric American entrepreneur with the appropriate name of George Francis Train took advantage of these more efficient forms of transport to circumnavigate the globe in only 80 days. Now, round-the-world trips were measured in weeks rather than years. Train’s adventure probably inspired French author Jules Verne to write ‘Around the World in 80 Days’. Published in 1873, the novel was a huge commercial success. It tells the story of an intrepid English
gentleman, Phileas Fogg, and his servant Passepartout who set out to travel around the world in 80 days in order to win a bet. They travel eastwards from London via Egypt, Hong Kong and the USA. On their journey they sail on ferries and steamships and travel overland by railway and horse and carriage. They even ride on the back of an elephant and cross some snow-covered prairies on a sledge. French writer Jean Cocteau considered the book to be Verne’s masterpiece. It inspired many to seek adventure. Nellie Bly, a daring 23-year-old journalist from Pennsylvania, USA, decided to try to turn fiction into fact. She asked her editor to let her emulate Phileas Fogg. The editor, believing it to be impossible for a woman to travel without a chaperone on such a journey, was reluctant to finance the trip, but Bly convinced him to let her travel alone. Then a rival newspaper sponsored another female journalist, Elizabeth Bisland to race against Bly. The race began on November 14, 1889. Like Verne’s heroes, Bly went in an eastbound direction, while Bisland went the other way round.
Both women travelled mainly by steamship and train. On January 25, 1890, Bly arrived in New York. She had won the race. The journey took her 72 days and 6 hours. It was a world record. Bly’s record didn’t last long. Later that year, George Train went round the world again, this time in only 67 days. By 1913, a Broadway producer from Massachusetts called John Henry Mears had reduced the record for a journey around the world by land and sea to 35 days and 21 hours. Then in 1928, Mears set a new record for a round-the-world trip – only 23 days and 15 hours. But this time he flew. A new era in travel had begun.
ON THE ROAD by Jack Kerouac I’d been poring over maps of the United States in Paterson for months, even reading books about the pioneers and savouring names like Platte and Cimarron and so on, and on the road map was one long red line called Route 6 that led from the tip of Cape Cod clear to Ely, Nevada, and there, dipped down to Los Angeles. I’ll just stay on 6 all the way to Ely, I said to myself and confidently started. To get to 6 I had to go up to Bear Mountain. Filled with dreams of what I’d do in Chicago, in Denver, and then finally in San Fran, I took the Seventh Avenue subway to the end of the line at 242nd Street, and there took a trolley into Yonkers; in downtown Yonkers I transferred to an outgoing trolley and went to the city limits on the east bank of the Hudson River. If you drop a rose in the Hudson River at its mysterious source in the Adirondacks, think of all the places it journeys by as it goes out to sea forever – think of that wonderful Hudson Valley. I started hitching up the thing. Five scattered rides took me to the desired Bear Mountain Bridge, where Route 6 arched in from New England. It began to rain in torrents when I was let off there. It was mountainous. Route 6 came over the river, wound around a traffic circle, and disappeared into the wilderness. Not only was there no traffic but the rain came down in buckets and I had no shelter. I began crying and swearing and socking myself on the head for being such a damn fool. I was forty miles north of New York; all the way up I’d been worried about the fact that on this, my big opening day, I was only moving north instead of the so-longed-for west. Now I was stuck on my northernmost hangup.
ŚRODKI JĘZYKOWE UZUPEŁNIANIE ZDAŃ
1 Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the words in brackets. You can add more words if necessary but you must not change the order of the words provided. Use a maximum of six words in each gap. 1 We didn’t need to worry about anything since we were given all the details (give / all / detail) about our trip when we contacted the travel agency. 2 If I were you, I __ (choose / different / destination) for a beach holiday. But I guess you’ll go there anyway. 3 I wish you __ (tell / everybody / change) in our itinerary before we got on the plane. 4 Which continent __ (you / plan / visit) during your next trip?
2 Match the sentences in Exercise 1 with the grammar structures that you have used to complete them. a b c d
strona bierna zdanie wyrażające życzenie czas gramatyczny zdanie warunkowe
Gramatyka Czasy gramatyczne
3 Complete the email with the correct forms of the verbs in brackets. Add any necessary words. To: suzyq Subject: Hiking Hi Suzy! Guess what! This time next week, 1__ (hike) in Northumberland National Park with a couple of my friends! We 2__ (plan) to spend eight days walking along Hadrian’s Wall. I’m so thrilled! I’m a little worried though because it’s ages since I last 3__ (go) on this kind of holiday. I 4__ (go) to aerobics classes and the gym every week since March so I’m in pretty good shape but I really 5_ (not have) a clue about what sort of things to pack in my rucksack. I know you 6__ (be) on treks like this many times so I 7__ (wonder) if you could give me some tips on what to take? Perhaps you would like to join us? It will be fun! Look how spectacular the views are there! Cheers, Lucy
Do często sprawdzanych struktur gramatycznych w zadaniu polegającym na uzupełnianiu zdań należą: • czasy gramatyczne: It is believed that in the near future almost ninety per cent of travellers will be using the Internet (traveller / use / Internet) to find cheapest hotels and air tickets. • strona bierna: At the train station it turned out that all secondclass tickets had already been sold (ticket / already / sell) and we had to splash out on first class. • zdania warunkowe: If you had left a message (you / leave / message) on my mobile that you were arriving on Sunday, I would have picked you up from the airport. • konstrukcje I wish i If only oraz inne wyrażające życzenia: If only we hadn’t trusted our Sat Nav (not trust / Sat Nav)! We wouldn’t be lost in the middle of nowhere now!
4 Would you like to go on a hiking holiday like the one described in Exercise 3? Why?/Why not?
5 Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the words in brackets.You can add more words if necessary but you must not change the order of the words provided. 1 By the time I’m fifty, I __ (see / all / dream) places around the world – that’s my plan. 2 While __ (we / put / tent), it started pouring with rain. 3 When I saw Tom on the trail, he was out of breath and sweaty because __ (he / walk / ﬁve) hours without a break. 4 This is going to be our longest trip ever. By the end of this week __ (we / travel) two months!
Podróżowanie i turystyka
Gramatyka Strona bierna
6 Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the words in brackets. You can add more words if necessary but you must not change the order of the words provided. 1 On arriving at Heathrow airport yesterday, John __ (make / empty) suitcase. 2 Unfortunately, we can’t go in – the museum __ (close / public) since last June due to lack of funding. 3 Since I have climbed many high mountains, I __ (often / ask / question) about the best place to train for high altitude hiking. 4 We learnt many useful skills at the scout camp – for example, __ (we / teach / start) a fire by rubbing two sticks together.
7 Have you ever been to a scout camp? If yes, did you like it? If not, would you like to go? Why?/Why not? Gramatyka Zdania warunkowe
8 Match each sentence beginning to its ending to form conditional sentences. 1 2 3 4 5
If we had taken off on time, If we want to arrive before midnight, If we hadn’t run out of petrol, If we don’t speed up considerably risking a ticket, If we went backpacking instead of staying in a hotel,
a we need to catch an earlier train. b we would be approaching the motorway to Berlin now. c we won’t make it to the airport on time. d we would save quite lot of money. e we wouldn’t have been late for our connecting flight.
9 Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the words in brackets. You can add more words if necessary but you must not change the order of the words provided. 1 If the summer heat wave continues, British __ (holidaymaker / stay / home) instead of going abroad in search of good weather. 2 We __ (not miss / train) if you hadn’t spent ages packing your bags. 3 If __ (I / have / choice), I’d hit the road and go somewhere off the beaten track. 4 I’ll pack my hairdryer __ (condition / Sarah / take) her portable iron.
Konstrukcje I wish i If only oraz inne wyrażające życzenia
10 Add two regrets about your worst holiday and two wishes about your next holiday. Then in pairs, compare your lists and talk about them. MY WORST HOLIDAY
If only it hadn’t rained all the time. I wish __, __ MY NEXT HOLIDAY
I wish we could go on a cruise. I’d rather __, __ 11 Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the words in brackets. You can add more words if necessary but you must not change the order of the words provided. 1 I wish __ (we / decide / exchange) twice as much money – we are only half-way through the trip and already running out of cash. 2 It’s high time __ (you / start / pack) as we are setting off early in the morning tomorrow. 3 I __ (rather / you / help) us to pitch the tent before it gets too dark. 4 If only __ (I / join / group) travelling to Thailand. All my friends came back impressed with its natural beauty. Wskazówka 2 Przeczytaj zdania i zastanów się, jaką strukturę gramatyczną sprawdza każde z nich (np. zdanie warunkowe). Pamiętaj, że poza wyrazami podanymi w nawiasie zwykle trzeba dodać inne, np.: przedimki, przyimki, zaimki różnego rodzaju albo czasowniki posiłkowe. Po uzupełnieniu zdań upewnij się, czy liczba wpisanych słów nie przekracza limitu wskazanego w poleceniu. Zadanie
12 Uzupełnij zdania właściwymi formami wyrazów w nawiasach. Nie zmieniaj kolejności podanych wyrazów i dodaj wszystkie niezbędne elementy, tak aby otrzymać logiczne i gramatycznie poprawne zdania. W każdą lukę możesz wstawić maksymalnie sześć wyrazów. 1 Immediately after we got on the coach, __ (we / remind / fasten) our seat belts by the coach driver. 2 If __ (you / book / room) in advance, we wouldn’t be wandering around in the rain and looking for a place to stay now. 3 How __ (time / you / visit) the Rocky Mountains so far? 4 If only __ (we / remember / bring) camera with us – we could have taken great pictures!
Kultura 2 4
It’s the movies that have really been running things in America ever since they were invented. They show you what to do, how to do it, when to do it, how to feel about it, and how to look how you feel about it.
Andy Warhol (1928 –1987), American pop artist
SPRAWDŹ, ILE JUŻ UMIESZ
1 In pairs, read the headings below. How many
4 Match the numbered objects in the photo with the words.
words in each category can you think of? • • • •
Literature poem Visual arts canvas Film cinematography Music chord
2 Put the instruments from the box in the categories. cello clarinet double bass harp grand piano organ recorder upright piano saxophone Keyboard instruments: _, _, _ String instruments: _, _, _ Wind instruments: _, _, _
3 Choose the correct option. 1 John Williams wrote the famous score / concerto for Star Wars. 2 She’s such a fan of Bob Marley she can recognise most of his songs after the first few tunes / bars. 3 Our choir director has got perfect pitch / chord. 4 Beethoven’s 5th symphony / score is one of the most popular and best-known compositions in classical music. 5 OK, I’ll sing ‘Happy Birthday’ with you, and I’ll try not to sing out of tune / tone. 6 Mozart’s Requiem is in the sound / key of D minor.
a canvas b brush
c easel d palette
MP3•26 Look at the words below. Which of them refer to artistic techniques and which to the subject matter of the paintings? Listen to ﬁve people talking about art and match the recordings to the terms. There is one extra term.
a engraving b landscape c nude
d self-portrait e still life f watercolour
6 Match the literary terms to their deﬁnitions. 1 act 2 scene
3 stanza 4 rhyme
a part of a poem or song, a group of lines b repetition of similar sounds usually at the end of lines in a poem or song, e.g. light – night c a play or film consists of these d a poetic comparison, e.g. my love is like a red, red rose e a traditional play is divided into these (often five)
Language and Culture The word verse has several meanings. 1 It is used in contrast to prose, for example: ‘Pan Tadeusz’ is written in verse. (wierszem) 2 It can mean the same as stanza: The ﬁrst two verses of this sonnet have four lines each. (zwrotki) 3 It can refer to a single line of poetry. (wers)
7 Complete the review with the words from the box. adaptation chapters characters descriptions narrator novel play plot
Atonement by Ian McEwan The opening 1_ of Atonement take place on a hot summer day in 1935 in a beautiful country house in Surrey. Thirteen-year-old Briony prepares a one-act 2_ she wants to stage for her family; Robbie, who’s just come home from university, writes a note to the girl he loves. By the end of the day the lives of these 3_ will be transformed forever. In the subsequent parts the action moves to wartime France. There are harrowing 4_ of the English retreat from Dunkirk and the horrors of a military hospital. It is not until the ﬁnal part of the book that we discover the identity of the 5_. With its gripping 6_, brilliant depiction of childhood, love and war, and highly original ending, Atonement is possibly McEwan’s best 7_. In 2007 a ﬁlm 8_ was made starring Keira Knightley and James McAvoy.
11 Match the sentences to the ﬁlm jobs they refer to. 1 Alan Ball became well-known after he won both a Golden Globe and an Oscar for his screenplay of American Beauty. 2 Gary Powell doubled for Pierce Brosnan as James Bond in the scene with the tank crashing through walls in GoldenEye. 3 Dozens of the most renowned British actors, such as Maggie Smith, Alan Rickman and Ralph Fiennes have portrayed characters in the Harry Potter films. 4 The visually spectacular Avatar and Alice in Wonderland won Robert Stromberg two Oscars for Best Art Direction in two years. 5 Thelma Schoonmaker has worked with director Martin Scorsese on the director’s cuts of nearly all his films. 6 In Richard Attenborough’s 1982 film Gandhi, 300,000 people were needed for the final funeral scene. a b c d e f
editor extras production designer screenwriter stuntman cast
✪✪✪✪✪ *Polish title: Pokuta
8 Complete the sentences with the words formed from the words in brackets. 1 Chinua Achebe was one of the first African _ (NOVEL). 2 The American _ (PLAY) Arthur Miller was married to Marilyn Monroe. 3 Modern _ (POET) often doesn’t rhyme. 4 I think the writer used this phrase _ (METAPHOR), not literally. 5 James Joyce’s Ulysses is a novel of great _ (COMPLEX).
12 Label the diagram with the words from the box. aisle box circle curtain gallery stage stalls 1 _ 2 _ 3 _
4 _ 5 _ 6 _
9 In pairs, tell each other about a writer you like. What do you like him/her for? Use some words from Exercises 6–8. 6
10 Choose the correct option.
Vertigo* by Alfred Hitchcock
The 1958 psychological thriller, 1 featuring / acting James Stewart as an ex-police detective who suffers from a fear of heights, is one of Alfred Hitchcock’s classics. It is 2 made / based on the French novel The Living and the Dead by the writing duo Boileau-Narcejac. The film is 3 set / placed in San Francisco and was 4 edited / shot on location, making use of the sloping streets and tall arching bridges of the city. Hitchcock himself 5 appears / stars briefly in the movie, walking down a street with a trumpet case in his hand. When Vertigo was first 6 published / released, it received mixed reviews; but today it is regularly included in lists of ‘greatest films of all time’.
*Polish title: Zawrót głowy
SŁOWNICTWO THE MEDIA
13 Complete the sentences with the words from the box. channels column coverage editorial gossip strip 1 The cartoon _ Peanuts by Charles M. Schultz was published continuously for 50 years. 2 Have you read the _ on the front page of The Guardian discussing the consequences of the USA budget crisis? 3 She writes a weekly _ on fashion in one of the newspapers. 4 The BBC’s live _ of the 2012 Olympics opening ceremony was watched by 24 million people in the UK alone. 5 We’ve got 300 _ on our digital TV. 6 Have you got nothing better to do than read about celebrities in the _ column?
Language and Culture A generation ago you could easily tell the type of newspaper by its size. Quality papers such as The Times or The Guardian were printed in broadsheet format, with pages 55 cm long or larger, and were referred to as broadsheets. Popular newspapers focusing on sensation and scandal, such as The Sun, used the smaller tabloid format, and were called tabloids. Today nearly all quality papers have switched to the smaller and more practical compact format. All newspapers are now similar in size and the traditional terms are becoming outdated. ADJECTIVES TO TALK ABOUT ART
MP3•27 Listen to ﬁve people talking about works of art. Match the recordings to the phrases which express what each speaker is talking about. There is one extra phrase.
a b c d e f
16 Cross out the wrong word. Match the idioms to their meanings. Which idioms come from the world of books (B), music (M) and visual arts (V)? 1 A museum trip instead of normal lessons? This news is music / art to my ears. 2 You mustn’t think Jeremy’s completely selfish. He’s not as black as he’s drawn / painted. 3 I’ve decided to turn over a new leaf / chapter. No more wasting time watching rubbish on the Internet! 4 I’m just going to put the finishing touches / details to this essay. 5 This is a sensitive situation and it’s important to strike the right tune / note in your speech. 6 She’s always played second ﬁddle / violin to her husband. They both treat his career as more important. 7 It’s not difficult to work out what Jack is thinking. He’s an open story / book. a say something that suits the occasion and pleases the listeners b start anew, change your life c a person that’s easy to understand d have a less important position e add the final details that make something complete f something I’m happy to hear g not as bad as people say
17 In pairs, describe the photo and answer the questions. Zadanie
true-to-life characters a far-fetched plot memorable lines a thought-provoking book an intriguing opening an eye-catching painting
15 Complete the sentences with the words from the box. There is one extra word. audience onlookers observers spectators viewers 1 About seventy thousand _ came to watch the World Cup Final at the stadium. 2 More than 500 million _ watched the live broadcast of man’s first walk on the Moon in 1969. 3 When the curtain went down after the final act, the _ gave the actors a standing ovation. 4 As the film stars arrived for the Oscar ceremony, there were cheers from a crowd of _.
1 Do you think the dancers are enjoying themselves? 2 Are you interested in any aspect of folk culture? Why?/ Why not? 3 Tell me about an outdoor cultural event you have attended.
SŁUCHANIE TEST WIELOKROTNEGO WYBORU (JEDEN TEKST)
MP3•30 Usłyszysz dwukrotnie wywiad na temat występu muzycznego. Z podanych odpowiedzi A–D wybierz właściwą, zgodną z treścią nagrania.
1 Joshua Bell A is an ordinary street performer. B has played to audiences in many countries. C has acted in several popular films. D wrote the music for a children’s TV show. 2 In the experiment, Joshua A stopped people to ask them for money. B performed for over an hour. C played a very difficult composition. D used the world’s most expensive instrument. 3 When Joshua performed in the underground station, A nobody was interested. B most people were unimpressed. C he got more money than he expected. D he earned several hundred dollars.
Trening Eliminowanie błędnych odpowiedzi
MP3•28 Listen to two short recordings and decide which statement, A or B, is true.
1 A No-one among the speaker’s friends is into classical music. B Most of the speaker’s friends are uninterested in classical music. 2 A The sound produced by playing glass bottles resembles a harmonica. B A rubber band can make a sound like a trumpet.
4 Quentin thinks that A outstanding musicians should busk more often. B Joshua played at the best time of day to earn money. C the passers-by were too busy to appreciate the music. D the only people who stopped to listen were children. 5 This conversation is about A the psychological effects of classical music on commuters. B how people’s expectations can influence their behaviour. C an attempt to make classical music more popular. D why children enjoy music more than adults.
Read Wskazówka. Then listen to a short interview with a busker (street musician) and answer the questions. MP3•29
1 What does the musician say about busking for a living? A It’s more fun than teaching music. B The money is better than in an office job. C He enjoys it more than other activities. D It only makes sense if you play eight hours every day. 2 What do we learn about organised busking on the London Underground? A Applicants must be professionally trained musicians. B Everyone who applies passes. C There is a fee to pay. D Buskers reserve the spots where they play. Wskazówka
: Błędne odpowiedzi są z reguły zbliżone do treści nagrania. Różnica, która sprawia, że są nieprawidłowe, może polegać na tym, że: • stwierdzenie jest nadmiernie uogólnione lub przesadzone, np. mówi, że „wszyscy” coś robią, podczas gdy w nagraniu są to „niektórzy”; • w nagraniu pojawia się sformułowanie, które jest użyte w pytaniu, ale dotyczy innej rzeczy lub osoby.
SŁOWNICTWO MP3•31 Listen to an extract from the interview and complete the gaps.
The 1_ is Joshua Bell, one of the world’s foremost classical musicians. He’s 2_ around the world, performed in the best 3_ _ with the world’s most famous orchestras and 4_ and 5_ many best-selling albums. He’s also played violin solos on the 6_ of Hollywood movies and he once appeared on the kids’ television programme ‘Sesame Street’.
5 What do you think about the event described in the interview? In pairs, discuss the questions below and your own ideas. What does the event tell us about: • Joshua Bell? • the people who heard him on the underground? • city life? • adults and children?
ŚRODKI JĘZYKOWE UZUPEŁNIANIE TEKSTU
1 Complete the text with one word in each gap.
The Mona Lisa, one of the world’s masterpieces, has been recreated with 3,604 cups of coffee and 564 pints of milk. Each coffee cup was filled with varying amounts of milk to create the different sepia shades of 1_ painting. The impressive twenty foot high and thirteen foot wide image took a team of eight people three hours to complete. It was created for The Rocks Aroma Festival in Sydney and seen by 130,000 people 2_ attended the event. Elaine Kelly, one of the event organisers, was delighted with the result. She said: ‘We wanted to create an element of surprise and a sense of fun in the way we engaged with the public. Once we came up with the idea, we had to 3_ a decision which painting to reproduce. We opted for the Mona Lisa because it’s been reproduced so many times in various mediums but, as 4_ as we know, never out of coffee. The result was fantastic.’
A N E W K I N D O F A R T ?
2 Match the gaps in Exercise 1 with the lexical or grammatical structures that you have used to complete the text. a zaimek względny wprowadzający zdanie przydawkowe b przedimek c wyraz będący częścią zwrotu lub wyrażenia d czasownik wchodzący w skład kolokacji Wskazówka 1 Do często sprawdzanych struktur gramatycznych i leksykalnych w zadaniu polegającym na uzupełnianiu tekstu należą: •
The longest I have ever travelled to attend a
concert is 6 hours.
• struktury różnego rodzaju: The Pulitzer Prize is regarded as the most prestigious prize in journalism and the arts. Winners are chosen by the Pulitzer Prize Board, which includes academics, editors and other arts executives. • kolokacje: The film is set in Ireland, but was filmed in the Isle of Man. • zwroty i wyrażenia: As a matter of fact it usually takes me ages to learn the lines of my part by heart.
3 Choose the correct option. 1 – / A / The polka is a fast and lively Central European dance that consists of energetic short half-steps, turns, spins and hops. 2 In my opinion, calling something – / an / the original piece of art does not mean that it is unique. 3 The museum covers an area of 10,000 m² and was opened to – / a / the public in 2000. 4 The singers’ performance received – / a / the huge amount of praise from the audience. 5 Leonardo da Vinci is renowned primarily as – / a / the painter. 6 All the money from today’s concert will be donated to – / a / the poor.
4 In pairs, answer the questions. 1 Have you ever been to a charity concert? What cause was the money collected for? 2 Do you think organising charity concerts is an effective way of collecting money for a good cause? Why?/Why not? STRUKTURY RÓŻNEGO RODZAJU
5 Replace the word which has been crossed out with the correct one. 1 When leaving the festival site, please pick up any litter you find, whether it’s your or not. 2 Claude Monet, that was a founder of the French Impressionist Movement, left Paris for Giverny and lived there for many years. 3 It wasn’t enough time to see all the exhibits at one go. 4 Some venues are already sold out, and many have only a little seats left. 5 The band didn’t have nowhere to rehearse, so they were allowed to use our school’s gym.
6 Complete the sentences with one word in each gap. 1 Getting children _ become library members and read more can improve educational standards. 2 _ more people turning to the Internet for news, newspapers will soon become a thing of the past. 3 Trailers and ads for films have _ or very little influence on cinema-goers. 4 _ more we acquaint young people with contemporary art, the better they become equipped to engage with culture as adults. 5 Most young people nowadays are not _ to attending cultural events.
7 Which sentences from Exercise 6 do you agree and disagree with? Why? Discuss in pairs.
8 Match the phrases to make collocations. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
complete shooting walk give the actors speak about the concert observe the actors discover the truth follow the director’s instructions
a b c d e f g
from a distance at a steady pace without question ahead of schedule by chance at length a standing ovation
9 Complete the sentences with one word in each gap. 1 I think novice writers should _ an effort to put aside flowery language and write concisely. 2 On hearing the news that he had not been selected for the part of Prince Charming, my son immediately _ into tears. 3 The actors spent an hour discussing the character’s motives only to reach the _ that his behaviour was totally unpredictable. 4 The news of the Oscar nomination _ as a big surprise for everyone. 5 Don’t get me _ – I’d really like you to come to the concert with us but all the tickets have sold out. ZWROTY I WYRAŻENIA
10 Put the words in the correct order to make phrases and expressions. 1 My decision to start writing a book was made __ (spur / the / moment / on / of / the), completely without plan. 2 The purchase of a National Art Pass might seem expensive, but __ (long / in / run / the) it will save you a lot of money. 3 I’d like to be able to paint with watercolours, but __ (other / the / on / hand) I enjoy the technique I’m using at the moment. 4 We have created a new website for library members; __ (to / up / it’s / you) if you want to use your current website or the new one. 5 __ (my / of / from / view / point), renting an audio guide at the museum was a definite benefit.
Po wpisaniu odpowiedzi do wszystkich luk przeczytaj tekst jeszcze raz, sprawdzając, czy stanowi on teraz logiczną i językowo poprawną całość. Zadanie
12 Uzupełnij tekst. Wstaw po jednym wyrazie w luki 1–4, tak aby otrzymać logiczny i poprawny gramatycznie tekst.
LANGUAGE IN BOOKS SHOWS HOW WE HAVE GROWN MORE SELFISH Are people more materialistic now than they were 200 years ago? 1_ to one study, this may be true. Analysis of words used in more than 1.5 million American and British books published between 1800 and 2000 has revealed how cultural values have changed in that time. Researchers found 2_ increase in the use of words like ‘choose’ and ‘get’ in the past two centuries. At the same time, they observed a decrease in the frequency of other words, 3_ as ‘obliged’ and ‘give’. What does this finding mean? The psychologists behind the study claim the shifts in language indicate how US and British society has grown more selfish as it has grown wealthier and more urban. Professor Patricia Greenfield, a psychologist who conducted the study, is now hoping to replicate the work with books in Spanish, French, Russian and Chinese to 4_ for global patterns in the culture shift reflected in literature.
11 Complete the sentences with one word in each gap. 1 Van Gogh was the first artist I fell in love with – it was love at first _. 2 As far as I am _, culture is what truly makes us human beings. 3 Mary was sitting on the sofa reading a book, when _ of a sudden tears started to trickle down her face. 4 To the _ of my knowledge, all of the Smithsonian museums in Washington DC are free. 5 _ a doubt, this exhibition brings to life several decades of ongoing changes in poster design.
I Me e Min
13 Do you agree with the conclusion drawn by the researchers? Why?/Why not?
Zdrowie • Sport You wouldn’t have won if we’d beaten you. Yogi Berra (b. 1925), American baseball player
SPRAWDŹ, ILE JUŻ UMIESZ
1 In pairs, read the headings below. How many words in each category can you think of? • • • •
Internal organs of the human body lungs Diseases diabetes Sports equipment baseball bat People in sport coach
THE HUMAN BODY
2 Match the parts of the body from the box to the functions they are involved in. arteries brain bronchi heart joints large intestine larynx lungs muscles neurons small intestine spinal cord stomach tendons veins 1 2 3 4 5
3 Complete the sentences with the words formed from the words in brackets. 1 Some of the accident victims had multiple _ (INJURE). 2 Spring is a hard time for those of us who are _ (ALLERGY) to plant pollen. 3 Exercise improves blood _ (CIRCULATE). 4 There’s nothing to worry about; the doctor says she’ll make a full _ (RECOVER). 5 Your doctor will prescribe the right _ (TREAT) or refer you to a specialist. 6 In developed countries _ (OBESE) is a public health problem. 7 Some health specialists believe sugar is an _ (ADDICT) substance.
4 Complete the sentences with the verb from each pair in the correct form. 1 injure • wound a Admiral Horatio Nelson was fatally _ at the Battle of Trafalgar. b Patrick got _ while skateboarding on a steep ramp. 2 cure • treat a You were _ for the wrong disease. No wonder it didn’t help. b Don’t worry, this disease can be _ in 95 per cent of the cases. 3 heal • recover a All you can do about a broken rib is be careful not to laugh or move too much, and wait for it to _. b My grandma was badly ill last month, but now she’s completely _. 4 suffer • diagnose a He was _ with a rare disease at an early age. b I have to be careful about my diet as I _ from diabetes. PHRASAL VERBS
5 Choose the correct option. Then answer the questions in pairs. 1 What do you usually do when you feel you’re coming down / away with a cold? 2 If you wanted to live more healthily, what would you cut in / down on? What would you cut off / out completely? 3 Do you remember a situation when you or someone else passed on / out? What happened? How soon did the person come round / up? 4 How can we avoid picking up / over infections at school or in other places with lots of people?
Zdrowie • Sport
MP3•32 Listen to four people talking about diseases. Match each speaker to the disease they are talking about. There is one extra disease.
a b c d e
10 Complete the text with the words from the box. amputated blind disability hearing-impaired wheelchair
7 Complete the text with the words from the box. tuberculosis smallpox cholera heart disease cancer plague
Human Health TOP KILLER DISEASES then and now
In the past, infectious diseases with no known cures were the greatest threat to humans. In the 14th century the Black Death epidemic killed approximately one third of the population of Europe. It was the 1_, a disease carried by ﬂeas on rats. In the 18th century 2_, which covers the whole body in blisters, caused 400,000 deaths a year in Europe and left survivors with permanent marks on their faces, and often blind. Today infectious diseases remain a major problem in poor countries. Among the most dangerous are 3_, which affects the lungs; 4_ and other diseases causing severe diarrhoea; and AIDS. In contrast, in developed countries the top killer diseases are lifestyle-related. The number one cause of death is cardiovascular disease, commonly known as 5_, followed by lung 6_, which is strongly linked to smoking. INJURIES
8 Choose the correct option. 1 If you have a deep cut you may need some crutches / stitches, and it is likely to leave a scar / bruise. 2 The usual treatment for concussion / an open fracture is plenty of rest until all the symptoms are gone. 3 A broken arm may be put in a scratch / cast and supported on a syringe / sling. 4 The school nurse put a bandage / plaster around my sprained wrist and told me to go to the hospital. 5 Monica injured her leg so badly that she has to walk on slings / crutches.
9 In pairs, answer the questions. Have you ever had an injury? What happened? How was it treated?
A WORLD FOR ALL
We have come a long way from the time when 1_ effectively excluded a person from society by making it extremely difﬁcult to work, study, travel or participate in social activities. Today we consider it obvious that buildings and public transport must be accessible to 2_ users. There are subtitles and sign language interpreters on TV to help deaf or 3_ viewers. A 4_ student may receive learning materials in Braille or audio form. People with 5_ limbs excel in sports. But there’s still a lot left to do. HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS
MP3•33 Listen to four people talking to health care professionals. Match the recordings to the professionals involved. There is one extra professional.
a paramedic b pharmacist c physiotherapist
d plastic surgeon e speech therapist
IDIOMS: SAYING HOW PEOPLE ARE
12 Cross out the wrong option in each idiom. 1 He seemed to be recovering, but last night he suddenly took a turn for the worse / bad. 2 I don’t know what it is, but I feel a bit under the climate / weather today. 3 You look exhausted. You should take a holiday to recharge / renew your batteries. 4 Don’t worry, in a few days you’ll be as right as rain / sunshine. 5 My granddad’s eighty-five and still going healthy / strong. 6 It’s a pleasure to look at Eva’s baby: he looks the picture / portrait of health.
13 Label the sports with the words from the box. fencing relay wrestling pole vault pool javelin high jump archery 1 _
MP3•34 The following words and phrases appeared in the recordings in Exercise 16. Match them to the sports they refer to. Listen again and check.
backhand basket forehand goal offside pitch serve set umpire striker (first/second) half (first/second) quarter hit the post slam dunk save a penalty three-point shot Basketball: _, _, _, _ Tennis: _, _, _, _, _ Football: _, _, _, _, _, _, _
Language and Culture
Pitch and court Football, rugby and cricket are played on a pitch. Basketball, volleyball, tennis, squash and badminton are played on a court.
4 _ SPORTS EQUIPMENT
18 Put the sports from the box in the categories.
One sport belongs to two groups. badminton baseball cricket golf hockey pool snooker squash tennis table tennis
6 _ 7 _ Played with a bat
Played with a club
Played with a cue
14 Match the words to make compound nouns. 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 Which of the sports in Exercises 13–14 do you enjoy watching? Why? 2 Which ones do you do? 3 Which ones have you tried? Did you like them? 4 Which ones would you like to try? MP3•34 Listen to three young people talking about matches they have played. Match each speaker to the sport they are talking about. There are two extra sports.
a Football b Volleyball c Tennis
Played with a stick
15 In pairs, answer the questions.
Played with a racket
d Basketball e Golf
19 Complete the sentences with the verbs from the box in the correct form. There is one extra word. beat hold host run score test 1 The FIFA World Cup is _ every four years. 2 A sportsperson who _ positive for performance-enhancing drugs is usually disqualified and may lose previously won titles. 3 If you want to _ a marathon, you need to start training many months in advance. 4 Every four years several countries compete for the privilege of _ the Olympic Games. 5 In the 2010 FIFA World Cup Spain _ the Netherlands 1:0.
Zdrowie • Sport
SŁUCHANIE DOBIERANIE ZDAŃ DO WYPOWIEDZI
20 In pairs, do the task below and answer the questions.
1 In pairs, discuss which spotring events you would choose to watch on TV and why?
Zadanie Popatrz na ilustracje 1, 2 i 3. Uczestniczysz w organizowaniu zimowego wyjazdu dla swojej klasy. Ilustracje przedstawiają materiały reklamowe trzech obozów. • Wybierz obóz, który uważasz za najodpowiedniejszy, i uzasadnij swój wybór. • Wyjaśnij, dlaczego odrzucasz pozostałe propozycje.
• • •
The Olympic Games an international football match an unusual or exotic sport
MP3•35 Usłyszysz dwukrotnie trzy teksty. Z podanych odpowiedzi A–C wybierz właściwą, zgodną z treścią nagrania.
1 Which headline is most suitable for this news bulletin? A MIXED RESULTS FOR UK SPORTS STARS B A DISAPPOINTING DAY FOR BRITAIN C SURPRISE AFTER SURPRISE ON BIG SPORTS DAY
2 Which of the following is stated in the text as a fact and not an opinion? A Camel racing is the Middle East’s favourite sport. B Traditional camel racing is cruel to children. C The robot jockeys are controlled by people.
3 Jim is talking to A a doctor. B a friend. C his sister.
SKI in the morning
CHILL OUT in the evening
SŁOWNICTWO MP3•36 Listen again to the last recording. Write down as many of the man’s health problems as you can. Compare your lists in pairs.
SŁOWNICTWO MP3•37 Listen again to the ﬁrst recording and complete the gaps.
1 Sprinter Kelly Rutherford has been knocked out in the first _ of the European Championships. 2 The British athlete _ a muscle while warming up and failed to _ the race. 3 There were no further goals in _ time and England lost the _ shootout. 4 Welsh cyclist Larry Collins has _ positive for the banned blood-doping treatment EPO.
5 Choose one of the situations below and tell a partner about it. You can talk about professional sports or about yourself and your friends. •
ice Land Every winter sport or activity you can think of
• • •
Someone you supported was eliminated in the first round of a competition. Someone had difficulty completing a race. A match was won/lost in extra time or through a penalty shootout. A well-known athlete tested positive for banned substances.
1 How popular are winter sports in Poland? 2 What are the advantages of trying many different sports?
C Z Y TA N I E TEST WIELOKROTNEGO WYBORU
Trening Fakt czy opinia?
1 Look at these statements. Which of them state
4 Przeczytaj dwa teksty. Z podanych odpowiedzi A–D wybierz właściwą, zgodną z treścią tekstu.
a fact? Which ones cite someone’s opinion? Mark them F and O.
1 Jason A had an ambition he knew he was unlikely to achieve. B could not talk to people when he was growing up. C didn’t particularly enjoy being the team manager. D had to take important decisions as team manager.
1 The National Basketball Association (NBA) was formed in 1949. 2 According to data collected from emergency departments, the most common sports injury is an ankle sprain. 3 Most coaches believe a 15-minute warm-up is the most effective way to prevent sports injuries. 4 The idea of ‘no pain no gain’ in sport is a dangerous myth, argues physiotherapist Linda Kay.
2 The coach let Jason play the last few minutes of the match because A he was sure that Jason would help the team win. B the fans wanted Jason to be given a chance to play. C it was a way to thank Jason for his dedication. D Jason had been the team’s best player that season.
2 In the sentences in Exercise 1 underline the words and phrases which helped you classify each statement as fact or opinion.
3 Read the text and the question below. Match the
3 In this text the author A explains how sport can help people who suffer from autism. B argues that disabled people can become top sports stars. C tells an inspirational story from the world of sport. D reveals the secrets behind a young man’s sporting success.
answers to the explanations.
Why dancing is good for you
Like any vigorous exercise, dancing protects you against cardiovascular disease by speeding up your heartbeat and boosting your blood ﬂow. It also improves ﬂexibility and coordination. But that’s not the end. Dancing is great for your mind too. Many dancers claim that it can lift their mood, probably as a result of endorphins being released into the blood. In a study on the impact of leisure activities on the risk of dementia in elderly people, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, dancing was found to signiﬁcantly reduce the risk of dementia. ‘I’m not surprised,’ comments dance coach Martin Norton. ‘I’d say the mental effort involved in dancing is just as intense as the physical effort.’
4 The author A takes drugs for high blood pressure. B is employed in a desk job. C is in his mid-forties. D runs marathons to keep fit. 5 Which of the following is stated in the text as a fact, not an opinion? A Exercise improves the condition of each part of the body. B A lack of exercise causes a variety of health problems. C People in the USA do less exercise than people in other countries. D Regular exercise is sure to prevent premature deaths.
Which of the following is stated in the text as a fact, not an opinion? A All vigorous exercise improves flexibility. B Dancing causes endorphins to be released into the bloodstream. C People who dance are less likely to suffer from dementia. D Dancing requires as much mental as physical effort. 1 This is not stated in the text. 2 This is stated in the text as an opinion. 3 This is stated in the text as a fact. Wskazówka
: Błędne odpowiedzi na pytanie o to, co podano w tekście jako fakt, mogą zawierać opinie cytowane w tekście (bez względu na to, czy autor się z nimi zgadza, czy nie) lub twierdzenia, które nie są zgodne z jego treścią. Opiniom mogą towarzyszyć takie sformułowania jak: It is (widely) believed that …; (sb) believes/argues/claims that …, probably. Fakty często zawierają dane liczbowe, którym mogą towarzyszyć takie zwroty jak: research shows, according to a recent study, experiments have shown.
SŁOWNICTWO Match the words in red in Text 2 to their deﬁnitions. Use the basic form of each word.
1 _, adj. – happening before the normal or expected time 2 _, adj. – energetic 3 _, n. – an illness in which a person has high blood sugar 4 _, n. – a drug or medicine
6 In pairs, answer the questions. 1 What is the most vigorous activity you do regularly? 2 What was your luckiest moment in sport?
Zdrowie • Sport
Never in his wildest dreams
ason was crazy about sport, particularly basketball. Whenever he had a chance, he would play with his friends or practise shooting baskets. He dreamed of playing for his high-school basketball team. Unfortunately, however, it seemed impossible that his dream would come true. For a start, there was his height: he was too short to be a top basketball player. Then there was the fact that at the age of two, Jason had been diagnosed with autism, a brain disorder that makes it difficult for people to communicate, to form relationships or to compete in team sports. Despite his disability, Jason never lost his passion for sport and always tried to keep fit. He also worked hard on his social skills. By the time he was eighteen, Jason had become the team manager of the Greece Athena high-school basketball team. His duties consisted mainly of bringing water for the players and cheering them on, but Jason was proud of his job and popular with the coach and his teammates. Eventually, the last home game of the season came around. Greece Athena were playing Spencerport High School in a local tournament. Eager to reward his team manager for all his hard work, coach Jim Johnson decided to give Jason a team jersey and let him sit on the bench with the other reserve players. As he pulled on his
jersey in the changing rooms, Jason wondered if at last, he might get a chance to play. In the final quarter of the match Greece Athena were leading by twenty points, so, feeling sure the match was won, coach Johnson told Jason to substitute a teammate. Jason was completely over the moon. At last, he was going to play for the team he loved. But never in his wildest dreams could Jason have imagined what was to happen next. There were just over four minutes left when Jason ran onto the court. Almost immediately a teammate passed him the ball and he tried a three-point shot. Unfortunately, he missed. Then, shortly afterwards he had another chance, for two points this time. He missed again. But for Jason it was third time lucky. He tried a three-pointer and this time the ball went through the basket. The crowd cheered. And then something amazing happened. Almost every time Jason got the ball, he shot and scored. As the crowd roared him on, Jason scored seven baskets – six three-point shots and one two-pointer. The final score was Greece Athena 79, Spencerport 43. When the final buzzer rang, the fans ran onto the court, cheering. In little more than three minutes, Jason had scored 20 points. He was the game’s top scorer. His dream had more than come true.
The workout pill: WHY EXERCISE IS THE BEST MEDICINE
T’S 9 am, time for my daily medication. I walk to the fire escape for my treatment. Twenty minutes later, I’m back in the office, feeling great. I’ve been taking this medicine for eight years, after developing high blood pressure when I was 45. I’d heard it could help reduce blood pressure and improve circulation. Amazingly, this drug is freely available to everyone. It’s up to you when you take it, and how much. And the more of it you take, the healthier you’ll be. What is it? It’s physical activity, anything from long-distance running to walking around your sofa while watching television. Many recent studies show that exercise protects us from heart attacks, strokes, diabetes, obesity, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and depression. It even boosts memory. And it has the potential to prevent more premature deaths than any other single treatment, with none of the side effects of actual medication. Many people believe it’s a wonder drug that helps every organ in the body. Because of technology and modern lifestyles humans have become inactive.
And this physical inactivity is killing us. In one study a lack of cardiorespiratory fitness was responsible for 16 per cent of all adult deaths. Conditions such as diabetes and obesity are also becoming more common. Millions of people worldwide suffer from type 2 diabetes and over a third of adults in the USA are clinically obese. The good news is we can do something about it. Scientific findings show that 150 minutes per week of moderate
exercise such as brisk walking, ballroom dancing or gardening, or 75 minutes of more vigorous activity such as cycling, running or swimming reduces the risk of premature death through heart disease by 40 per cent. Since I started running up and down the fire escape every day I no longer have high blood pressure. So get up and move. You may get stiff legs, aching muscles or even a twisted ankle, but you’ll feel better and live longer.
ŚRODKI JĘZYKOWE TEST WIELOKROTNEGO WYBORU
Gramatyka Czasowniki modalne
1 Read the text and choose the correct option. 1 2 3 4
A global A playing A will A from
B total B turning B shall B on
C overall C kicking C could C against
D whole D rolling D ought to D for
SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE AMONG CHILDREN? Half of all British seven-year-olds are not doing even the minimum recommended one hour of exercise each day. A study of almost 7,000 primary school children has found that sedentary lifestyles have become the norm among British children. In 1_, just thirty-eight per cent of girls and sixty-three per cent of boys aged seven did the recommended hour of exercise a day. Half of the children were sedentary for an average of 6.4 hours every day. The study has clearly revealed that more effort should be made to boost physical activity among children. To start the ball 2_, the UK needs campaigns to promote exercise among pupils, such as walking or cycling to school. Experts warn that something 3_ be done fast. On current trends, a large part of the adult population will suffer 4_ obesity related illnesses, such as diabetes and heart disease, in less than twenty years.
2 Match the gaps in Exercise 1 with the lexical or grammatical structures that you have used. a czasownik modalny b wyrażenie idiomatyczne
c przyimek d zwrot lub wyrażenie
3 Choose the correct option. 1 I’ve twisted my ankle again! I _ warmed up before starting the work-out. A might have C will have B should have D must have 2 You _ go for long exhausting runs every day to keep fit – a regular ten-minute walk will do. A may not C mustn’t B won’t D don’t have to 3 Last summer Rob came down with pneumonia and unfortunately _ on a class trip. A was not allowed to go C may not have gone B mustn’t go D didn’t need to go 4 The goal _ have been just good luck – he’s scored several others from the same distance. A mustn’t C can’t B needn’t D shouldn’t Gramatyka Przyimki
4 Each question below contains one incorrect preposition. Find it and correct it. 1 Which sports should be added to or removed off the Olympics? 2 Do you agree that people nowadays are too dependent from medicine? 3 Do you pay much attention to what you eat and try to eat your meals in a certain time every day? 4 What is your attitude on alternative medicine? 5 Are you capable for relieving stress yourself or do you need other people to help you deal with it?
Do często sprawdzanych struktur gramatyczno-leksykalnych w teście wielokrotnego wyboru należą:
5 In pairs, ask and answer the questions in Exercise 4.
• czasowniki modalne:
6 Choose the correct option.
We C so much time training for the semi-final. Our opponents had a walkover. A can’t have spent B might have spent
C needn’t have spent D should have spent
• przyimki: It’s important to let your doctor know if you think you may be allergic C penicillin. A for
• wyrażenia idiomatyczne: I did what I could. Now the ball is in your D . A pitch
• zwroty i wyrażenia: At first B , one might think that hockey and football do not have much in common. A view
1 The patient died _ bronchopneumonia within one month of initial assessment. A of B for C on D by 2 Excessive pressure at work can lead _ stress, which undermines performance. A in B against C for D to 3 A young surgeon was charged _ medical negligence after his patient’s accusations. A against B of C with D for 4 Sport science is the science of all the factors that contribute _ sports performance. A for B on C with D to
Zdrowie • Sport
7 Cross out the wrong word in the idioms. Then match the idioms to their meanings. 1 We have tickets for Wimbledon but it’s a secret, so don’t give the game off / away. 2 The doctor said we should play / feel it safe and get another set of X-rays done. 3 If you want to succeed in business, you must keep your leg / eye on the ball. 4 Robert is not bad, but he’s not in the same league / team as the others. a be not nearly as good as sb/sth else b spoil a secret or surprise by saying something that lets someone find out the secret c avoid risks d give all your attention to what is happening around ZWROTY I WYRAŻENIA
8 Match the words to make typical phrases and expressions. 1 2 3 4
by under without at any
a b c d
a doubt rate mistake the impression
9 In pairs, make sentences with the phrases in Exercise 8.
10 Choose the correct option. 1 Lambert was in a good position and stretched as high as he could, but the ball was out of _. A hand C reach B distance D fetch 2 I would like to say ‘good luck’ to Robert _ every player from the team. A instead of C as for B on behalf of D according to 3 I wanted to win the match _ all costs and just as much as my opponent. A for B at C against D with 4 I enjoyed my PE lessons at school on the _, but I was never good at team games. A whole B average C impression D sight Zadanie
11 Uzupełnij tekst. Z podanych odpowiedzi A–D wybierz właściwą, tak aby otrzymać logiczny i gramatycznie poprawny tekst. 1 A with B by 2 A used to be B will be 3 A part B extent 4 A spoke B voted
C as D for C was going to be D has been C size D degree C stood D put
‘THE GREAT ONE’ Wayne Gretzky represented Canada in ice hockey and served as their head coach. Nicknamed ‘The Great One’, he is widely considered the greatest hockey player of all time. Gretzky holds the record 1_ leading point-scorer in the history of the National Hockey League (NHL). No other player managed to score more than 200 points in one season. Gretzky‘s size and basic athletic abilities were not considered impressive. However, his intelligence and reading of the game were unrivalled, and he could consistently anticipate where the puck 2_ and execute the right move at the right time. Much has been written about Gretzky’s highly developed hockey instincts, but he once explained that what appeared to be instinct was, in large 3_, the effect of his relentless study of the game. Gretzky is also known for his sportsmanship. Throughout his career he often 4_ out against fighting and violence in hockey.
12 In pairs, answer the questions. 1 Had you heard of Wayne Gretzky before? 2 Which sportsman/woman do you admire most and why?
Nauka i technika Science is built up of facts, as a house is built of stones. But a heap of stones is not a house and a collection of facts is not necessarily science.
Henri Poincaré (1854—1912), French mathematician
SPRAWDŹ, ILE JUŻ UMIESZ
1 In pairs, read the headings below. How many words in each category can you think of? • • • •
2 Complete the gaps in each paragraph with the words from the box. Use the plural if needed. Astronomy universe planet galaxy Our Earth is just one of the 1_ orbiting a minor star in a 2_ which is just one of more than 170 billion in the observable 3_. Biology
3 Match the words from the box to the areas of science they refer to.
species cell habitat organism Bacteria are microscopic 4_, usually consisting of one 5_. They are present in most 6_ on Earth. It is not certain how many 7_ of bacteria there are, as not all of them have been described yet. Archaeology artefact excavation site tomb In 1922 the British Egyptologist Howard Carter was carrying out 8_ in the Valley of the Kings. At a 9_ known simply as KV62 he discovered stone steps leading to a doorway. After many weeks of careful work, he entered the now-famous 10_ of the pharaoh Tutankhamun, which contained an incredible number of precious 11_.
4 Match the expressions to the images at the top of the page. Which of the areas of science in Exercises 2 and 3 do they refer to? 1 2 3 4
a coordinate system bacteria a papyrus the solar system
5 In pairs, discuss which areas of science you ﬁnd most interesting and why.
Nauka i technika
6 Complete the table with the words for scientists. Area of science
MP3•38 Listen to four people talking about historic inventions. Match each speaker to the invention they are talking about. There is one extra invention.
a b c d e
Physics Chemistry Genetics Geography Astronomy
the steam engine gunpowder the printing press the microchip the jet engine
9 In pairs, discuss which of the inventions in Exercise 8 you think was the most useful and why.
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DISCOVERY
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY
7 Choose the correct option.
10 Complete the questions with the words from
Splitting the atom
the box. Answer the questions in pairs.
After the British physicist James Chadwick 1 invented / discovered the neutron in 1932, Enrico Fermi and his colleagues in Rome 2 carried out / made experiments in which they bombarded uranium with neutrons. Fermi thought he had 3 obtained / constructed chemical elements that were heavier than uranium. Not all physicists, however, were convinced by this interpretation of his findings. In Berlin, Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann tried to 4 do / duplicate Fermi’s results. Meitner, who was Jewish, escaped from Nazi Germany in 1938 and went to Sweden, but the work continued: paper reports were sent by post, then discussed over the phone. Hahn 5 confirmed / conducted more experiments, in which he obtained barium, a much lighter element than uranium. Meitner 6 analysed / rejected the results he sent her and 7 found / formulated the hypothesis that the uranium nucleus had split into two parts of comparable size, and that in the process some mass had been lost, which explained the large amount of energy released in the reaction. In 1939 Meitner’s collaborator Otto Frisch 8 confirmed / performed her and Hahn’s findings in further experiments and named the process ‘nuclear fission’. The two teams 9 published / printed their findings separately in different journals. Frisch realised that the discovery could be used to develop a new kind of weapon. He went to the USA to work on the atomic bomb, but Meitner refused to join the project. Of all those scientists, however, only Otto Hahn was 10 awarded / received the Nobel Prize in 1945 for the discovery of nuclear fission. N
U Nuclear fission • A neutron (N) hits a uranium nucleus (U). • The uranium nucleus splits into two lighter nuclei (Kr and Ba). • The reaction produces gamma radiation (γ), a great amount of energy (E), and free neutrons.
landline reception signal voice mail 1 How often do you check your text messages and your _? 2 Have you ever been on holiday in a place where you had no _ on your phone? How did you feel? 3 What do you do when the _ on the phone is so bad you can’t understand the other person? 4 Have you still got a _ at home? How often do you use it?
11 Choose the correct option. 1 Oh no, I’ve lost the printer / memory stick with my presentation on it! 2 Did the file you’re trying to find have the extension / folder .doc or .docx? 3 I’m waiting for an important message, so I have to keep checking my inbox / icon. 4 Make sure your computer is protected by a browser / ﬁrewall. 5 I’ve taught my grandma to attach all the peripherals / shortcuts to her computer: keyboard, printer, speakers and so on. 6 My new monitor has a better display desktop / resolution so I can watch videos in good quality.
Language and Culture You probably know these IT abbreviations, but do you know what they stand for? HD – high definition www – World Wide Web RAM – random access memory LCD – liquid crystal display DVD – digital video disc or digital versatile disc LED – light-emitting diode
12 Complete the sentences with the words from the box. Noun phrases: an attractive design a touch screen long battery life Adjectives: durable lightweight state-of-the-art user-friendly 1 I need an e-reader that’s small and _ so I can carry it in my pocket.
2 I’m not very good at using high-tech devices, so I always choose the most _ model of any gadget.
3 I prefer _ to a traditional keyboard.
4 I take my phone on sailing and mountaineering holidays, so it needs to be _.
5 I need a laptop with _, so I can work for several hours without charging it.
6 Style is important to me. I always choose gadgets with _.
MP3•39 Complete three dialogues at a Bed & Breakfast with the words from Exercise 14. Use the plural if needed. Listen and check.
1 Guest: Excuse me, I can’t find the _ for the TV in my room. B&B owner: Have you looked in the drawer under the TV? 2 Guest: Could you help me? I’d like to charge my phone, but my _ doesn’t seem to fit the _ in my room. B&B owner: Right, you’ve got one with a continental _, haven’t you? You need an _ to use that. I think we’ve got one somewhere. I’ll see if I can find it for you. Guest: Thank you. 3 Guest: Excuse me, the bedside lamp in my room doesn’t seem to be working, I don’t know, perhaps the _ needs changing? B&B owner: Have you turned on both _? There are two, you know, one on the lamp itself and one on the wall that turns on the power to the socket. Guest: Oh, I see. I’m sorry, that was my mistake then.
16 In pairs, answer the questions. Have you ever had a problem like one of the people in Exercise 15? What exactly went wrong? What did you do? PHRASAL VERBS
17 Choose the correct option. Answer the questions in pairs. 7 I’m very keen on the latest technology. It’s important to me to have _ gadgets.
13 In pairs, discuss which of the statements in Exercise 12 apply to you. USING SIMPLE APPLIANCES
14 Label the objects in the photos with the words from the box.
1 Has anyone in your family got an old watch or clock that has to be wound up / down? 2 Do your parents sometimes tell you to turn down / over the music? 3 Have you ever taken away / apart an electrical or electronic gadget and had problems putting it together / on again? 4 If you wanted to watch a film on the wall in your flat, where would you set up / off the projector? 5 When did your computer last freeze on / up? Do you know why? What happened then?
adapter charger (light) bulb plug remote control socket switch
7 _ 1 _
3 _ 2 _
Nauka i technika
SŁUCHANIE TEST WIELOKROTNEGO WYBORU (JEDEN TEKST)
1 In pairs, answer the questions.
1 What are some risks connected with using the Internet? 2 How can you protect yourself on the Internet? 3 What’s the most unbelievable Internet scam you’ve heard of?
18 Cross out the wrong option. Match the idioms to their meanings. 1 They were full of enthusiasm at the beginning, but then they ran out of steam / petrol and the project was never completed. 2 Our science teacher burned / blew a fuse when she found out we’d been doing experiments in the lab on our own. 3 Don’t reinvent the wheel / gunpowder. There’s a simple, well-known way to do this. 4 Next week’s match will be the acid experiment / test of Dave’s leadership as captain. 5 Come on, you can do it. It’s not rocket / space science. 6 Tom likes smartphones with all the bells and rattles / whistles. a extra features that make something special but don’t improve its basic function b a situation that proves how good someone or something is c got very angry d lost energy and motivation e not very difficult f look for a new way to do something if the old way works
19 In pairs, do the task below. Zadanie UCZEŃ A Chcesz kupić urządzenie elektroniczne podobne do tego, które ma kolega/koleżanka. Porozmawiaj z nim/nią na temat tego zakupu. Poniżej podane są cztery kwestie, które musisz omówić. Rozmowę rozpoczyna uczeń A. Rodzaj urządzenia Doświadczenia kolegi/koleżanki
Potrzebne funkcje Preferowana forma zakupu
UCZEŃ B Kolega/koleżanka (Uczeń A) pyta cię o radę, ponieważ masz urządzenie elektroniczne podobne do tego, które chciałby/chciałaby kupić. W zależności od tego, jak potoczy się rozmowa, wykorzystaj wszystkie lub wybrane zdania: • What functions are most important to you? • Sorry, I didn’t get that. (What’s that function you were talking about? I don’t think I’ve ever heard of it.) • I’m (satisﬁed / not really satisﬁed) with mine. • Personally, I wouldn’t (buy from that shop / buy an electronic device online).
MP3•40 Usłyszysz dwukrotnie wywiad na temat bezpieczeństwa w Internecie. Z podanych odpowiedzi A–D wybierz właściwą, zgodną z treścią nagrania.
1 What happened to Patrick? A He lost all his data after his computer crashed. B His digital identity was stolen and all his data was deleted. C All his electronic devices were stolen. D He couldn’t log on to the Internet because he forgot his passwords. 2 Patrick believes that A it’s easy to keep personal data safe online. B firewalls and anti-virus software are useless. C complicated passwords are no better than simple ones. D too many people use simple passwords. 3 Why did Patrick once write that his first pet was a teapot? A Because he thinks security questions are unnecessary. B As an example of how not to answer security questions. C In order to give a good answer to a security question. D To show how ridiculous some security questions are. 4 Patrick advises the listeners to A use long dictionary words in their passwords. B be careful before revealing sensitive data online. C use cloud computing to reduce the chance of identity theft. D avoid online banking services at all costs. 5 This interview would be of particular interest to A computer science graduates. B computer hackers. C police officers. D Internet users.
3 In pairs, role play the following situation. Student A: You are an elderly person beginning to use the Internet. You have heard it is risky and you are a bit worried. Ask Student B for advice. Ask for explanations of any unfamiliar ideas. Student B: Advise Student A on the following aspects of Internet security, using ideas from the recording and your own ideas. • Protective software • Usernames and passwords • Security questions • Internet scams
ŚRODKI JĘZYKOWE SŁOWOTWÓRSTWO
1 Read the text. Complete the gaps with the words formed from the words in brackets.
BRITISH TRAVELLERS SKYPE THEIR PETS
Do często sprawdzanych cząstek słowotwórczych w zadaniu na słowotwórstwo należą: • przyrostki przekształcające czasowniki w rzeczowniki oznaczające osoby (-er, -or, -ar, -ee, -ant, -ent): Web page designers (DESIGN) need to be very creative. • przyrostki przekształcające rzeczowniki w inne rzeczowniki oznaczające osoby (-ist, -ian): In this course you will learn how biologists (BIOLOGY) classify organisms. PRZYROSTKI
3 Complete the table with nouns which refer to people, formed from the verbs in the box. Make all the necessary spelling changes. train collect burgle manage lie employ supervise inspect beg supply -er
Which two verbs can also be changed into nouns by adding a suffix –ee? What do they mean?
4 Change the nouns below into nouns for people using Being able to connect online with family and friends of the human and furry varieties is now the top priority for travellers, research shows. Over half of British pet 1 owners (OWN) have admitted to Skyping their pets while travelling, and a quarter of parents have used visual 2_ (COMMUNICATE) methods like Skype and FaceTime to read their children a bedtime story. Internet access is now of the highest 3_ (IMPORTANT) to the modern traveller. Connecting with loved ones online is also the method of choice these days – almost half of the surveyed population would prefer to communicate with people back home over the Internet rather than using the phone. Wi-Fi access also appears to have a direct impact on travellers’ 4_ (HAPPY), with the majority saying free Internet would make them happier while travelling on business.
2 Match the gaps in Exercise 1 with the sufﬁxes that you have used to complete the text. a b c d
5 In pairs, discuss which of the jobs in Exercise 4 you would choose if you were to work in science and why.
6 Complete the gaps with words formed from the words in brackets. Sometimes you need to use plural forms. 1 Interviews for IT positions are competency based and are conducted by a trained _ (INTERVIEW). 2 Our _ (PAEDIATRICS) are sympathetic and responsive to all kinds of parents' concerns. 3 The Museum of Science and Industry is a must-see attraction for _ (VISIT) to Chicago. 4 A freelance IT _ (DEVELOP) is required on an immediate basis to develop an interactive eLearning portal. 5 _ (NEUROLOGY) disagreed over the causes of the patient's state. 6 Academic _ (SCIENCE) face challenges in obtaining funding to support their independent research efforts.
Nauka i technika
9 Complete the gaps with words formed from
the words in brackets.
Często sprawdzanymi cząstkami słowotwórczymi w zadaniu na słowotwórstwo są też: • przyrostki przekształcające czasowniki w rzeczowniki abstrakcyjne (-ence, -ance, -al, -age, -ment, -sion, -(a)tion, -ion, -y, -sis, -ure, -ing), We are planning to perform an experiment involving an investigation (INVESTIGATE) into the resistance of wire. • przyrostki przekształcające przymiotniki w rzeczowniki abstrakcyjne (-ence, -ance, -ity, -ty, -y, -cy, -(i)ness, -ion, -ment), Most of the previous research on the effects of darkness (DARK) investigated the issues of night visibility and traffic safety. • przyrostki przekształcające inne rzeczowniki w rzeczowniki abstrakcyjne (-hood, -dom). A new study suggests that people’s earliest childhood (CHILD) memories begin to fade when they’re about seven years old.
7 Change the verbs in the box into abstract nouns. Use
1 The _ (ABBREVIATE) for millimetre is ‘mm’. 2 The _ (EMPHASISE) of the study was on documenting people’s perceptions of education. 3 Our website is currently under construction. We’re sorry for any _ (INCOVENIENT) this may cause. 4 The reason for the _ (FAIL) of the experiment quickly became clear. 5 A certain amount of _ (STORE) space is reserved for your email on the university’s mail server. Wskazówka 3 W zadaniu tego typu bardzo ważna jest poprawna ortograﬁa. Każdy błąd ortograﬁczny równoznaczny jest z utratą punktu za wpisany wyraz. Zadanie
10 Uzupełnij tekst. Wstaw po jednym wyrazie w luki 1–4, przekształcając wyrazy podane w nawiasach, tak aby otrzymać logiczny i gramatycznie poprawny tekst.
appropriate sufﬁxes and write the words in the table. Make all the necessary spelling changes. improve use propose diagnose discover conclude enquire inform differ revise encourage limit analyse approve exist pass -ence
INNOVATIONS WEEK BY WEEK SENSORY FICTION A group of 1_ (RESEARCH) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has created a ‘wearable’ book which allows the reader to experience the protagonist’s emotions. Using a 2_ (COMBINE) of sensors, the book senses which page the reader is on and triggers vibration patterns through a special vest. Changes in the protagonist’s emotional or physical state trigger discrete feedback in the wearable vest by changing the heart or temperature.
8 Change the adjectives given into abstract nouns using appropriate sufﬁxes. Then write one more abstract noun that is formed using the same sufﬁx. Make all the necessary spelling changes. 1 2 3 4 5
A prototype story for creating the book was a science ﬁction novella. Its main protagonist experienced multiple emotions: deep love and ultimate despair, the freedom of Barcelona sunshine and the 3_ (CAPTIVE) of a dark damp cellar. A wearable book undeniably creates an immersive storytelling experience. However, it’s still to be seen whether the 4_ (ARRIVE) of this new invention will mark the beginning of a new era for readers, writers and publishers. 11 Would this invention make you more willing to read books? Why?/Why not?
Świat przyrody Whenever people talk to me about the weather, I always feel quite certain that they mean something else.
Oscar Wilde (1854 – 1900), Irish writer
SPRAWDŹ, ILE JUŻ UMIESZ
1 In pairs, read the headings below. How many words in each category can you think of? • • • •
Landscape features gulf Plants tulip Natural disasters hurricane Extreme weather heatwave e
2 Complete the text with the words from the box.
Use the plural if needed. coastline estuary island lake peak peninsula range river
Britain is an 1_. Its 2_ is over 12,000 kilometres long and extremely varied, with many bays, 3_ sticking out into the sea, and spectacular steep cliffs. The longest 4_ in the UK, the Severn, rises in Wales and flows through four counties to its 5_ near Bristol. The Grampians and the Cairngorms in Scotland are the highest mountain 6_ in Britain, and Ben Nevis at 1344 metres is the highest 7_. The largest 8_ in the UK are also found in Scotland, where they are called lochs (as in Loch Ness).
3 In pairs, talk about notable landscape features in Poland.
’ Hel is a long, thin peninsula near Gdansk. The highest mountain range in Poland is the Tatra. PLANTS
MP3•41 Listen to four students talking about their favourite seasons. Match each speaker to two photos.
Speaker 1 Speaker 2
Speaker 3 Speaker 4
MP3•41 Listen again and label the photos in Exercise 4 with the words from the box.
maple leaves chestnuts snowdrops crocuses spruce tangerine tree oak birch
6 In pairs, answer the question from Exercise 4. What’s your favourite season of the year? Why?
7 Complete the texts with the words from the box.
clover daffodil leek rose thistle
Language and Culture National plants Each of the countries of the British Isles has its own plant symbol.
The red and white Tudor 1_ is the traditional heraldic emblem of England. It goes back to the 15th century when Henry VII ended the Wars of the Roses between the House of Lancaster and the House of York, combining their two emblems into one.
Why is the 2_ an emblem of Scotland? Legend has it that a group of Scottish warriors who had fallen asleep were saved from a surprise attack by Vikings when one of the attackers stepped on this spiky plant with a bare foot and cried out in pain.
8 Answer the questions in the quiz with the names of animals from the box.
Which animals do this? hedgehogs European bison cuckoos house mice storks swans 1 Which birds lay eggs in other birds’ nests? 2 Which small spiky animals hibernate through winter? 3 Which large Polish birds migrate to Africa in autumn? 4 Which animals graze on grass in the summer, but in winter forest rangers leave hay for them in the forest? 5 Which birds mate for life and look after their young together? 6 Which small mammals can breed up to eight times a year?
9 In pairs, answer the questions. 1 Do you like watching animals in the wild? Why?/Why not? 2 Which of the animals in Exercise 8 have you seen? WEATHER MP3•42 Listen to someone talking about a day spent walking in England. Tick the kinds of weather she mentions. Which two kinds of weather did she not experience?
1 2 3 4
sunshine rain fog clouds
Wales has got two plant symbols. The 3_ is the older one. According to legend, a Welsh king once ordered his soldiers to put these vegetables on their helmets to identify themselves in a battle which took place in a vegetable field. In the 19th century it was felt that the symbol was not elegant enough to wear on national holidays, and since then it has sometimes been replaced with the 4_.
5 6 7 8
a thunderstorm snow wind extreme temperatures
A young leaf of 5_, known as the shamrock, is the symbol of Ireland. According to legend, Saint Patrick used it to explain the Christian idea of Trinity to the Irish.
MP3•42 Listen again and complete the table with weather words from the recording. The ﬁrst one has been done as an example.
mild / light extreme vapour in the air
12 Put the words from the box in two categories. chilly freezing scorching frosty sweltering warm or hot: _, _ cold: _, _, _
13 In pairs, tell each other about the most extreme weather you have experienced. NATURAL DISASTERS
14 Match the natural disasters to the sentences describing their causes. Underline the words which helped you choose the correct answers. There are two extra disasters. 1 drought 2 earthquake 3 volcanic eruption
4 flood 5 tsunami 6 typhoon
a It’s also known as a tidal wave, and may be caused by an underwater earthquake or volcanic eruption, or an underwater explosion. b Generally, this occurs when a region receives consistently below average rainfall. c It can happen when a river overflows after a heavy rainfall or when snow melts, or as a result of the a failure of a dam. d It is often caused by the movement of tectonic plates, but may also be the result of volcanic activity.
SŁOWNICTWO 18 In pairs, do the task below and answer the questions.
15 Complete the text with the words from the box. climate effect waste emissions fossil greenhouse methane warming
What is your ‘carbon footprint’? You’ve all heard about the greenhouse 1_: certain gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide (CO2), stop heat from escaping into space. For millions of years this natural mechanism has made the Earth warm enough to live on. But when the amount of those gases increases dramatically as a result of human activity, the process of global 2_ gets out of hand, leading to dangerous 3_ change. Carbon dioxide 4_ can be compared to a footprint
because they are a lasting sign of human presence and activity, which will remain on Earth after we are gone. That’s why the total amount of 5_ gases (carbon dioxide and 6_, CH4) produced by a person, company or country, or by a speciﬁc event, is called their ‘carbon footprint’. People and companies can reduce their carbon footprint by using less energy, especially energy from 7_ fuels, and limiting the amount of 8_ that goes into landﬁlls.
Zadanie Spójrz na ilustracje 1, 2 i 3. Wraz ze znajomymi chcecie zorganizować działania ekologiczne w swojej miejscowości. Zastanawiacie się nad jedną z trzech poniższych akcji. • Wybierz akcję, która, twoim zdaniem, jest najbardziej potrzebna w waszej okolicy, i uzasadnij swój wybór. • Wyjaśnij, dlaczego odrzucasz pozostałe propozycje.
Car-Free Day 2
16 Choose the correct option. Answer the questions in pairs.
HOW ‘GREEN’ ARE YOU?
Plant a tree on Earth Day
1 Do you sort / save rubbish for recycling? 2 How do you waste / conserve water and energy at home? 3 Do you avoid buying unnecessary things and make an effort to recycle / consume less? 4 Have you ever planted / felled a tree? 5 Do you avoid / promote driving and cycle or use public transport whenever possible? IDIOMS
17 Complete the idioms with the words from the box.
NEIGHBOURHOOD GARAGE SALE
Match the idioms to their meanings. cat (x2) crow fish fly 1 The other people at the event seemed very different from him and Joe felt like a _ out of water. 2 It’s 500 miles from here to London as the _ flies. By road it will be more. 3 I don’t believe Mike has hit anybody. He wouldn’t hurt a _. 4 My flat is tiny. There’s no room to swing a _. 5 What have you been doing? You look like something the _ brought in! a dirty and untidy b is very gentle c awkward or insecure because you’re in an unfamiliar situation d It’s very cramped e in a straight line
Your rubbish is another person’s treasure : ) 1 Do you think events such as these really make a difference? 2 How popular are environmental events in Poland?
SŁUCHANIE TEST WIELOKROTNEGO WYBORU (TRZY TEKSTY)
Trening Fakt czy opinia
MP3•43 Read the question. Listen to a student talking about Alaska and match the options to the explanations.
Which is stated in the recording as a fact, not an opinion? A It’s always cold in Alaska. B It can get very hot in Alaska. C The midnight sun doesn’t bother Alaskans. 1 This is the speaker’s opinion. 2 This is an opinion which according to the speaker is mistaken. 3 This is a fact observed by the speaker (and the correct answer to the question).
Listen again to three extracts from the recording and complete the gaps. MP3•44
1 One _ _ about Alaska is that … 2 When I was there in the summer, on some days it was _ _ _ _. 3 The local people _ used to it, or at least that was _ _. Wskazówka : Jeśli odpowiedź na pytanie wymaga rozróżnienia faktów od opinii, pamiętaj, że: • fakty mogą być poparte liczbami lub powołaniem się na badania lub pomiary (studies, a survey, records), • opinie mogą być opiniami mówiącej osoby lub zasłyszanymi przez nią poglądami innych. Mogą im towarzyszyć zwroty takie jak: I think, It seems (to me), One popular idea is that …, It was my impression that …
SŁOWNICTWO Match the words to make collocations. Which of these kinds of weather have you experienced recently?
1 2 3 4
overcast gale-force torrential freezing
a b c d
rain temperatures skies winds
MP3•46 Which types of energy sources does the ﬁrst speaker say the following about? Complete the statements with the words from the box. Listen again to Recording 1 and check.
biofuels fossil fuels renewable energies seaweed 1 _ cause global warming. 2 _ are still unreliable. 3 _ can cause food shortages and be harmful to the environment. 4 _ may solve our energy problems.
6 In pairs, discuss which of the energy sources mentioned in the recording you think your country should invest in and why.
MP3•45 Usłyszysz dwukrotnie trzy teksty. Z podanych odpowiedzi A–C wybierz właściwą, zgodną z treścią nagrania.
1 What is the episode of PlanetWatch about? A The effect of global warming on agriculture. B A potential new source of green energy. C The advantages of renewable energies. 2 The speaker tells her audience the story in order to A condemn the death of an ecological activist. B motivate them to prevent an environmental disaster. C demonstrate how a tree in India benefits its ecosystem. 3 Which of the following is stated in the conversation as an opinion and not a fact? A Recently, the weather in England has been unfavourable. B It has never been so dry in Australia in modern times. C A natural disaster in South America had serious consequences.
C Z Y TA N I E TEST WIELOKROTNEGO WYBORU
1 Have you ever watched animals in the wild?
A real-life experience
Where was it and what did you see?
2 Match the words to the deﬁnitions. 1 2 3 4 5 6
herbivore bristle snout tusk predator prey
a a long, pointed tooth, such as elephants or wild boar have b a short stiff hair c an animal that eats plants d an animal that hunts other animals and eats them e an animal that is hunted and eaten by another animal f the long nose and mouth of some animals, e.g. pigs, dogs and crocodiles Zadanie
3 Przeczytaj dwa teksty związane z rzeką Zambezi. Z podanych odpowiedzi A–D wybierz właściwą, zgodną z treścią tekstu. 1 On the day he was attacked, Paul Templer A was hoping his clients would see the large hippo. B was in a boat with Evans and two clients. C hid from the hippo behind some rocks. D attempted to save the life of a colleague. 2 The hippo A attacked Paul after he touched Evans’ hand. B caught Paul by the legs during the first attack. C held Paul under the water for some time. D let Paul go when Mike intervened. 3 The author of this text A explains how to survive an attack by a hippo. B describes the impact of tourism on wildlife. C illustrates how fears can be overcome. D shows how teamwork can save lives. 4 Which of the following is stated in Text 2 as an opinion and not a fact? A Victoria Falls is the most impressive waterfall in the continent of Africa. B Victoria Falls has the greatest annual volume of water of any waterfall. C Holidaymakers enjoy swimming in the river above Victoria Falls. D The Zambezi is the most challenging place for extreme water sports. 5 In both texts, the authors A discuss the dangers of wild animals. B mention leisure activities on the Zambezi. C give detailed information about the Zambezi. D describe the climate of the Zambezi.
4 In pairs, discuss whether you would like to go on a trip down the Zambezi to the Victoria Falls and why.
Swallowed by a hippo It takes courage to risk your life for another person. And it takes courage to return to a place where you almost died. Paul Templer was a guide on the Zambezi river. He took tourists on boats down the river near Victoria Falls. On several occasions an enormous 2,000-kilo male hippo had tried to attack him. Hippos in the wild are herbivores that graze on grass, but they can be aggressive. This one seemed to enjoy hunting people. Paul knew to avoid it. One day Paul and three colleagues, Mike, Ben and Evans, had taken some clients out in kayaks. They were enjoying the unspoilt beauty when suddenly there was a loud thump. Paul turned to see Evans ﬂying through the air. His boat was sitting half out of the water on the back of the huge hippo. The two clients were still in the boat. Paul yelled for everyone to head for the safety of some nearby rocks. Then, bravely, he paddled towards Evans. He reached for the younger man’s outstretched hand but as their ﬁngers were about to touch, Paul was suddenly plunged into complete darkness. It was as if he had gone blind and deaf. His legs were in water, but his top half was almost dry. There was a smell like rotten eggs and a huge pressure against his chest. Although his arms were stuck, he managed to free one hand. He felt the wiry bristles of a snout. Only then did he realise where he was. Underwater, trapped from head to waist in a hippo’s mouth. Paul wriggled hard, and when the hippo opened its jaws, he escaped. He swam towards Evans, but the beast
SŁOWNICTWO Match the verbs in red in Text 1 to their deﬁnitions. Use the inﬁnitive forms.
1 2 3 4
struck again, dragging him back under and biting him with its huge tusks and sharp teeth, like a cruel predator with its helpless prey. The hippo took him down to the bottom of the river. Paul wondered how long he could hold his breath. Suddenly, the hippo spat Paul out. He swam to the surface where Mike helped him into his kayak and paddled to safety. Paul’s left arm was crushed and he had deep wounds on his chest and back. At the hospital, the surgeons managed to save Paul’s life but they couldn’t save his left arm. Evans, however, was not so lucky. His body was found downriver two days later. It took great courage, but once he’d recovered, Paul returned to work. Two years later he was leading another expedition down the Zambezi. As they drifted past the stretch where he and his colleagues had been attacked, a huge hippo leapt from the water. Paul felt sure it was the same hippo that had almost killed him. For one dreadful moment, he thought it was going to attack him again. Fortunately, however, the hippo dived back under the water. Paul confronted his fears and survived. He never saw the hippo again.
_ – be carried slowly by water _ – jump or fall suddenly and quickly _ – jump very high or with great force _ – move through water in a boat using a paddle, a short piece of wood that is wide and flat at the end 5 _ – pull (someone or something that is heavy or unwilling to move) 6 _ – twist from side to side with small quick movements 7 _ – press something so hard that it breaks
SŁOWNICTWO Complete the questions with the correct form of the verbs from Exercise 5. Answer the questions in pairs.
1 Can you _ a canoe? 2 Do you like to _ into water on a hot day or do you prefer to walk in gradually? 3 When did you last have to _ something that was too heavy to carry? What was it? 4 What was the highest thing you’ve ever _ over?
The ZAMBEZI RIVER
he Zambezi river flows for over 2,500 kilometres from its source 1,424 metres above sea level in north-west Zambia to its estuary in the Indian Ocean. It traverses dense forests, grasslands, wide floodplains and narrow gorges before reaching the coastline of Mozambique. On the Zambezi along the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe is one of the world’s most astounding waterfalls: Victoria Falls. The local Koloko people call it ‘Mosi-oa-Tunya’, ‘The Smoke That Thunders.’ The name is no exaggeration. The rainy season on the upper Zambezi begins in November. When the river is in full flood in April, 3,000 m3 of water crash over Victora Falls every second. It is the largest sheet of falling water in the world. It falls over a cliff that is 108 metres high and 1,708 metres wide creating a thunderous noise and thick clouds of mist rising hundred of metres into the sky. When the moon is full, a rainbow, or ‘moonbow’, can be seen in the mist at night. Along the edge of the falls are several islands and a natural pond called the Devil’s Pool. During the dry season from September to January tourists swim in the pool right up to the edge of the falls. The high humidity from the falls forms a microclimate permitting the growth of the lush vegetation typical of a rain forest. Below the falls, the river twists and turns through a series of spectacular gorges. Many say it’s the world’s most demanding route for white-water rafting and kayaking. After flowing through two large man-made lakes, the river becomes wider and shallower until it reaches the ocean. In some places it is 8 kilometres wide. Along the Zambezi is a huge population of wildlife including hippos, crocodiles, monitor lizards and many species of birds. The riverside woodlands are also the habitat of many larger mammals such as elephants, zebras and giraffes.
ŚRODKI JĘZYKOWE PARAFRAZY ZDAŃ
1 Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the original sentences. Use the words in brackets but do not change their form. You can use a maximum of ﬁve words in each gap. 1 We need to conduct a survey into people’s attitudes towards recycling. (CARRY) We need to carry out a survey into people’s attitudes towards recycling. 2 Unfortunately big companies don’t try to lower CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. (ONLY) If __ to lower CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. 3 I’m sure you learnt about renewable energy and alternative energy sources at school. (MUST) You __ about renewable energy and alternative energy sources at school. 4 Most companies increased their water efficiency but failed to limit their impact on local water resources. (FACT) Most companies failed to limit their impact on local water resources despite __ their water efficiency. 5 We seldom speak about the importance of birds in our environment. (EVER) Hardly __ the importance of birds in our environment.
2 Match the sentences in Exercise 1 with grammar structures that you have used to complete the paraphrases. a b c d e
Wskazówka 1 Do często sprawdzanych struktur gramatycznych w zadaniu polegającym na parafrazach zdań należą: • czasowniki modalne: It’s possible that all species of this bird became extinct many years ago. (MIGHT) All species of this bird might have become extinct many years ago. • zdania okolicznikowe: In spite of all the precautions taken by the transport company, oil spilled into the sea. (EVEN) Oil spilled into the sea even though the transport company took all the precautions. • czasowniki frazowe (phrasal verbs): The local meteorological bureau plans to establish an ecological weather station in the mountainous area. (UP) The local meteorological bureau plans to set up an ecological weather station in the mountainous area.
• konstrukcje I wish i If only oraz inne wyrażające życzenia: It was a mistake to set off hiking in torrential rain. (WE) I wish we hadn’t set off hiking in torrential rain. • inwersja: The Green Party didn’t really realise the implications of the Prime Minister’s decision. (REALISE) Little did the Green Party realise the implications of the Prime Minister’s decision. Gramatyka Czasowniki modalne
3 Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the original sentences. 1 It’s a shame they did nothing to reduce traffic congestion in the capital city. They ought __ to reduce traffic congestion in the capital city. 2 Perhaps Paul is now preparing his Biology presentation about acid rain. Paul may now __ his Biology presentation about acid rain. 3 I’m sure the oil spill was not as serious as the media were trying to make it look. The oil spill __ as the media were trying to make it look. 4 It was not necessary for me to revise all the facts and myths about global warming for the test. I __ all the facts and myths about global warming for the test. Gramatyka Zdania okolicznikowe
4 Choose the correct linking words. Join our debates and share your passion for the environment with others! 1 The world’s environmental problems will not be solved since / until / so that people limit their desire for material consumption. 2 Although / Despite / However we rely on energy for many things, not many people know how to use it effectively. 3 Most people won’t recycle nevertheless / unless / despite they are obliged to do so by law. 4 By 2100 many big cities will have become uninhabited as a result / due to / because air pollution.
5 In pairs, choose one or two sentences from Exercise 4 and discuss them.
CZASOWNIKI FRAZOWE (PHRASAL VERBS)
6 Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the original sentences. Use the words in brackets but do not change their form. 1 Scientists are trying to estimate how many species will become extinct due to climate change. (OUT) Scientists are trying to estimate how many species __ due to climate change. 2 One way to conserve natural resources is to reduce electricity consumption. (DOWN) One way to conserve natural resources is __ electricity consumption. 3 All construction was cancelled and the area was turned into a national park. (OFF) All construction __ and the area was turned into a national park. 4 The government are planning to abolish the Environmental Protection Agency. (AWAY) The government is going to __ with the Environmental Protection Agency. Gramatyka
Konstrukcje I wish i If only oraz inne wyrażające życzenia
7 Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the original sentences.
I WANT TO BE GREEN!
I’ve just come back from the workshops our school organised to celebrate Earth Day and I’ve realised that my family and I have a long way to go to become green.
1 I think we should start sorting rubbish into recyclable materials and general waste. → It’s high time _ rubbish into recyclable materials and general waste. 2 My father often leaves the lights on when he goes out and it drives me mad. → If only he _ when he goes out. 3 My mother never uses recyclable bags while shopping. → I wish _ recyclable bags while shopping. 4 I don’t want my sister to run the washing machine with half a load of laundry → I’d sooner _ the washing machine with half a load of laundry. 5 I regret we didn’t buy an eco-friendly electric car last year. → I wish _ an eco-friendly electric car last year.
8 In pairs, discuss the ‘green ideas’ from the blog in Exercise 7. Which of them do you think are the most effective in protecting the environment and why?
Gramatyka Inwersja i inne wyrażenia emfatyczne
9 Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the original sentences. 1 I haven’t often met such strong supporters of genetic engineering. Seldom __ such strong supporters of genetic engineering. 2 We weren’t aware at any time that we had pitched our tent on protected sand dunes. At no time __ that we had pitched our tent on protected sand dunes. 3 The second wave of the flood hit just after we left our house. Scarcely __ when the second wave of the flood hit. 4 You are never ever allowed to feed wild ducks – artificial feeding is harmful to the wildlife population. Under no circumstances __ to feed wild ducks – artificial feeding is harmful to the wildlife population. Wskazówka 2 Zadanie polegające na parafrazach może występować w dwóch postaciach: w pierwszym rodzaju tekstu podane są początek i koniec nowego zdania, a w drugim – dodatkowo wyraz lub wyrażenie, którego należy użyć w dowolnym miejscu wpisywanego fragmentu zdania. Zadanie
10 Uzupełnij zdania, wykorzystując wyrazy podane drukowanymi literami, tak aby zachować znaczenie zdania wyjściowego. Nie zmieniaj podanych fragmentów i formy wyrazów w nawiasach. W każdą lukę możesz wstawić maksymalnie pięć wyrazów. 1 Could you repeat what you said about the natural habitat of the Siberian tiger? (MIND) Would __ what you said about the natural habitat of the Siberian tiger? 2 I think advertisers should stop promoting a consumerist lifestyle. (TIME) It’s __ promoting a consumerist lifestyle. 3 Ecological protesters didn’t only stage the demonstration, they also demanded to talk to a government official as well. (ONLY) Not __ the demonstration, they also demanded to talk to a government official. 4 Some environmentalists say that in 100 years the world will have used up all its natural resources. (RUN) Some environmentalists say that in 100 years the world __ all its natural resources.
Państwo i społeczeństwo Democracy is the name we give to the people whenever we need them. Robert, Marquis de Flers (1872-1927), French playwright
SPRAWDŹ, ILE JUŻ UMIESZ
1 In pairs, read the headings below. How many words in each category can you think of? •
Government and politics
supply and demand •
burglary THE STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT
2 Match the photos of people to the captions. 1 Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 1940–1945 and 1951–1955 2 John F. Kennedy, President of the United States 1961–1963 3 Hillary Clinton, US Secretary of State 2009–2013 4 Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom and Ireland 1837–1901
3 Match the names of the buildings to their functions. 1 2 3 4
10 Downing Street Buckingham Palace The White House The Pentagon
a The headquarters of the US Department of Defence b The London residence of British monarchs c The official residence of the President of the United States d The residence and office of the Prime Minister of Great Britain
4 Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs from the box. There is one extra verb. administer control implement interpret pass punish represent
THE THREE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT The models of government used in the UK and the USA are based on the idea of the separation of powers. •
The legislature In the UK this is the Parliament and in the USA the Congress. The chief role of the legislature is to 1_ new laws. It also 2_ the budget of the country.
The executive Executive power is vested in the president and/or prime minister and his or her cabinet. The executive is responsible for 3_ the laws passed by the legislature and for 4_ the country (that is why it is sometimes called the administration).
The judiciary The courts 5_ and apply the law; they 6_ offenders and resolve disputes.
Państwo i społeczeństwo
5 In pairs, describe the system of government in Poland.
11 Choose the correct option. 1 When the supply / demand for a certain good is high, its price is likely to go up. 2 Poland exports / imports coal and deep-frozen fruit. 3 The project will have to be stopped as it’s making a proﬁt / loss. 4 Our country is currently experiencing an economic boom / downturn; GDP is falling and unemployment is going up. 5 Jobs in the public / private sector are sometimes less well-paid but often more secure than in commercial enterprises. 6 The government is planning to cut income / expenditure on higher education. 7 If you want to work in domestic / foreign trade, it helps if you can speak several languages, ideally including Chinese.
CIVIL RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES
6 Match the rights and liberties to their explanations. Underline the words and phrases which helped you choose the correct answer. 1 2 3 4 5
Freedom of conscience Freedom of speech and expression Freedom of assembly and association Universal suffrage The rights of the accused
a The right to communicate ideas and opinions freely, without censorship, as long as such communication does not violate the rights of others. b The right to a fair trial; the right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty and to be represented by a lawyer. c The right to hold any moral or religious views. d The right to gather in public places and to form, join or leave organisations. e The right of all adult citizens to vote, without restrictions based on sex, race, social status, or wealth.
12 Complete the sentences with words formed from the word economy. 1 I’d like to study _ at university. 2 _ growth doesn’t necessarily improve the quality of life. 3 John Maynard Keynes was a British _ whose ideas have influenced government policies around the world. 4 Perhaps we should look for a more _ solution. I’m sure the cost doesn’t need to be this high. 5 If we _ now, we’ll have more money for the holidays.
Language and Culture The US Bill of Rights The first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States, ratified in 1791 and known as the Bill of Rights, detail fundamental civil liberties: freedom of religion, speech and assembly, the right of accused persons to ‘due process of law’, and, famously and controversially, the right to bear arms.
WAR AND CONFLICT
13 Complete the sentences with words formed from the words in brackets.
1 The American Civil War was the largest-scale _ (ARMS) conflict on American soil, resulting in about one million _ (CASUAL). 2 The _ (ASSASSINATE) of Mohandas Gandhi in 1948 caused nationwide mourning in India. 3 The _ (TREAT) of Versailles in 1919 ended the First World War, but may have contributed to the _ (BREAK OUT) of World War II twenty years later. 4 The Vietnam War is infamous for the large number of _ (CIVIL) killed by both sides.
7 Use the words below to form nouns referring to socio-political issues. a b c d e
In trouble with the law? These are your rights. People accused of a crime have certain rights. The police cannot 1_ their home without a warrant. In the UK, when a person is arrested, they cannot be held in custody longer than twenty-four hours unless they have been formally 2_ with a specific crime. An accused person awaiting trial should be 3_ on bail unless there are reasons to suspect they will run away, 4_ further crimes, or interfere with witnesses. If the person is 5_ guilty of the crime, they can 6_ against the conviction. Finally, a person who has been 7_ to imprisonment has the right to 8_ his or her prison sentence in humane conditions.
their meanings. 1 The new regulations on social media come into force / power today. 2 There was an expectant hush as the Minister of Defence took the chair / ﬂoor. 3 New facts in the latest corruption scandal have just come to light / surface. 4 If we don’t come up with a new strategy, the company will go / become bust in a few months. 5 Matters went / came to a head when the president ordered the opposition leaders to be arrested. a b c d e
get ready to speak reach a critical moment go bankrupt become the law be revealed
19 In pairs, describe the photo and answer the questions. Zadanie
17 Complete the headlines with the following prepositions: down, in (x2), off (x2), out, up, about. 1
Ministry breaks _ negotiations with green activists
WE WILL NOT GIVE _ TO PRESSURE, SAY PROTESTERS
PM promises to invest _ education
New government vows to bring _ economic recovery
EUROPE LIKELY TO COME _ OF RECESSION WITHIN A YEAR, STUDY SUGGESTS
WHO WILL PAY _ OUR DEBTS?
YORKSHIRE FAMILY FIRM SETS _ A BRANCH IN CHINA
MINISTER STEPS _ AFTER CORRUPTION SCANDAL
1 What do you think the woman is saying? 2 Do you believe it is important to vote? Why/Why not? 3 Tell me about a political event that was important to you or to someone you know.
Państwo i społeczeństwo
SŁUCHANIE TEST WIELOKROTNEGO WYBORU (JEDEN TEKST)
1 In pairs, answer the questions.
1 What is an economic crisis? 2 What can cause it? 3 Which of the following do you think governments should do in times of economic crisis? Why? • • • •
1 International trade _ _ by over 50%, unemployment _ sharply and profits and prices _. 2 But I don’t think the government should _ borrowing to pay for public works. 3 The debt would _ and _ until the entire country was bankrupt.
cut public spending raise taxes create jobs invest in research and education
SŁOWNICTWO MP3•50 Listen to three extracts from the recording and complete the gaps.
SŁOWNICTWO Put the verbs from the box in two
MP3•49 Usłyszysz dwukrotnie wywiad z politykiem na temat przeciwdziałania skutkom kryzysu gospodarczego. Z podanych odpowiedzi A–D wybierz właściwą, zgodną z treścią nagrania.
decrease grow drop go up go down rise fall increase
1 John says that A the banks knew how to solve the stock market crash of 1929. B today’s recession has nothing in common with The Great Depression. C a lack of consumer confidence is damaging the economy. D companies should reduce their workforces to prepare for the future. 2 What does John think governments should do to solve the economic crisis? A Increase public spending to create jobs. B Cut social security payments and taxes. C Pay higher unemployment pay and social benefits. D Cut spending to bring public debt down. 3 What does John say about the rich? A They pay too much money in tax. B They can solve the economic crisis by spending their wealth. C They have more money than they had before. D They should lend more money to the government. 4 John thinks the government should A make everyone pay higher taxes. B prevent people from avoiding tax. C borrow more to pay for public spending. D increase interest rates for borrowing.
SŁOWNICTWO Replace the verbs in bold with the synonyms from Exercise 4.
1 2 3 4
GDP has been rising steadily over the past five years. Public spending on defence has decreased. House prices dropped again last year. The number of young people in full-time higher education has gone up.
6 In pairs, discuss the question. The speaker in the recording believes that the government should increase taxes on the richest people and use the money to invest in research, education and new technologies. Do you agree? Why?/Why not?
5 This interview is about A the world economic crisis of the 1930s. B the economic consequences of unemployment. C how best to deal with the current economic crisis. D how recessions can make economies stronger.
ŚRODKI JĘZYKOWE UZUPEŁNIANIE ZDAŃ
1 Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the words in brackets. You can add more words if necessary but you must not change the order of the words provided. Use a maximum of six words in each gap. 1 Yesterday the opposition party put forward a proposal (put / proposal) concerning the healthcare system. 2 Interest rates still remain relatively low __ (even / they / rise) slightly last year. 3 The leader of the governing party claimed __ (he / never / advocate) violence or discrimination against illegal immigrants. 4 During the trial the accused __ (deny / commit / crime), but the jury found him guilty anyway.
2 Match the sentences in Exercise 1 with the grammar structures that you have used to complete them. a b c d
Wskazówka Do często sprawdzanych struktur gramatycznych w zadaniu polegającym na uzupełnianiu zdań należą: • mowa zależna: The opposition leader said openly that he would never run for (he / never / run) another term in office. • zdania okolicznikowe: I’m afraid the Conservative candidate will change most government policies as soon as he becomes (soon / he / become) Prime Minister. • składnia czasowników: The Prime Minister has tried to convince the public (convince / public) that a change in the constitution is needed before the next elections. • różne struktury gramatyczne: Do you have any idea what time the judge is supposed to deliver (judge / suppose / deliver) a verdict tomorrow? • czasowniki frazowe (phrasal verbs): The protesters are threatening to pull out of the talks (pull / talks) if the government fails to address their demands.
Gramatyka Mowa zależna
3 In pairs, answer the questions. 1 What kind of people participate in demonstrations? 2 What do people usually protest about in street rallies? 3 How effective do you think public protests are?
4 Read the text. Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the words in brackets. You can add more words if necessary but you must not change the order of the words provided.
FRAUD ENRAGES CROWDS More than five hundred people participated in a march against the local authorities yesterday. The protesters 1_ (accuse / Mayor / steal) public money. This happened after one of the city council members, who wishes to remain anonymous, told our reporter 2_ (Mayor / use) money from the local budget to pay off his private debts for the last two years. One of the demonstrators insisted 3_ (Mayor / resign) his post immediately. In a press release after the demonstration, the Mayor denied all OFF accusations and said that he 4_ HANDS NEY! (will / take) legal action against those who LIC MO B U P are making accusations against him. However, one of the senior government officials later admitted that the police 5_ (already / start / investigation) into the case. Gramatyka Zdania okolicznikowe
5 Choose the correct linking words. 1 In a coalition government, the PM represents one party in the coalition, therefore / whereas / despite the cabinet is formed from the entire coalition. 2 Much of the world’s poverty is due to / because / as a consequence a low level of economic development, illiteracy and widespread unemployment. 3 The National Bank’s new governor has confirmed that interest rates won’t go up yet / while / until unemployment falls below seven per cent. 4 Nevertheless / In spite of / Although the election results have been officially announced, they’re still being contested by the opposition. 5 The defendant may choose to request a courtappointed lawyer in case / so that / though he or she cannot afford to hire a private counsel.
Państwo i społeczeństwo
6 Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the words in brackets. You can add more words if necessary but you must not change the order of the words provided. 1 The peace talks were called off and __ (as / result / hostilities) between both nations grew even larger. 2 Small businesses still have problems getting loans despite the fact __ (government / recently / urge) banks to make more money available. 3 Nobody really knows the reason __ (for / President / reconsider) his decision to inaugurate the project. 4 The population of this town has fallen __ (account / decrease) in industrial activities in the area. Gramatyka Składnia czasowników
7 Choose the correct option.
8 In pairs, discuss the statements in Exercise 7. Which of them do you agree and disagree with? Why? Gramatyka Różne struktury gramatyczne
9 Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the words in brackets. You can add more words if necessary but you must not change the order of the words provided. 1 Being a politician is an all-consuming career and __ (far / hard / job) I’ve had. 2 The judge was not __ (use / be / interrupt) during the trial. 3 I am sure __ (it / Paul / set) fire to the school building. 4 There is no __ (point / rely) what politicians promise. They just want to get elected and then they forget about the promises they have made. CZASOWNIKI FRAZOWE (PHRASAL VERBS)
10 Complete the sentences with the correct forms of
DEBATES ONLINE It’s about your country It’s about YOU JOIN THE DEBATE
WHAT’S YOUR OPINION? 1 People who refuse vote / voting / to vote should be fined. 2 The second time you commit a driving offence, you should be ordered to retake / retake / retaking your driving test. 3 Most politicians don’t mean lying / lie / to lie – they just say and promise anything which will get them elected. 4 If young people are arrested for disorderly conduct or underage drinking, they will avoid to do / do / doing it again in the future. 5 People dissatisfied with the government should be allowed hold / to hold / holding a referendum against it. 6 Most people in this country don’t mind pay / to pay / paying higher taxes for better services.
the words in brackets. You can add more words if necessary but you must not change the order of the words provided. 1 It was his first offence so the judge __ (let / with / ﬁne) rather than a prison sentence. 2 After the corruption scandal concerning the motorway construction, the minister __ (decide / step). 3 At the moment many members of the public and even some politicians __ (call / reduction) in the number of MPs. 4 The investors’ plan is to buy a majority of the shares and __ (take / company) in the next few months. Zadanie
11 Uzupełnij zdania właściwymi formami wyrazów w nawiasach. Nie zmieniaj kolejności podanych wyrazów i dodaj wszystkie niezbędne elementy, tak aby otrzymać logiczne i poprawne gramatycznie zdania. W każdą lukę możesz wstawić maksymalnie sześć wyrazów. 1 The real estate sector will stay healthy as __ (long / economy / remain) stable. 2 Their products and their business model change in order __ (keep / demands) of the current market. 3 The witness claimed that he __ (not / remember / see) the accused on the crime scene. 4 Some politicians __ (object / spend / public funds) art, especially in hard economic times.
PISANIE PISANIE ARTYKUŁ
2 What is the purpose of the points A–E in Exercise 1?
Match them to their functions:
Pismo, które czytujesz, ogłosiło konkurs na artykuł o osobie, której działania miały pozytywny wpływ na życie jej otoczenia. Napisz artykuł, w którym scharakteryzujesz wybraną osobę i jej dokonania oraz przedstawisz ich skutki. Wypowiedź powinna zawierać 200–250 słów.
1 2 3 4 5
To provide an effective conclusion To engage the reader’s attention from the start To make the article more lively and more credible To introduce the main topic of the article To describe the effects of the actions described earlier
3 Match the following techniques for beginning an article to the examples. Two examples include two of the techniques each.
INTEGRATED 1 Six couples are moving around the dance ﬂoor to lively Latin American music. They are quick, graceful and precise. The only unusual thing about this practice session is that one partner in each couple is in a wheelchair. 2
The instructor, Adam, a slim, muscular man in his thirties, watches them closely. A dancer from the age of ten, at some point he became tired of the ﬁercely competitive world of professional dance. He started a dance studio where able-bodied and disabled people could dance together. Today, the school has branches in several cities, and the group he coaches, Integrated, performs for ever larger audiences.
‘What’s great about working with Adam,’ explains twenty-two-year-old Damian, ‘is that he’s sensitive and caring, but also very demanding, and he’s got a great sense of humour.’ His partner Julia adds: ‘It has changed my life. I can express myself through dance, and I no longer feel embarrassed about the way I move.’
But it’s not only the disabled dancers whose lives have been transformed. Their dance partners have been challenged to think differently about the human body and its abilities, and to understand the lives and concerns of people who are different from themselves. And the whole community has been inﬂuenced: disabled people have become a much more visible part of it. So what’s Adam’s next project? He’s thinking of a dance workshop for deaf people. I don’t ask how on earth that’s possible. I look at his group and I know it is.
1 A surprising fact or figure 2 A quotation
3 An image or scene 4 A question 5 A story
A Six couples are moving around the dance floor to lively Latin American music. They are quick, graceful and precise. B Beethoven was deaf. You probably knew that already. But did you know that so are some professional dancers? C ‘If you can walk, you can dance,’ goes the old African proverb. But what if you can’t walk? D Adam started his dancing career at the age of ten. At fifteen he became world champion. At eighteen he abandoned professional dancesport.
4 Complete the following phrases with the words from the box. future hope know plans wondered would PRZYDATNE ZWROTY
Wstęp Did you 1_ that (some professional dancers are deaf)? Have you ever 2_ why/how…? What 3_ you do if…? Zakończenie: odniesienie do przyszłości What will the 4_ of (integrated dance) be? What are (Adam’s) 5_? Let’s 6_ (they succeed). Hopefully, …
5 Do the task below. Zadanie 2
1 Read the task and the model response above. In which paragraph does the student do the following? A B C D E
Introduce and describe Adam Use direct quotations Refer to the future Describe the impact of Adam’s work Describe a scene
Pismo, które czytujesz, ogłosiło konkurs na artykuł o osobie, której działania mogą być inspiracją dla młodych ludzi. Napisz artykuł, w którym scharakteryzujesz wybraną osobę i jej dokonania oraz uzasadnisz przekonanie, że może ona być taką postacią. Wypowiedź powinna zawierać 200–250 słów.
LIST FORMALNY: LIST Z ZAŻALENIEM
Zadanie 1 W budynku, w którym mieszkasz, od miesiąca nie działa winda, a telefony do administracji nie przynoszą skutku. Chcesz wyrazić swoje niezadowolenie i postanawiasz napisać list do administratora budynku. Opisz w nim sytuację i niespełnione obietnice naprawy windy oraz przedstaw konsekwencje dla mieszkańców wynikające z jej braku. Wypowiedź powinna zawierać 200–250 słów.
Dear Ms Hobson, 1
I am writing to complain about the broken lift at 35 Cotton Road, and the persistent lack of reaction from your ofﬁce to earlier complaints made by myself and other residents. The lift in this eight-ﬂoor building has been out of order for a month now. During this period I have telephoned your ofﬁce three times in connection with this problem. I was told there was ‘a problem with spare parts’, but the lift would be repaired ‘as soon as possible.’ My neighbours have received similar responses to their queries. Every day for a month the residents of our building, including elderly people, mothers with young children, and people with health problems, have been forced to climb the stairs to their ﬂats. Some have started leaving prams and bicycles in the ground ﬂoor hall. While this is understandable given the situation, such objects clutter the entrance area and make it unsafe in case of a ﬁre.
I am sure you will understand that the lack of a functioning lift is a major inconvenience and the negligent attitude of your ofﬁce is very worrying.
I must ask you to give this matter priority and to organise the repair work without further delay. May I also suggest you immediately post a message in the building to apologise to the residents and inform them when exactly the lift will be back in service?
I look forward to your prompt response. Yours sincerely, XYZ
1 Read the task and the model letter on the left. In which paragraph does the student do the following? A Describe the problem in detail B Appeal to the recipient to understand his/her point of view C State the purpose of the letter D Close by saying he/she is waiting for a reply or reaction E Request specific action F Describe the consequences of the problem Wskazówka 1 Wstęp do listu formalnego zawsze powinien określać cel lub powód pisania listu. 2 W zakończeniu często prosimy adresata o podjęcie konkretnego działania. 3 W listach formalnych używamy konwencjonalnych zwrotów rozpoczynających i kończących.
2 Complete the list of phrases using the model letter. PRZYDATNE ZWROTY
Rozpoczynanie listu Dear Sir or Madam, Dear Mr/Mrs/Miss/1_ Hobson, Wstęp I am 2_ (in order) to… I am writing in connection with… Kończenie listu I look forward to hearing from you. I look forward to your prompt 3_/reply. Thank you (very much) for your help. Zwroty pożegnalne Yours faithfully, (if the letter begins Dear Sir or Madam) Yours 4_, (if the letter begins Dear Mr/Ms…) (With) Best wishes, (With) Kindest/Best regards, List z zażaleniem I am writing (in order) to 5_ about. I am writing in order to draw your attention to… I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with… I am sure you will 6_ that… I 7_ ask you to (give this matter priority/give this matter your urgent attention) May I also 8_ (posting a message)?
3 Do the task below. Zadanie 2 W czasie prac remontowych zleconych przez administrację nieuważni robotnicy spowodowali szkody w twoim mieszkaniu. Napisz list do administratora budynku, w którym opiszesz powstałe szkody i poprosisz o reakcję, sugerując możliwe rozwiązanie. Wypowiedź powinna zawierać 200–250 słów.
PISANIE ROZPRAWKA ZA I PRZECIW
Zadanie 1 Elektroniczne podręczniki coraz częściej zastępują podręczniki drukowane na papierze. Napisz rozprawkę, w której przedstawisz zalety i wady takiego rozwiązania. Wypowiedź powinna zawierać 200–250 słów.
Paper textbooks are increasingly being replaced with electronic ones. What are the beneﬁts and drawbacks of this solution?
On the one hand, electronic textbooks often have many features which are impossible in a paper book, such as hyperlinks to other pages or to a dictionary, enabling the user to look up relevant information quickly. They can also be regularly updated with new information. In addition, after a complete changeover to electronic versions, students will just need to carry one laptop or tablet to school instead of six or seven heavy books. Finally, the solution can be environmentally friendly: it avoids the waste involved in throwing away printed books.
On the other hand, electronic textbooks require reliable computers or tablets for each student, which not all schools or individuals can afford. Even the number of power points in schools is insufﬁcient for so many devices at present. In addition, many users still prefer paper books, in which they can easily take their own notes in the place and form they prefer. If those users choose to print out materials from electronic books, saving paper will be an illusion. Finally, the health impact of many hours in front of a screen, especially on young students, has not been sufﬁciently researched.
In conclusion, it seems electronic textbooks are the future, but perhaps our education system is not quite ready to make the transition yet. In my opinion, more research and pilot programmes are necessary before that can happen.
2 Underline the passages in which the student develops arguments in the following ways: a gives an example of features which are impossible in a paper textbook b explains why electronic textbooks may be environmentally friendly c shows an additional problem connected with users preferring paper books Wskazówka 1 Jeśli temat wymaga przedstawienia dobrych i złych stron czegoś czy argumentów za i przeciw, teza zawarta we wstępie powinna stanowić parafrazę tematu i nie zawierać opinii autora. Ta może się znaleźć dopiero w zakończeniu. 2 Rozwinięcie powinno składać się z dwóch akapitów mniej więcej równej długości: „za” i „przeciw”. Ich kolejność może być różna, zależnie od treści. 3 Argumenty należy rozwinąć. Lepiej opisać ich mniejszą liczbę niż podać długą listę bez żadnego rozwinięcia. 4 Zakończenie powinno podsumować dyskusję. Nie wprowadzaj w nim nowych, wcześniej nieomawianych argumentów, gdyż stwarza to wrażenie, że tekst nie jest skończony.
3 Complete the list of phrases using the model essay. PRZYDATNE ZWROTY
Wstęp What are the arguments for and against this idea? What are the 1_ and _ of such a solution/ step? This step/idea/solution can be said to have both advantages and disadvantages. Podawanie pierwszego zestawu argumentów On the one 2_, One (dis)advantage is that… The main argument against/in support of … is that … The main benefit/drawback is that … Przytaczanie przeciwnego zdania On the 3_ hand, However, Nevertheless, Podsumowanie In 4_, All things considered,/All in all, On balance,/On the whole, Wyrażanie własnej opinii In my 5_, To my mind,
1 Read the task and the model essay above. In which paragraph does the student do the following? A Present the arguments against electronic textbooks B Sum up the discussion and state his or her opinion C Present the arguments for electronic textbooks D State the issue and say there are arguments on both sides
4 Do the task below. Zadanie 2 W niektórych szkołach instaluje się kamery, aby zwiększyć bezpieczeństwo. Napisz rozprawkę, w której przedstawisz zalety i wady takiego rozwiązania. Wypowiedź powinna zawierać 200–250 słów.
LIST FORMALNY: LIST MOTYWACYJNY
Zadanie 1 Starasz się o posadę recepcjonisty/recepcjonistki w hotelu. Napisz list motywacyjny, w którym przedstawisz swoje dotychczasowe doświadczenie w pracy o podobnym charakterze i opiszesz swoje zalety jako pracownika na tym stanowisku. Wypowiedź powinna zawierać 200–250 słów.
Dear Sir or Madam, 1
I am writing to apply for the position of receptionist currently advertised on your website.
I am at present studying in my ﬁnal year of secondary school. I am planning to study tourism management at university, and I feel this job would ﬁt in well with such studies. At the same time, I hope the knowledge I will be gaining would help me in my work for you. I am ﬂuent in English, German and of course Polish, and I have a reasonable working knowledge of Spanish.
As you will see from the attached CV, I have done volunteer work at several conferences and ﬁlm festivals. My duties at those events included both administrative work and face-to-face contact with guests. I registered participants, provided information and logistical support, and several times I used my initiative to solve problems. For example, during one conference the sound equipment failed and I repaired it myself.
2 In pairs, discuss how the student manages to present herself well. Consider the following points:
She has no formal qualifications, but she mentions… She has never worked in a hotel, but she makes other work sound relevant by saying… She emphasises the right personal qualities; for example … Wskazówka Dobry list motywacyjny skupia się na tych aspektach twojej wiedzy i doświadczenia oraz tych cechach osobistych, które mogą być przydatne w pracy, o którą się starasz.
3 Complete the list of useful phrases using the model letter. PRZYDATNE ZWROTY
Cel listu I am writing to 1_ for the _ of (receptionist) currently _ on your website. Wykształcenie I am studying / 2_ to study (tourism management), and I feel this job would _ with such studies. I am 3_ in English and Polish, and I have a reasonable _ of Spanish. Doświadczenie As you will see 4_, I have worked as … at …/ have done volunteer work at/for… My duties (at …) 5_ …
I believe I would make a reliable receptionist as I am efﬁcient, well-organised and proactive in dealing with problems. I have good communication skills, both face-to-face and on the telephone. I also ﬁnd it easy to learn new computer applications.
Umiejętności i cechy osobowości I believe I would 6_ a reliable (receptionist) as I am … I have good 7_, both face to face and on the telephone.
I attach a reference from Ms Julia Kowalczyk, who was my line manager in my most recent job with the PR ﬁrm Wolf Communications.
I would appreciate an opportunity to discuss my suitability for this post in an interview. I look forward to hearing from you.
Zakończenie I attach a 8_ from (Ms Julia Kowalczyk), who is/ was … I would appreciate an 9_ to discuss my _ for this post in an _.
Yours faithfully, XYZ
1 Read the task and the model response above. In
4 Read the task in Exercise 5. In pairs, discuss what jobs you could apply for and what you would emphasise in the letter.
5 Do the task below.
which paragraph does the student do the following?
a b c d e
Starasz się o pracę wakacyjną zgodną z twoimi zainteresowaniami. Napisz list motywacyjny, w którym przedstawisz swoje dotychczasowe doświadczenie w pracy o podobnym charakterze i opiszesz swoje zalety jako pracownika na tym stanowisku.
Describe her previous job experience Close the letter by requesting a specific action Describe her education and qualifications Mention someone who can confirm her skills Describe the personal qualities that make her a good candidate f State the purpose of the letter and say how she found out about the job
Wypowiedź powinna zawierać 200–250 słów.
PISANIE ROZPRAWKA WYRAŻAJĄCA OPINIĘ
Zadanie 1 Czy lepiej wyprowadzić się od rodziców wkrótce po ukończeniu szkoły, czy poczekać do ukończenia studiów? Napisz rozprawkę na ten temat, rozważając go z punktu widzenia młodej osoby i jej rodziców. Wypowiedź powinna zawierać 200–250 słów.
3 Zakończenie powinno podsumować temat w sposób wynikający z treści rozprawki. Nie powinny pojawiać się w nim nowe, wcześniej nieomawiane argumenty. Możesz natomiast przedstawić lub powtórzyć swoją opinię, ale koniecznie innymi słowami niż we wstępie.
2 Complete the list of phrases using the model essay. PRZYDATNE ZWROTY
1 When young people turn eighteen, they may choose to stop living with their parents. Some do that; others stay in the family home until they have completed their studies. Personally, I believe moving out as early as possible is good both for the young person and for his or her parents.
The ﬁrst advantage for the young adult is that living on your own gives you more freedom. Nobody asks you where you are going or when you are coming back; nobody comments on the music you enjoy. Secondly, you learn to be independent. Being responsible for paying the rent and for household chores teaches you to look after yourself. Admittedly, if you study, work and run your home at the same time, you will have less time for entertainment. This, however, is also an opportunity to learn effective organisation. From the parents’ point of view the situation also has many beneﬁts. Firstly, they have their whole ﬂat to themselves. No longer do they have to adjust to the lifestyle of their grown-up child, which may be different from theirs. What is more, with small everyday conﬂicts gone, they have a chance to build a new, more equal relationship with their son or daughter. Finally, they may be proud to see their child change into an independent, self-reliant adult. To sum up, in my opinion moving out to live on your own beneﬁts both you and your parents. Nevertheless, everyone should make their own choice depending on their circumstances and preferences.
Wstęp - opinia Personally, I 1_ (that) In my opinion, To my mind, Wprowadzenie dwóch punktów widzenia The 2_ (dis)advantage 3_ (the young adult) is … From the (parents’) 4_ of 5_ … Podawanie kolejnych argumentów First of all, 6_, (they have their whole flat to themselves.) First and foremost, For one thing, 7_, (you learn to be independent.) Another (dis)advantage is that … Moreover, … What is 8_, … Furthermore, … In addition, … Not only that, but … 9_, (they may be proud …) Last but not least, Kontrargument (if you study, work and run your home at the same time, you will have less time)
Podsumowanie To 11_ up, In conclusion, All in all, On the whole,
3 Read the task in Exercise 5. Discuss the following 1 Read the task and the model essay above. In which paragraph does the student do the following? A Sum up the discussion and restate his/her opinion in other words B Discuss the issue from the parents’ point of view C State the topic and signal what two points of view will be discussed D Discuss the issue from the children’s point of view Wskazówka 1 Jeśli temat rozprawki wymaga rozważenia dwóch aspektów podanego zagadnienia, we wstępie należy określić to zagadnienie i zasygnalizować istnienie dwóch punktów widzenia czy aspektów, które będą omawiane w dalszej części. 2 W rozwinięciu omów zagadnienie najpierw z jednego, potem z drugiego punktu widzenia.
questions in pairs. List as many arguments as you can. • •
Is a joint eighteenth-birthday party a good idea for those who organise it? Why?/Why not? Is it good from the point of view of their guests? Why?/Why not?
4 Write three arguments for each point of view that you want to use in your essay.
5 Do the task below. Zadanie 2 Niektórzy młodzi ludzie organizują wspólne przyjęcia z okazji osiemnastych urodzin dwóch lub trzech solenizantów. Czy takie rozwiązanie to dobry pomysł? Napisz rozprawkę, rozważając je z punktu widzenia solenizantów oraz gości. Wypowiedź powinna zawierać 200–250 słów.
LIST FORMALNY: LIST DO REDAKCJI
Zadanie 1 Pismo kulturalne organizuje wśród czytelników plebiscyt, którego celem jest wyłonienie listy dziesięciu książek, które każdy powinien przeczytać. Każdy czytelnik może nominować jedną pozycję. Napisz list do redakcji, w którym przedstawisz nominowaną przez siebie książkę i wyjaśnisz, dlaczego uważasz ją za ważną. Wypowiedź powinna zawierać 200–250 słów.
1 Read the task and the model response on the left. Discuss the questions in pairs. • • •
Would you like to read Things Fall Apart? Why?/Why not? According to the student, what makes the novel attractive? What makes it important in world literature?
2 The student uses rich language to evaluate the novel. Find the words and phrases he/she has used instead of the underlined simple words and phrases.
Dear Editor, I was excited to read about your survey on ‘The Ten Books Everyone Should Read’ and would like to nominate Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, perhaps the most famous African novel. Set in pre-colonial Nigeria in the late 19th century, the novel tells the story of Okonkwo, a respected village leader among the Igbo people, and of his personal life and struggle against the changes brought to his society by white colonisers and missionaries. The story, at times poignant, at others comical, commands the reader’s attention and sympathy. The characters are convincing and appealing. But perhaps Achebe’s greatest achievement is his vivid portrayal of traditional Igbo society, its customs and beliefs. His use of language is especially striking: writing in English, he weaves Igbo words, idioms, proverbs and stories into the narrative so that they sound entirely natural, creating a powerful, innovative voice. I believe Things Fall Apart is ‘a book everyone should read’ because it is an excellent novel, but also because it occupies a unique place in world literature. Published in 1958, it was one of the ﬁrst African novels, and the ﬁrst to receive widespread critical acclaim. It is widely read and studied in Africa and around the world, and continues to pose important questions about intercultural encounters and the tension between tradition and change. I look forward to learning about other readers’ nominations and to seeing the ﬁnal list. I hope Things Fall Apart is included – it deserves to be! Yours faithfully, XYZ
1 The story is sometimes funny and sometimes sad. – 2 The story is interesting. – 3 The characters are nice. – 4 The portrayal of Igbo society is interesting. – 5 The language is interesting. – 6 Things Fall Apart is important in world literature. –
Wskazówka Aby słownictwo w wypowiedzi pisemnej było bogate, unikaj banalnych, ogólnych przymiotników, takich jak nice, great czy interesting. Staraj się zastąpić je bardziej precyzyjnymi określeniami.
3 Look at the task in Exercise 5. Think of a few ﬁlms which you might want to nominate for the list. Discuss them in pairs. For each ﬁlm consider the following questions. What makes the film attractive? What makes it important?
4 Choose one of the ﬁlms to write about. Look at the word list and note some interesting words or phrases you might use to describe: • the script/the plot • the acting • the visual side (sets, locations, camera work) • the music • the special effects • the film as a whole
5 Do the task below. Zadanie 2 Strona internetowa poświęcona filmowi organizuje wśród czytelników plebiscyt, którego celem jest wyłonienie listy dziesięciu filmów, które każdy powinien obejrzeć. Każdy może nominować jeden film. Napisz list, w którym przedstawisz nominowany przez siebie film i uzasadnisz swoją propozycję. Wypowiedź powinna zawierać 200–250 słów. PRZYDATNE ZWROTY
PISANIE • Przydatne zwroty LIST FORMALNY – WSZYSTKIE LISTY FORMALNE Rozpoczynanie listu Dear Sir or Madam, Szanowni Państwo! Dear Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms Hobson, Szanowna Pani Hobson! Wstęp I am writing (in order) to …
Szanowny Panie Hobson /
I am writing to enquire about … informacje na temat… I would like to express my … wyrazić moją/moje…
I am planning to study (tourism management). zamiar studiować zarządzanie turystyką.
I am writing in connection with …
Piszę w związku z… Piszę, aby uzyskać
Kończenie listu I look forward to hearing from you. od Pana/Pani/Państwa.
Czekam na informacje
I look forward to your prompt response/reply. Mam nadzieję na szybką odpowiedź z Państwa strony. Thank you (very much) for your help. Pana/Pani/Państwa pomoc.
(Bardzo) Dziękuję za
Zwroty pożegnalne (Dla wyrażeń Dear Sir or Madam/Editor/Mayor) Yours faithfully, Z wyrazami szacunku / Z poważaniem (Dla wyrażeń Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms Hobson) Yours sincerely, Z poważaniem (With) Best wishes,
(With) Kindest/Best regards, Pozdrawiam LIST Z ZAŻALENIEM I am writing (in order) to complain about … złożyć skargę/zażalenie na…
I am writing in order to draw your attention to … aby zwrócić Państwa uwagę na…
I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with … aby wyrazić swoje niezadowolenie z…
I am sure you will understand that … Jestem pewny/ pewna, że zrozumieją Państwo, że… I must ask you to give this matter priority/your urgent attention … Proszę o potraktowanie tej sprawy priorytetowo… May I also suggest …? zasugerować…?
Czy mógłbym/mogłabym także
I hope the problem can be resolved soon. Mam nadzieję, że problem ten zostanie wkrótce rozwiązany. I hope you can solve this problem quickly. Mam nadzieję, że uda się Państwu szybko rozwiązać ten problem. LIST MOTYWACYJNY Cel listu I am writing to apply for the position of (receptionist) currently advertised on your website. W odpowiedzi na ogłoszenie zamieszczone na Państwa stronie, chciałbym/ chciałabym zgłosić swoją kandydaturę na stanowisko (recepcjonisty/recepcjonistki). I am writing in reply/response to your advertisement which … Piszę w odpowiedzi na Państwa ogłoszenie, które…
Wykształcenie I am (at present) studying (tourism management), and I feel this job would fit in well with such studies. (W chwili obecnej) Studiuję (zarządzanie turystyką), a oferowane przez Państwa stanowisko idealnie współgrałoby z wybranym przeze mnie kierunkiem studiów.
I am fluent in (English and Polish). (angielsku i polsku).
Mówię płynnie po
I have a reasonable working knowledge of (Spanish). Posiadam praktyczną znajomość (języka hiszpańskiego). Doświadczenie As you will see from the attached CV, I have worked as … at … Jak wynika z załączonego przeze mnie CV, pracowałem/pracowałam jako… w… As you will see from my enclosed CV, I have spent the last (two) years working at/for … Jak wynika z załączonego przeze mnie CV, ostatnie dwa lata spędziłem/spędziłam, pracując w/dla… I have (also) done volunteer work at/for … Pracowałem/ Pracowałam (również) jako wolontariusz/wolontariuszka w/dla… My duties (at …) included (both) … and … Do moich obowiązków (w…) należało… (a także)… I was responsible for/in charge of … Byłem odpowiedzialny / Byłam odpowiedzialna za… Umiejętności i cechy osobowości I believe I would make a reliable (receptionist) as I am … Wierzę, że sprawdziłbym/sprawdziłabym się w roli (recepcjonisty/recepcjonistki), ponieważ jestem… I have good communication skills, both face to face and on the telephone. Posiadam bardzo dobre umiejętności komunikacyjne, które potraﬁę wykorzystać zarówno w rozmowie bezpośredniej, jak i przez telefon. I also find it easy to …
I feel I have the necessary personal qualities to meet the demands of the job. Uważam, że posiadam cechy osobowości niezbędne w tego rodzaju pracy. Zakończenie I attach a reference from (Ms Julia Kowalczyk), who is/was … Załączam również list z referencjami od (Pani Julii Kowalczyk), która jest/była… I would appreciate an opportunity to discuss my suitability for this post in an interview. Chętnie przedyskutuję moje kwaliﬁkacje na to stanowisko podczas rozmowy bezpośredniej. I am available for interview at any time convenient to you. Chętnie zgłoszę się na rozmowę kwaliﬁkacyjną w wybranym przez Państwa terminie.
LIST DO REDAKCJI Z ELEMENTAMI RECENZJI Wstęp Dear Editor,
Ocena – przymiotniki +
Szanowny Panie / Szanowna Pani!
I was excited to read about … and I would like to … Z zainteresowaniem przeczytałem/przeczytałam o… i chciałbym/chciałabym… Informacje o książce/ﬁlmie i jej/jego treści The action/story is set in/takes place in … Akcja ﬁlmu/ opowiadania rozgrywa się w… The book/film tells the story of … historię…
powerful mocny convincing przekonujący –
The film is based on real events/a true story/a book. Film oparty jest na prawdziwych wydarzeniach / prawdziwej historii / książce.
The book was published in (1958). Książka została opublikowana w (1958 roku).
The book has been made into a film (by … / starring …) Na podstawie książki powstał ﬁlm (wyreżyserowany przez… / z… w roli głównej).
The plot has an unexpected twist. nieoczekiwany zwrot akcji. The plot focuses on …
Ocena/Opinia The story is at times poignant, at others comical. Historia jest momentami wzruszająca, momentami komiczna. The story commands the reader’s attention and sympathy. Historia przyciąga uwagę i wzbudza współczucie u czytelnika. The characters are appealing. sympatię. The portrayal of … is vivid. jest bardzo sugestywny.
Sposób ukazania postaci…
The language is (especially) striking. robi użyty język.
The book occupies a unique place in world literature. Książka ta zajmuje wyjątkowe miejsce w literaturze światowej. The book continues to pose important questions about … Książka ta stawia istotne pytania na temat… (Perhaps) The author’s greatest achievement is … może) Największym osiągnięciem autora jest…
I was impressed by …
Byłem/Byłam pod wrażeniem…
I couldn’t put it down. (książki) oderwać.
Nie mogłem/mogłam się od niej
One weakness (of the book/film) is that … (książki/ﬁlmu) jest… It’s a classic.
It’s a masterpiece of its kind. gatunku.
To arcydzieło w swoim
The plot is believable/entertaining/thought-provoking. Fabuła jest wiarygodna/zabawna/skłaniająca do reﬂeksji. It’s a highly entertaining read. lektura.
violent pełen przemocy slow wolny
Fabuła koncentruje się na…
The film reaches a dramatic climax … kulminacyjnym ﬁlmu jest…
LIST DO WŁADZ Wstęp Dear Mayor, Burmistrz!
Szanowny Panie Burmistrzu!/Szanowna Pani
I am writing in connection with …
Piszę w związku z…
As I am sure you are aware, this (plan) … Pan świadomy, że (plan)…
Z pewnością jest
I would like to add my voice to those in defence of (the park). Chciałbym/Chciałabym przyłączyć się do opinii tych, którzy stanęli w obronie (parku). Uzasadnienie opinii It contributes to … Przyczynia się (on) do… It is a source of …
Jest (on) źrodłem…
It provides opportunities for … Dostarcza możliwości… Additionally,
Surely it is possible to … From a different angle, I am confident that … że… Zakończenie Please do not let this …
Z pewnością można… Z innego punktu widzenia
Proszę nie pozwolić, aby…
I sincerely trust you will find a solution satisfactory to all. Szczerze ufam, że uda się znaleźć rozwiązanie satysfakcjonujące dla wszystkich. I urge you to give this problem your immediate attention. Nalegam, aby natychmiast zajął się Pan / zajęła się Pani tym problemem.
To naprawdę zajmująca
I thoroughly/highly recommend the book/film. Zdecydowanie polecam tę książkę / ten ﬁlm.
PISANIE • Przydatne zwroty ARTYKUŁ Wstęp Did you know that …? wiedzieliście, że…?
Relacjonowanie wydarzeń As soon as Gdy tylko Czy wiedziałeś/wiedziałaś/
Have you ever wondered why/how …? Czy zastanawiałeś/ zastanawiałaś/zastanawialiście się kiedyś, dlaczego/jak…? What would you do if …? zrobili, gdyby…?
Co byś zrobił/zrobiła / byście
While (I was watching), …
Just as I was watching, … oglądałam…
Dokładnie kiedy oglądałem/
No sooner had we … than … Suddenly, / All of a sudden, Immediately,
The moment …
It would seem/appear that … Wydawałoby się, że… It is believed/recognised that … Uważa się, że… There is little/no doubt that … Nie ma wątpliwości, że… There is some doubt … Są pewne wątpliwości… People often claim that … Ludzie często twierdzą, że… Some people argue that … Niektórzy ludzie uważają, że…
Dodawanie większej ilości informacji – spójniki Pneumonia and tuberculosis were life-threatening. Zapalenie płuc i gruźlica były chorobami zagrażającymi życiu.
It all started when …
People as well as information can travel much faster today. W dzisiejszych czasach zarówno ludzie, jak i informacje podróżują szybciej. Not only do mobile phones allow us to keep in touch all the time, but they give us non-stop access to the Internet. Telefony komórkowe nie tylko pozwalają nam pozostawać w ciągłym kontakcie, lecz także zapewniają nam stały dostęp do Internetu.
W momencie gdy…
Ostrożne wyrażanie opinii It seems/appears that … Wydaje się, że…
Ledwie… , gdy…
W ciągu minut/sekund
Potem W końcu
After a little while, Just then,
Po krótkiej chwili
Fortunately, / Unfortunately, I’ll never forget …
Na szczęście / Niestety
Wszystko zaczęło się, gdy…
Nigdy nie zapomnę…
I had never imagined I would … Nigdy wcześniej nie wyobrażałem/wyobrażałam sobie, że… Opis osoby The first thing you notice about him/her is … rzeczą, którą w nim/niej zauważasz, jest… He/She is special for a number of reasons. wyjątkowy/wyjątkowa z wielu powodów. He/She is the kind of person who … która…
On/Ona jest osobą,
Łączenie przyczyny i skutku – spójniki In such countries children are likely to survive to adulthood, so people have fewer children. W tych krajach dzieci mają szanse dożycia wieku dorosłego, więc ludzie mają mniej potomstwa.
The most unusual person I’ve ever met is … Najbardziej niezwykłą osobą, jaką kiedykolwiek poznałem/poznałam, jest…
Today every phone contains a calculator. As a result / Consequently, many people are losing the ability to make simple calculations. W dzisiejszych czasach każdy telefon wyposażony jest w kalkulator. W rezultacie dużo osób traci umiejętność wykonywania prostych obliczeń.
Opis miejsca The first thing you notice about the place is … rzeczą, którą zauważasz w tym miejscu, jest…
Before the era of antibiotics, more soldiers died due to/ because of disease than were killed in action. Zanim nadeszła era antybiotyków, więcej żołnierzy umierało z powodu chorób niż ginęło podczas walki. Przeciwstawianie informacji i pomysłów – spójniki But all this may be about to change. Ale wszystko to może ulec zmianie. The amount of information available on the Internet is limitless. That, however, is a mixed blessing. Ilość informacji dostępnych w Internecie jest nieograniczona. Fakt ten ma jednak swoje plusy i minusy. While/Whilst in the past household chores took up a lot of time, today many of them are performed by machines. Podczas gdy w przeszłości codzienne obowiązki domowe pochłaniały dużo czasu, dziś wiele z nich wykonywanych jest za nas przez różne urządzenia. Podawanie przykładów For example, / For instance,
The place is special for a number of reasons. jest wyjątkowe z wielu powodów. It’s the kind of place that/where … które/gdzie…
Na przykład Szczególnie /
Pierwszą To miejsce
To jest takie miejsce,
The most unusual/interesting place I’ve ever been to is … Najbardziej niezwykłym/interesującym miejscem, w którym byłem/byłam, jest… The place I like best is … to… There are plenty of … It is situated in …
Miejsce, które lubię najbardziej,
Znajduje się tam dużo…
Jest usytuowane w…
It lies in the north/south/east/west of … południu/wschodzie/zachodzie…
Leży na północy/
It is the most thrilling/picturesque/fabulous place … Jest to najbardziej ekscytujące/malownicze / najwspanialsze miejsce… The scenery is spectacular. It is well-known for …
Especially / In particular / Particularly W szczególności
I’ll never forget (this person). Nigdy nie zapomnę (tej osoby).
Krajobraz jest niesamowity.
Jest znane z…
Zakończenie: odniesienie do przyszłości What will the future of … be? Jaka będzie przyszłość…?
What are (Adam’s) plans? Let’s hope (they succeed). uda). Hopefully, …
Jakie są plany (Adama)? Miejmy nadzieję, że (im się
Miejmy nadzieję, że…
For those reasons, I am with those who think … Z tych powodów zgadzam się z tymi, którzy twierdzą… Would (the teachers be happy) if …? byliby szczęśliwi), gdyby…?
Perhaps in the future (the school canteen) will offer … Być może w przyszłości (szkolna stołówka) będzie oferować… ROZPRAWKA ZA I PRZECIW / WYRAŻAJĄCA OPINIĘ Wstęp – za i przeciw What are the arguments for and against this idea? Jakie są argumenty za takim pomysłem i przeciw niemu? What are the benefits and drawbacks of such a solution/ step? Jakie są zalety i wady takiego rozwiązania/ posunięcia? What are the advantages and disadvantages of …? Jakie są dobre i złe strony…? This step/solution/idea can be said to have both advantages and disadvantages. Takie posunięcie/ rozwiązanie/Taki pomysł ma zarówno dobre, jak i złe strony.
Podawanie kolejnych argumentów It is also often hoped that (the event) will … Często (również) ma się nadzieję na to, że (to wydarzenie)… It is also important/vital to consider … rozważenie… Another benefit/drawback is that … jest… Another downside is the …
Moreover, / Furthermore, / What is more, In addition, / Additionally
Not only that, but …
Nie tylko to, lecz także…
Ostatni argument Finally, Na końcu Last but not least, … Ostatnim, choć nie najmniej ważnym (argumentem jest fakt, że)… Kontrargument On the other hand,
In this essay I am going to argue that … W tym eseju będę dowodzić, że… (Today) Many people believe that … uważa, że…
Dużo osób (dzisiaj)
Let me explain why I agree with this view. Pozwólcie, że wytłumaczę, dlaczego zgadzam się z takim poglądem. Wprowadzanie dwóch punktów widzenia The first (dis)advantage for (the young adult) is … Pierwszym (nie)korzystnym (dla młodych ludzi) czynnikiem jest... From the (parents’) point of view … (rodziców)...
Z punktu widzenia
Apart from this/that,
Wstęp – opinia Personally, I believe (that) …
Kolejnym minusem jest…
Osobiście uważam, że…
Another (dis)advantage is that … Kolejną zaletą/wadą jest…
Let us consider the advantages and disadvantages of … Zastanówmy się nad dobrymi i złymi stronami…
In my opinion, / To my mind, …
Ważne jest również
Z drugiej strony
Nevertheless, / Nonetheless Niemniej jednak Wprawdzie
Wyrażanie własnej opinii In my opinion, / To my mind, / In my view, (the advantages outweigh the disadvantages). Moim zdaniem (zalety przeważają nad wadami). As far as I am concerned,
Jeśli o mnie chodzi
Podsumowanie In conclusion, / To conclude, / To sum up, / All in all, / On balance, / On the whole, Podsumowując / W podsumowaniu All things considered, / Taking everything into account, … Po rozważeniu/podsumowaniu wszystkich… For all these reasons, I am convinced that … Ze wszystkich tych względów jestem przekonany/przekonana, że…
Podawanie pierwszego zestawu argumentów First of all, Przede wszystkim First(ly),
First and foremost,
Po pierwsze i najważniejsze…
For one thing,
Z jednego powodu…
To begin with,
On the one hand, Z jednej strony One (dis)advantage is that …
Jedną z zalet/wad jest…
The main/major argument against/in support of … is that … Głównym/Podstawowym argumentem przeciwko/za… jest… One argument in favour is that … Jednym z argumentów przemawiających na korzyść… jest to, że… The main benefit/drawback is that … jest…